Suraj It Basu

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    ECOTECHPRESENTS

    FLY SH BRICK N ENTREPRENEURSPPRO CH

    FROM :

    ECOTECH CONCRETE PRODUCTS PRIVATE LIMITED

    PLOT NO. 810 (P), SATKENDURI BAKRESHWAR BYPASS ROAD

    NUTANPALLY, DUBRAJPUR, DIST. BIRBHUM

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    Material science is a complexcomposite, arising out of in-built

    judgment in orienting the

    characteristics and constituents ofvarious products to serve the human

    race; and depending on the natures

    gift, tapping the same for theapplication of human need.

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    Bricks made out of clay is one such product

    which proved its credence since the dawn ofcivilization. Brickwork is established as an

    age-old construction media right from the

    thatched house to multi-storeyed buildings.Natures kind-heartedness in gifting the

    humankind with its bountiful resources, of

    course, has a threshold limit and the

    utilization of clay has reached such a point in

    construction.

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    This potential resource has been over

    tapped, unmindful of the consequences,

    as a result of which (except in limited

    pockets of some river delta regions)

    barren lagoons have replaced vaststretches of erstwhile fertile land. Added

    to that, soil degradation and disturbances

    in ecology are threatening the veryrudimentary pillars of welfare.

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    In countries like India, where about 65%

    of the population is still living ineconomically weaker and rural segments,

    clay is unanimously the cost effective

    building material to make the walls and

    floors of their huts. But irreparable

    exhaustion has taken place for such

    versatile product, leaving no chances of

    replenishment for millennia to come.

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    In West Bengal, the industry estimate of registered clay brickmanufacturers stands at around 8,000 in numbers. There isalmost an equal number of unregistered brickfields taking the

    State level aggregate to approx. 15,000 brickfields.Considering that the minimum annual production of abrickfield is around 30,00,000 pieces, the total clay brickproduction of the State works out to approx. 4,500 Crorepieces.

    Taking into account that 10% of this production is carried outusing silt available along the river banks, approx. quantity ofclay bricks manufactured through excavation of top soil maybe assumed at approx. 4,000 Crore pieces, which destroys9.77 Crore cum top soil annually as under :-

    4000 Crore pcs x 0.08632 cft/brick =345.28 Crore cft or

    9.77 Crore cum of top soil weighing 12.80 Crore MT.

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    For converting this estimated volume to flyash bricks, theminimum quantity of flyash required annually would work

    out to :-

    4000 Crore pcs x 0.0033 MT/brick x 50% (by weight) = 6.60Crore MT

    Therefore, daily requirement of flyash is envisaged at =1,80,000 MT

    So, even theoretically, most of the flyash can be recycled bybrick manufacturers, which in turn would save precious topsoil as well as abate carbon di-oxide emission, the processbeing devoid of sintering.

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    DISTRICT WISE

    ESTIMATED NO.

    OF FLYASH

    BRICK UNITS IN

    WEST BENGAL

    40 Units

    12 Units

    5 Units

    2 Units

    15 Units

    7 Units

    5 Units

    8 Units

    10 Units

    15 Units

    10 Units

    5 Units

    4 Units

    2 Units

    ESTIMATED TOTAL NO. OF UNITS = 140

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    2 6

    35

    140

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    2000 2005 2010 2012

    Estimated No. of Units in West Bengal

    Estimated No. of

    Units

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    1% 3%

    19%

    77%

    Estimated No. of Units in West Bengal

    2000

    2005

    2010

    2012

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    Properties of Fly Ash brick / block

    Compressive strength : 50 - 160 kg/sq.cm.

    Water absorption : 1015 percentDensity : As pure mix : 1.4 gm/cc.

    As mortar brick: 1.61.8 gm/cc.

    Coefficient of softening (depending

    on water consistency factor) : 2 -15 percent

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    Durability

    Once the hydrated compounds and related mineralogiesform out of flyash constituents upon activation with

    cement or lime and gypsum, no further reactivity is

    evident either internally or with extraneous media like

    ground and air laden chemicals. This results in

    dimensional stability and enhanced weather resistance ofpozzolanic products.

    Pozzolanic applications have been well established as

    durable materials of construction for the last 2 3millennium and Fly Ash Concrete is nothing but an

    improved version of this established pozzolanic

    chemistry.

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    Environment Friendly

    Notwithstanding the techno-economic virtues,Fly Ash bricks comply with the criteria for

    environmentally friendly products and eligible

    for Carbon Emission Reduction earnings in terms

    of Kyoto Protocol on account of the main rawmaterial being an industrial by-product and the

    manufacturing process being devoid of sintering

    or auto-claving is totally energy conservative.

