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  • 8/11/2019 Study on IC Engines

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1) History of the IC engine:

    Nio!"#s $#g#st Ottofirst %esigne% &h"t is no&n "s the Otto engine or

    si'(!y the stroe intern"! *o'+#stion engine. Con,ersion of he"t energy !i+er"te% +y

    the *o'+#stion of the f#e! into 'e*h"ni*"! energy &hi*h rot"tes the *r"nsh"ft &"s the

    +"si* (rin*i(!e of this engine. The stroe engine &ors on the (rin*i(!e of the Otto *y*!e

    .The stroe engine *o'(rises of the int"e stroe- *o'(ression stroe- (o&er stroe "n%

    fin"!!y the eh"#st stroe. /#e! &"s in0e*te% in the int"e stroe "n% (o&er fro' the f#e!

    &"s %eri,e% in the r%stroe i.e. the (o&er stroe &hi*h #ses the he"t energy re!e"se% +y

    the *o'+#stion of the f#e!. This stroe engine for's the +"sis of "!! 'o%ern ,ehi*!es

    #se% ti!! %"te.

    Bajulaz six stroke engine:

    The 2"0#!"3 Si Stroe Engine &"s in,ente% in 1454 +y the 2"0#!"3 S $ *o'("ny-

    +"se% in Gene,"- S&it3er!"n%. The 2"0#!"3 si stroe engine is si'i!"r to " reg#!"r

    *o'+#stion engine in %esign. There &"s ho&e,er 'o%ifi*"tions to the *y!in%er he"%- &ith

    t&o s#((!e'ent"ry fie% *"("*ity *h"'+ers- " *o'+#stion *h"'+er"n% "n "ir (rehe"ting

    *h"'+er "+o,e e"*h *y!in%er. The *o'+#stion *h"'+er re*ei,es " *h"rge of he"te% "ir

    fro' the *y!in%er6 the in0e*tion of f#e! +egins- "t the s"'e ti'e it +#rns &hi*h in*re"ses

    thether'"!effi*ien*y*o'("re% to " +#rn in the *y!in%er. The high (ress#re "*hie,e% is

    then re!e"se% into the *y!in%er to &or the (o&er or e("nsion stroe. 7e"n&hi!e "

    se*on% *h"'+er &hi*h +!"nets the *o'+#stion *h"'+er h"s its "ir *ontent he"te% to "

    high %egree +y he"t ("ssing thro#gh the *y!in%er &"!!. This he"te% "n% (ress#ri3e% "ir is

    then #se% to (o&er "n "%%ition"! stroe of the (iston.

    The "%,"nt"ges of the engine in*!#%e re%#*tion in f#e! *ons#'(tion +y 89-

    '#!tif#e! #s"ge *"("+i!ity- "n% " %r"'"ti* re%#*tion in(o!!#tion

    Crower six stroke engine:

    This engine is invented by Bruce crower of California in US in the year !""#.

    Bruce Crower is actually a race car $echanic with his own worksho%. In his sistroe

    engine- (o&er is

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    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

    1

    http://techni.tachemie.uni-leipzig.de/otto/otto_g0_eng.htmlhttp://techni.tachemie.uni-leipzig.de/otto/otto_g0_eng.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genevahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerlandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerlandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combustion_chamberhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_efficiencyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_efficiencyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_efficiencyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollutionhttp://techni.tachemie.uni-leipzig.de/otto/otto_g0_eng.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genevahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerlandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combustion_chamberhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_efficiencyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollution
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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    o+t"ine% in the thir% "n% sith stroes. /irst fo#r stroes of this engine "re si'i!"r to " nor'"! fo#r

    stroe engine "n% (o&er is %e!i,ere% in the thir% stroe. ;#st (rior to the fifth stroe-

    &"ter is In0e*te% %ire*t!y into the he"te% cylinder,i" the *on,erte% %iese! engine#i% to ste"' re'o,es the e*ess he"t of the engine.

    $s " s#+st"nti"! (ortion of engine he"t no& !e",es the *y!in%er in the for' of

    ste"'- no *oo!ing syste'r"%i"tor is re>#ire%. Energy th"t is %issi("te% in *on,ention"!

    "rr"nge'ents +y the r"%i"tion *oo!ing syste' h"s +een *on,erte% into "%%ition"! (o&erstroes. In Cro&er#"!s si- he

    %eri,e% the n"'e si stroe engines.

