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INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

COPY RIGHT 2012 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 343

JUNE 2012 VOL 4, NO 2

Studying the Effect of Emotional Quotient on Employees Job Satisfaction

( The Case of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences)

Najafi, Mohammad

PhD, Dept. of Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology,

University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

Mousavi,Setareh

MA, Educational planning, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology,

University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

The studies indicated that the managers and experts who have high levels of emotional quotient have

more technical experiences and also have more skills to solving new tensions, organizational and

group weaknesses, and existence vacuums. Also it is claimed that employees emotional quotient

could predict related outcomes such as job performance and job satisfaction. The present study was

descriptive-sectional. The statistical population of this study includes all of employees of Isfahan

University of medical sciences inits seven assistances and all of faculties. The number of this

population was 1183 employees that 645 of them were male and remaining 438 employees were

female. In order to sampling, random sampling method has been used. In order to this, first the

primary study has been done and its variation placed in sampling method and then the final sample

size has been determined 129 employees. In order to analyzing data and concluding results, Pearson

correlation and one sample T test have used in SPSS. Average of sample members age was 37.71

that 86.6% of them were male and 13.4% were female, 9.3% of them single and 90.7% were

married, 27.1% of them were diploma, 18.4% were BA, 51.8% were MS, and only 2.7% of them

were higher levels (MA and Ph.D.). The results of data analysis indicated that there is significant

positive correlation between emotional quotient and all dimensions of job satisfaction. These

dimensions include public mood, interpersonal relations, intrapersonal relations, and agreeableness

with sig 0.01 and the control dimension with sig 0.05. This means that increasing emotional quotient

leads to improving employees job satisfaction in all of its dimensions. The results of this study

indicated that there are significant relationships between emotional quotient and all dimensions of

job satisfaction.

Keywords: Emotional Quotient, Job Satisfaction, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

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1-Introduction

Sallowi and Meer (1990) introduced emotional quotient for the first time. But after two decades, yet

there isnt any unit and acceptable definition of it. Indeed, diversity of authors and researchers that

interest emotional quotient leads to offer different and diversity definitions for it. However these

authors effort to explain all definitions and concepts of emotional quotient in the following two

styles. In the first style known as ability style thatintroduced by Sallowi and Meer (1990), emotional

quotient formed from basic mental abilities in terms of emotional perception, affects, affective

facilities, thought, perception, effectives perception, and management of affective. Based on this

perspective, the cognitions and affective interact with them and emotional quotient is abstract

reasoning in front of affective and emotions. In the second perspective that known as combinative

style, emotional quotient defined as the combination of mental abilities and personality streaks such

asoptimism, self-awareness, control emotions and impulses, strength, enthusiasm and motivation

(Yousefi,2006). In other words, emotional quotient refers to abilities of sound perception of

environment, self-motivation, cognition, and perception control of yourself and others (so that these

processes are able to facilitate thought and communication process) (Zarean, et al,2007) Based on

the other definition, emotional quotient refers to set of cognitive abilities and skills that lead to

increasing successfulness abilities in front of presses and environmental contingencies. Gilman

believed that emotional quotient includes both internal and external components. The internal

components include self-perception, emotion ofautonomy and capabilities, self-actualization, and

decisiveness. The external components include interpersonal relationships, facility in empathy and

responsibility emotions. Also emotional quotient includes individuals capability to perception of

facts, flexibilities, problems solving skills, and ability to managing stress and impulses (Dehshiri,

2004) Based on Gilman (2001), generally emotional quotient refers to abilities of regulation and

cognition of emotions in individuals. Sallowi and Meer (1990) reported that emotional quotient

refers to abilities of controlling your and others emotions to differentiating between them and

utilizing information to directing an individual or performance (Chiva , Alegre 2008).

2-Back ground of research: Emotional quotient is the concept that nowadays attractsmuch importance

to it and leads to many revolutions in terms of cognition and emotions (Cherniss, et al, 2001).

Theoretically emotional quotient refers to the area that amount of individuals attention, processing,

and performance toward information determined based on internal or external emotion condition

(Kafetsios, Zampetakis, 2007) Emotional quotient is of the controversial issues between discussed

issues in psychology, public management, and scientific management. The application of emotional

quotient and its advocacy in psychology, management, education, and learning systems lead to

