Subtidal Communities Hard Bottom Kelp Forests. Figure 10.22

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Transcript of Subtidal Communities Hard Bottom Kelp Forests. Figure 10.22

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  • Subtidal Communities Hard Bottom Kelp Forests
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  • Figure 10.22
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  • Subtidal Zone The part of the continental shelf that is always covered by water from the low tide mark to the shelf break (150m or 490 ft)
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  • Subtidal Zone Temperature varies from place to place due to its shallowness Bottom still affected by waves, tides and currents Very productive areas nutrients & light
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  • Subtidal Zone Hard Bottom Communities Kelp Forests Other: Soft Bottom Communities Seagrass Beds (addressed later)
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  • Hard-Bottom Subtidal Communities Less common than soft-bottom Submerged extension of rocky intertidal, hard parts of organisms (oyster shells, calcareous algae) Sometimes called reefs not coral
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  • Kelp Kelp = large brown seaweed Large holdfast to hold onto the rocky bottom Long stipes Fronds 20-30m (65-100ft) Go through two stages in their life cycle
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  • Laminaria Alaria (edible)
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  • Geographic Kelp Distribution
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  • Kelp Communities Arranged in distinct layers Giant kelp forms in deeper waters reduced wave action Forms a canopy
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  • Kelp Communities Several species of kelp-community fishes sheltering near giant kelp, Macrocystis. Galina Barskaya/ShutterStock, Inc.
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  • Fig. 13.23
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  • Figure 13.23 Kelp: Baja, CA
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  • Figure 13.25
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  • Kelp Communities Below the effects of waves and tides, kelp communities dominate in temperate areas. General structure of a West Coast kelp forest, with a complex understory of plants beneath the dominant Macrocystis or Nereocystis.
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  • Fnft
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  • Kelp Communities Many organisms Sea Urchins = most important grazers or herbivores
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  • Fig. nft
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  • Sea Urchins What leads to population explosions? Absence of their predators Overfishing, less seals & sea lions, killer whales eat sea otters, more urchins
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  • Figure 13.26
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  • Kelp Communities Trophic relationships of some dominant members of a southern California kelp community.
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  • Kelp Communities Trophic relationships of the common members of a New England kelp community.
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  • Fig. 13.20
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