Super Typhoon Haiyan: Answer sheet ... Super Typhoon Haiyan: Answer sheet Term Definitions The...

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Transcript of Super Typhoon Haiyan: Answer sheet ... Super Typhoon Haiyan: Answer sheet Term Definitions The...

  • Super Typhoon Haiyan: Answer sheet

    Definitions Term

    The longer term impacts resulting from the primary effects e.g. people are left homeless and a shortage of food and water.

    Secondary effects/impacts

    The planning and preparations that are made before a storm arrives to reduce its impacts. Preparation

    The immediate responses that are made during or immediately after a storm e.g. evacuation and rescuing people

    Immediate responses

    Responses that occur after the storm to repair damage and try to reduce impacts in the future e.g. repairing buildings and infrastructure and improving early warning systems

    Long term responses

    The immediate impacts of strong winds, high rainfall and storm surges e.g. buildings and bridges destroyed and people are injured or killed.

    Primary effects/ impacts

    When completing a case study, aim to include a minimum of 5 facts in each box. Below is a SELECTION of

    facts you may have in your case study—there are many more, these are examples.

    Facts, figures and location • Category 5 Typhoon • It hit on Friday 8th November 2013 • 320 km/h (199mph) winds with gusts of up to 378 km/h

    (235mph) • Super Typhoon Haiyan was an EXTREME LOW

    PRESSURE ZONE. The lowest pressure recorded was 895mb.

    • The Typhoon caused a significant secondary hazard in the form of a 7m storm surge.

    • Hit the central region of the Philippines including Tacloban, Cebu and Panay.

    • The Philippines in located in the western Pacific Ocean. • It is south of China, east of Vietnam and north of

    Indonesia. • The Philippines is a lower middle income country with a

    gross national income per capita of US$3,830 in 2018 (UK US$45,350).

    • It’s capital city Manilla is a mega city located to the north of the country. • The Philippines is a tectonically active country with destructive plate margins which lead to both volcanic

    eruptions and earthquakes. In 2013, Super Typhoon Haiyan was the 25th tropical storm.

    Primary Impacts: • 90% of Tacloban was destroyed • Over 6300 people died • Over 10 000 people were injured • Over 1.9 million people were homeless • 18000 missing • Over 600 000 people were displaced and 40 000 homes

    were destroyed • 1.1 million tonnes of crops were destroyed. • The storm surge and over 400mm of rain caused

    widespread flooding. • 30 000 fishing boats were destroyed • Powerlines were destroyed • Over 1.1 million tonnes of crops were destroyed. • 800 000 litres of oil spilled from an oil tanker. • Salt water and sewage contaminated water sources

    Secondary Impacts: • 14.1 million people were affected • Flooding caused landslides and blocked roads which meant

    many places were inaccessible. • Power supplies were cut off for over a month • Shortage of food, shelter and clean water led to diseases

    e.g. Cholera • Looting and violence broke out in Tacloban • Many jobs were lost, hospitals were damaged, shops and

    schools were destroyed, which affected people’s livelihoods and education.

    • Major rice, corn and sugar-producing areas for the Philippines were destroyed affecting the country's international trade and farmers' incomes—this took time to recover.

  • Immediate Response: • Prior response: some limited preparation however they have so many typhoons in a year no one was initially concerned

    about Typhoon Haiyan. • Reliance on aid from the international community e.g. NGOs e.g. Red Cross, and foreign governments e.g. USA.

    Examples of explanations you may have included: • Debris from damaged buildings was cleared which

    allowed properties to be rebuild, providing shelter for the local people. In Tacloban, 90% of the city was destroyed so clearing the roads and rebuilding bridg- es was a priority as it allowed people to access the area with food, medical supplies and building materials. It also provided trade routes for the rice farming.

    • Re-establishing the fishing industry was a priority because this was a primary source of income for the local people. It provided a food source and the fish could also be sold. This was a vital component of the local economy and provided jobs for the local people.

    • Many of the homes were rebuilt further from the coast to reduce the risk of flooding from storm surges or Tsunami during future Typhoons or Earthquakes. This will reduce the risk and number of people affected.

    • Cash for work schemes were beneficial as people were earning money with which to feed their families and rebuild their homes and livelihoods. They were able to have a say in how the city was rebuilt.

    • Building new typhoon shelters is a method of preparing for future events—this will hopefully reduce the risk associated with future events.

  • Monitoring and Prediction Monitoring by organisations such as NOAA and the National Hurricane Centre in Miami are essential for monitoring tropical storms around the world. Warnings similar to the UK’s flood warnings and alerts are very useful. Hurricane watch and hurricane warnings are effective because they are able to see the development and track the path of tropical storms which gives countries in their path an opportunity to prepare for these events by the degree of risk e.g. hurricane watch means hurricane conditions are possible where as hurricane warning means hurricane conditions are expected and local people must take immediate action e.g. move to higher ground. This type of monitoring allows Scientists to estimate the path, wind speed and also when a tropical storm might hit with increasing accuracy. They aren’t able to be completely accurate as to when, where or how big they might be however it does give countries an opportunity to prepare. This is beneficial to the local people because they can prepare defences, move belongings and also move to higher ground to avoid secondary hazards e.g. storm surges. It means Governments are able to prepare emergency plans and activate emergency services etc.

    Protection Examples of protection strategies include building cyclone shelters, reinforcing windows and doors, strengthening buildings and redeveloping storm drains. These are effective in reducing the risk associated with typhoons for a number of reasons. For example, reinforcing windows reduces the risk of broken glass which can cause significant injuries and death. It also reduces the risk of it becoming a projectile in strong winds of over 150mph. Shutters over windows can also reduce this risk. Buildings can be constructed of strong concreate which are less likely to collapse in the strong winds. Strategies such as sea walls are effective because this reduces the risk of flooding associated with storm surges. This could also reduce damage to crops and contamination of fresh water sources if it is effective. Storm drains are designed to reduce flood risk by effectively removing water from heavy rainfall. Following the devastation of Typhoon Haiyan, many properties in the Philippines were rebuild further from the coast because this reduces the risk of flooding in coastal areas. This will reduce the number of people affected by a range of primary and secondary hazards.

    Planning Many people live in coastal areas where tropical storms pose a risk. One of the key things to reducing the risk is strategies like education e.g. National Hurricane Week where people learn about the dangers and how to respond to them. National and local Governments can put plans together with emergency services etc to develop a response to a tropical storm. Settlements in ‘at risk’ areas can build defences e.g. cyclone shelters for local people. Local people can develop their own strategies e.g. ‘typhoon packs/boxes’ containing essentials e.g. first aid kit, water purifying tablets, dry and canned food, radio. In Bangladesh, successful strategies have included early warning systems, cyclone shelters, cyclone tracking and greater awareness in the local population. Warnings are given in several languages via TV, radio and social media by the Bangladesh Meteorological Department. This has led to a reduc- tion in deaths due to cyclones from 500000 in 1970 to 4234 in 2007.

    Protection Typhoon shelter:

    Remember to explain WHY e.g. built on raised ground and on stilts to reduce the risk of flooding

    from storm surges and heavy rainfall causing rivers to exceed their capacity.

    Reducing the Impact of Tropical Storms