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increasing its value (Law, et al, 2008). The last benefit of emotional quotient as an important issue in

psychology researches and work environment refers to this fact that the rates of emotion and

scholastic aptitude couldnt consider as effective primary predictor in the individuals successfulness

and performance (Dulewicz, Higgs, 2000, Mandell, Pherwani, 2003). Also some of individuals different

successfulness in terms of academic and organizational backgrounds couldnt explain with

traditional concept of academic emotion (Fatt, Howe, 2003). The results of studies indicated to

considerable role of emotional quotient in individuals life and especially in organizational

leadership so that some authors and researchers believed to 80% of affective emotion and only 20%

of rational emotions role in terms of this. The studies indicated that the managers and experts who

have high levels of emotional quotient, they have more technical experiences andalso have more

skills to solving new conflicts, organizational and group weaknesses, and existence vacuums. Also

the managers reports in terms of exponential growth of emotional intelligence indicated that how to

increase our reasoning power and utilize others affective energies self-relationship power. New

sciences approved that emotional quotient is infrastructure of many of important decisions, the most

active and beneficial organizations, and more satisfying and successfulness life not intelligence

quotient. Organizational managers in the present century intend to offer necessary facilities for their

employees to increasing their emotional psychological abilities (Ashkanasy et al, 2002). With respect

to the importance of this issue, emotional sides of employees should attend rather than their mental

sides. Emotional quotient can provide favorable environment for employees and also influences their

job satisfaction, effective management, and organizational development (Patra, 2004). Therefore

emotional quotient can play an important role in work environment (Goleman et al, 2002, Sy, Cote,

2004). Especially some researchers and authors indicated that the employees emotional quotient

could consider as the predictor of important outcomes such as job performance and job

satisfaction(Prati et al,2003, Wong, Law, 2002, Daus, Ashkanasy ,2005).Also some experts indicated that

the managers emotional quotient could influences employees job performance (Prati et al,2003,

George, 2000). The studies indicated that emotional quotient has many important roles in employees

satisfaction and their productivity (Jordan et al, 2002, Mallinger,Banks,2003). See et al. (2006) indicated

that there are significant relationships between employees emotional quotient and their job

performance. Also there is significant relationship between managers emotional quotient and job

satisfaction of their employees with high emotional quotient compared toemployees withless

emotional quotient (Sy et al, 2006). It is determined in the other studies that there are significant

relationships between emotional quotient and employees job satisfaction and performance (Wong,

Law,.2002, Guleryuz et al, 2008, Villard, 2004).Organizational learning competencies play an important

http://www.scopus.com/scopus/search/submit/author.url?author=Law%2c+K.S.&origin=resultslist&authorId=7202563432&src=shttp://www.scopus.com/scopus/search/submit/author.url?author=Wong%2c+C.-S.&origin=resultslist&authorId=7404954427&src=shttp://www.scopus.com/scopus/search/submit/author.url?author=Law%2c+K.S.&origin=resultslist&authorId=7202563432&src=shttp://www.scopus.com/scopus/search/submit/author.url?author=Wong%2c+C.-S.&origin=resultslist&authorId=7404954427&src=shttp://www.scopus.com/scopus/search/submit/author.url?author=Law%2c+K.S.&origin=resultslist&authorId=7202563432&src=s

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role to examining the effect of emotional quotient on employees job satisfaction. Also some

differences observed in rates of different components of emotional quotient in male and female

employees, so that rate of self-motivation and autonomy is more in male employees, but rates of self-

awareness, empathy, and social skills are more in female employees than male ones (Jamali et

al,2008). With respect to this, the main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between

overall emotional quotient and its components with employees job satisfaction at Isfahan University

of medical sciences.

3-Method of research: The present study was descriptive-sectional. The statistical population of

this study includes all of employees of Isfahan University of medical sciences in the seven

assistances and its faculties. The number of this population was 1183 employees that 645 of them

were male and remaining 438 employees were female. In order to sampling, random sampling

method has been used. In order to this, first the primary study has been done and its variation placed

in sampling method and then the final sample size has been determined 129 employees. In order to

determining sample size, the following formula has been used after primary sampling.In order to

analyzing data and concluding results, Pearson correlation and T test have used in SPSS. In order to

collecting data, the following questionnaires have been used.

3.1: Standard questionnaire of emotional interest: this is the form with 133 questions to

measuring emotional quotient that formed from four components including intrapersonal

components (individuals ability to awareness from emotions and their control), agreeableness

(flexibility, problem solving ability, and individuals realism), public mood (optimism, and

happiness), interpersonal components (individuals ability to adapting with others and social skills),

and finally conflict management. This also includes 15 sub-components including emotional self-

awareness, self-confidence, aggressiveness, interpersonal relationships, independency, self-

actualization, problem solving, social responsibility, empathy, flexibility, realism test, happiness,

impulses control, pressure durability, and optimism. These questions developed based on Likert

scales (never, rarely, sometimes, usually, and always) and the rate of each question varies from 1 to

5. Also some questions are positive and another is negative. The raw rates are 100 and its standard

deviation is 15. Range of questions differences were from 55 to 145. Approximately two-third of

respondents acquires rates among 85 to 115. Very low or very high rates were rare and almost many

of rates were near to 100. Acquiring rates more than 100 refers to employees high levels of

emotional quotient and also low rates requires to improvement of emotional quotient in especial

periods (Bar, 1997). In order to perceiving components of emotional quotient bitterly, some

descriptions offer for each of components at the following section. Problem solving: refers to ability

of recognizing and defining problems and then providing and applying effective solutions for them.