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    What made Fly Ash brick/block attractive?

    a) Fly Ash bricks do not lose strength unduly even on

    soaking in water continuously. Hence plastering is optional

    rather than necessary.

    b) On account of size accuracy, plastering can be rationalized

    adding additional savings on cement.

    c) Well cured fly ash bricks absorb 4 12% of water only.

    d) On account of less absorption, rationalization of plastering &

    mortar, a finished fly ash brick wall is lighter and cheaper in

    comparison to finished clay brick wall.

    e) Fly ash bricks can be made to order with engineeringproperties comparable to cement concrete, befitting for

    specialized applications such as canal lining, dam

    construction, water tanks, etc.

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    Why the Ministry of Environment & Forests,Government of India published the notification no :

    S. O. 763 (E) dated : 14

    th

    . September, 1999 ?

    Whereas it is necessary to protect the environment,conserve top soil and prevent the dumping and

    disposal of flyash discharged from coal or lignitebased thermal power plants on land ;

    And whereas, there is a need for restricting the

    excavation of top soil for manufacture of bricks andpromoting the utilization of flyash in the manufactureof building materials and in construction activity.

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    How flyash bricks and blocks are suitable alternativeto ordinary burnt clay bricks ?

    The manufacture of flyash bricks and blocks does notrequire excavation of top soil and utilizes flyashgenerated by thermal power stations instead.

    Flyash as all knows has its own problems of disposaland is otherwise a social menace with recycling

    through production of building materials being thepreferred utilization.

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    Flyash bricks and blocks being chemically

    bonded does not require sintering anddispenses with the need for coal a non-

    renewable fossil fuel. Further, as need for

    burning the bricks and blocks is absent, the

    manufacturing process is totally environment

    friendly and contributes substantially to

    reduction of carbon di-oxide emission - a

    harmful greenhouse gas which is responsiblefor global warming.

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    Flyash bricks and blocks have the followingadvantages over ordinary burnt clay bricks :-

    Better finishHigh Strength

    Less water absorption

    No efflorescence

    Lower unit weight and less load on foundation

    Reduced energy consumption

    No excavation of top soil which is otherwise suitable

    for cultivationLower cost of bricks and blocks

    Less mortar consumption

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    Why is the flyash brick/block industry suffering in theState of West Bengal ?

    The notifications published by the Ministry ofEnvironment & Forests, Government of India for 100%utilization of flyash bricks, blocks and tiles for allconstruction works within a radius of 100 kilometres

    of a coal/lignite based thermal power plant is notbeing adhered to by both the Government andprivate construction agencies in the absence ofmonitoring by statutory authorities and/or impositionof penal provisions as provided by law. Even thermal

    power plants generating the flyash do not use flyashbricks, blocks and tiles mandatorily in all itsconstruction works.

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    The flyash bricks and blocks industry is

    burdened with unfair tax regime vis--vis theclay brick manufacturers, who can get away

    with evasion of VAT, Central Excise, ESI, PF

    and other statutory duties or taxes inspite ofdoing enormous harm to the environment

    through excavation of top soil, consumption

    of non-renewable coal and emission of

    carbon di-oxide.

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    Some other bottlenecks that are acting as

    hurdles to the development of this sun-riseindustry in West Bengal are as under :-

    a) Entrepreneurs are entering the business on

    a hype of making fast money devoid ofknowledge about the process technology and

    marketing constraints.

    b) There is less consciousness and focus on

    product quality leading to a wide variation in

    attributes amongst different manufacturers.

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    c) Cannibalisation amongst manufacturers due

    to inadequate demand for the product and

    very slow evolution of market in absence of

    use by Government departments and

    agencies under their control.

    d) Buyers need to be realistic while drawing up

    specification and price so that manufacturers

    are not compelled to compromise on the

    binder, which constitutes 60 70 percent ofraw material cost of the product.

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    Nature always summons for transformations in materialscience and that is how balance is atoned in resourceavailability to fulfill the varietal needs of human race.

    Though talk of habits and attunements are populararguments, particularly in countries like India whileresponding to advent of innovative products, need forces tocompromise first and get appeased next.

    The availability and use of clay is exactly at such crossroads.Lack of technological and material alternates held up clayusers all these years inspite of dire necessities andpressures. The profuse availability of fly ash on one handand FAL-G technology on the other have emerged to offer

    respite on clay front. Hence it is time to say good-bye toclay bricks and welcome flyash brick manufacturing with abig hand for its techno-economic virtues.

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    THANK YOU