Lucky: refers to emotion of satisfaction with your and others life. Stress tolerance: this refers to

individuals ability in front of unfavorable phenomenon and stress conditions. Self-actualization:

refers to ability of recognizing inner competencies and work capabilities that one want, can, and

enjoy to do it. Self-awareness: refers to ones awareness from his/her emotions and perceiving these

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emotions. Realism: ability to evaluating the relationship between affective experiences and existing

facts. Interrelationships: ability to creating and maintaining satisfying relationships with others.

Self-confidence: ability to self-awareness, perceiving and accepting themselves and respect to

themselves. Optimism: ability to attending more clarified aspects of life and maintaining positive

attitude even in terms of negative emotions. Control of impulses: ability to managing conflicts and

controlling emotions. Flexibility: ability to coping with emotions, thoughts, and individual behaviors

in different conditions and status. Responsibility: one's ability to introduce themselves as the

effective and creative member with participation emotion in his/her social group. Aggressiveness:

ability to expressing emotions, believes, thoughts, and defending their rights (Alian, 2005).

3.2: The questionnaire of job satisfaction: this includes thirteen questions to measuring job

satisfaction. In order to gathering data, these two questionnaires were packaged and then distributed

among respondents and asked themto indicate questionnaires during a week and if have any question

about questionnaire call to research unit. Then 96 questionnaires collected from these 150

questionnaires and approximately 35% of respondents didnt answer questionnaires. In order to

measuring validity and reliability of questionnaires, Cronbachs Alpha and content validity have

been used.Cronbachs Alpha value was 76% that is acceptable value. Then Pearson correlation

coefficient and one sample T test have been used to analyzing data and concluding results through

SPSS.

4-Findings

Average of sample members age was 37.71, 86.6% of them were male and 13.4% were female,

9.3% of them single and 90.7% were married, 27.1% of them were diploma, 18.4% were BA, 51.8%

were MS, and only 2.7% of them were MA and Ph.D. the results of data analysis indicated that there

is significant positive correlation between emotional quotient and all dimensions of job satisfaction.

These results indicated at the table 1.

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Table 1: The results of Pearson correlation coefficient among variables

Job

satisfaction

Overall

emotional

quotient

Public

mood

Interpersonal

relationships

Intrapersonal

relationships

Control

of

emotions

Agreeableness

Job

satisfaction

Correlation 1 0.247**

0.247 0.247**

0.159**

0.151* 0.286

**

sig 0 0.000 0.000 0.007 0.001 0.010 0.000

Overall

emotional

quotient

Correlation 0.247**

1 0.874**

0.946**

0.716**

0.776**

0.890**

sig 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

Public

mood

Correlation 0.274**

0.874**

1 0.815**

0.632**

0.586**

0.708**

sig 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

Interpersonal

relationships

Correlation 0.274**

0.946**

0.815**

1 0.599**

0.683**

0.798**

sig 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000

Intrapersonal

relationships

Correlation 0.159**

0.716**

0.632**

0.599**

1 0.308**

0.528**

sig 0.007 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000

Control of

emotions

Correlation 0.151**

0.776**

0.586**

0.683**

0.308**

1 0.710**

sig 0.01 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000

Agreeableness Correlation 0.286**

0.890**

0.708**

0.798**

0.528**

0.710**

1

sig 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0

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Table 2: The statistics of emotional quotient (dimensions and sub-measures), job

satisfaction, employees age, (raw rates)

Standard

deviation Average

low High Maximum Minimun Frequency Overall

emotional

quotient

Overall

emotional

quotient 3.45

399.15 90 450 444 196 290 Problem

solving

Sub-

measures

3.78 3.45 6 30 30 10 290 Happiness 3.60 3.78 6 30 30 10 290 Autonomy 4.18

3.60 6 30 30 12 290 Pressure

tolatance 3.52

4.18 6 30 30 10 290 Self-

actua;ization 3.70

3.52 6 30 30 10 290 Emotional

self-

awareness 3.78 3.70 6 30 30 9 290 Realiam 3.77 3.78 6 30 30 10 290 Interrelations 3.50 3.77 6 30 30 11 290 Optimism 3.83

3.50 6 30 30 12 290 Self-

confidence 4.89

3.83 6 30 30 10 290 Impuses

control 3.59 4.89 6 30 30 6 290 Flexibilty 3.09 3.59 6 30 30 11 290 Responsibility 3.18 3.09 6 30 30 12 290 Empathy 3.92 3.18 6 30 30 10 290 Agressiveness 8.98 66.22 18 90 90 9 290 Agreeableness

Dimensions

6.47 46.63 12 60 60 39 290 Overall mood

14.85 110.86 24 150 149 27 290 Interpersonal

relations

8.53 75.21 18 90 90 62 290 Intrapersonal

relations

8.27 40.22 12 60 60 34 290 Control of

stress 7.66 37.71 - - 59 3 290 Age Age

26.13 103.98 30 190 170 34 290 Job

satisfaction Job

satisfaction

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Table 3: Statistical measures of emotional quotient and job satisfaction

variables Average Standard deviation Status

Overall emotional quotient 15.07 1.78 Good

Satisfaction 103.98 26.13 Moderate

Intrapersonal relations 14.78 1.98 Good

Interpersonal relations 16.71 1.89 Good

Agreeableness 14.71 1.99 Good

Stress control 13.4 2.75 Moderate

Public mood 15.54 2.15 Good

In order to better perceiving results, rates of emotional quotient and its dimensions offered at the

following table in scales of 0 to 20.

Table 4: Rates of overall emotional quotient and its dimensions

Interpretation Very weak

4-7.2

Weak

7.2-10.4

Moderate

10.4-13.6

Good

13.6-16.8

Very good

16.8-20

Overall

% F % F % F % F % F % F %

Overall emotional

quotient

0 0 2 68 51 17.58 192 66.20 45 15.51 290 100

Intrapersonal

relations

0 0 3 1.03 13 4.48 124 42.75 150 51.72 290 100

Interpersonal

relations

0 0 5 1.72 45 15.51 198 68.27 42 14.48 290 100

Agreeableness 0 0 7 2.41 70 24.1 173 59.65 40 13.79 290 100

Stress control 0 0 5 1.72 44 15.71 157 54.13 84 28.96 290 100

Public mood 6 0 41 14.13 99 34.13 116 40 28 9.65 290 100

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Table 5: Rates of job satisfaction

Rates Interpretation Frequency %

30-50 Very low 3 1.03

51-84 Weak 55 18.96

85-144 Moderate 213 73.44

145-170 Good 19 6.55

5-Discussion and Conclusion

Interpretation of these results indicated that the average of employees job satisfaction is

moderate and their rates in overall emotional quotient test and its different dimensions are good

except emotion control that is moderate. As indicated at the table 2, the most frequency is good

in term of emotional quotient, therefore it is concluded that employees who acquire good rates

in sub-measure of emotional quotient including interpersonal relations have high level job

satisfaction. These results suggest that the employees, who acquire high rates in terms of

interpersonal and intrapersonal relations, agreeableness, public mood, and impulses control,

have high levels of job satisfaction. Based on the emotional quotient theories, because of these

employees more ability to adaptability in determination and regulation of emotions, ability to

perceiving and recognizing emotions, more awareness from effective negative and positive

emotions on experiences, ability to problem solving, better adaptability with new conditions,

optimism and happiness, ability to aggressiveness, ability to expression, ability to recognition of

internal competencies, ability to doing the work that one want to, interest, and can to do, more

ability to creating and maintaining satisfying interrelations, ability to awareness from others

emotions, perceiving and appreciating them, employees ability to introducing themselves as

creative and effective members with participation emotions in social group, could leads to doing

behaviors that influence employees job satisfaction.

In other words, our findings indicated that the employees with higher emotional quotient have

more job satisfaction. The results indicated that employees with high emotional quotient have

more ability to recognizing and regulating their emotions. The ability of recognizing emotions

refers to this point that the employees with higher emotional quotient have more awareness to

the factors that participate in positive and negative emotions. Therefore awareness from the

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factors that grounds to individuals emotions able employees to adopt appropriate perspectives

that lead to increasing their job satisfaction.For example, the employees with higher emotional

quotient have more abilities and skills to recognizing the conditions that undertake pressures and

stress in them. This awareness leads them to search sources of stress and manage their

emotional responses in front of stress conditions by adopting adaptive strategies. Unfortunately

there are rare similar studies in Iran and generally our findings supported by other studies that

conducted in other countries (Wong, Law, 2002, Guleryuz et al,2008, Villard, 2004).

Empirical suggestions

Finally some empirical suggestions and policies have been offered to improving emotional

quotient and job satisfaction in the following section.

Because there is significant relationship between emotional quotient and employees job satisfaction,

therefore educational interventions can be beneficial to improving emotional quotient through

educational periods, with purpose of decreasing stress, problem solving, and aggressiveness.2-

Conducting consulting sessions in terms of individual, family, and social issues to decreasing lateral

conflicts of work. 3-Existence of fairness measures in salary and rewards. 4-Scientific methods of

performance evaluation and appreciating effective and creative employees. 5-Existence of diversity

and different activities in doing works. 6-Having autonomy in doing work functions

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