    2e!o& the *y!in%er he"% g"set- e,erything is *on,ention"!- in his %esign. So one '"in

    "%,"nt"ge is th"t the 2e"re *on*e(t *"n +e tr"ns(!"nte% to eisting engines &itho#t "ny

    re%esigning or retoo!ing the +otto' en% "n% *y!in%er. 2#t the *y!in%er he"% "n% its (o((et

    ,"!,es get thro&n "&"y in this %esign. To re(!"*e the *"'sh"ft "n% ,"!,es- 2e"re #se% "

    shortstroe #((er *r"nsh"ft *o'(!ete &ith (iston- &hi*h is %ri,en "t h"!f engine s(ee%

    thro#gh the *h"in %ri,e fro' the engine. This (iston 'o,es "g"inst the '"in (iston in the

    *y!in%er "n% if the +otto' (iston *o'es fo#r ti'es #(&"r%s- #((er (iston &i!! *o'e

    %o&n&"r%s t&o IC Engines. The *o'(ression of *h"rge t"es (!"*e in +et&een these t&o

    (istons. 7#*h higher *o'(ression r"tios *"n +e o+t"ine% in this engine. 7"!*o!' #se% on

    his first sistroe- +"se% on " Hon%" [email protected] f"r' +ie. 7"!*o!' 2e"re *!"i's his engine

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    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

    A

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combustion_chamberhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steamhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cooling_system&action=edit&redlink=1http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cooling_system&action=edit&redlink=1http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cooling_system&action=edit&redlink=1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condenserhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combustion_chamberhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steamhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cooling_system&action=edit&redlink=1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condenser
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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    is B9 'ore e*ono'i*"! "t !o& re,sthrott!e o(enings th"n "n e>#i,"!ent *on,ention"!

    engine "n% 19 !ess thirsty "t high r('f#!! thrott!e.

    1.A) 2"si* oring of the stroe engine:

    1) Int"e stroe: The f#e! enters the *o'+#stion *h"'+er %#e to the (ress#re

    gr"%ient for'e% in the *h"'+er +y the %o&n&"r% 'otion of the (iston &hi*h "!so

    res#!ts in the h"!f *y*!e rot"tion on the *r"nsh"ft. The &or nee%e% to (#sh the

    (iston is (ro,i%e% +y *r"ning.

    /ig#re 1: Int"e stroe

    A) Co'(ression stroe:The (iston 'o,es #(&"r%s res#!ting in in*re"se of

    (ress#re "n% the f#e! is ignite% +y the s("r (!#g &hen the (iston re"*hes the

    *o,er en%. The &or for this #(&"r% 'otion is "g"in (ro,i%e% +y *r"ning. The

    *r"nsh"ft rot"tes 1 *o'(!ete *y*!e "t the en% of the 1st"n% An%stroe.

    /ig#re A: Co'(ression stroe

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    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ) o&er stroe:D#e to e(!osi,e re"*tion of the f#e! "ir 'it#re h#ge "'o#nt of

    he"t is gener"te% in the engine &hi*h %ri,es the (iston %o&n&"r%s &hi*h for's

    the (o&er stroe "s sho&n in the fig#re

    /ig#re : o&er stroe

    ) Eh"#st stroe:/in"!!y the (iston 'o,es #(&"r%s res#!ting in the re'o,"! of the

    eh"#st g"ses ,i" the eh"#st ,"!,e. H#ge "'o#nt of he"t is !ost +y this (ro*ess.

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    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

    /ig#re : Eh"#st stroe

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    1.) Dis"%,"nt"ges of the stroe engine:

    1) High f#e! *ons#'(tion: /#e! is in0e*te% on*e in A *o'(!ete *y*!es of the

    *r"nsh"ft.

    A) Coo!ing syste' is re>#ire% for *ontin#o#s he"t re'o,"! &hi*h is " '"0or !oss

    1.) Con*e(t of the = stroe IC engine:

    The = stroe IC Engines is "n "%,"n*e'ent o,er the eisting stroe IC Engines

    &hi*h e'(!oys the s"'e (rin*i(!e "s th"t of the stroe IC Engines. The B thstroe or

    the se*on% (o&er stroe #ses the he"t e,o!,e% in the eh"#st stroe F%ire*t!y or

    in%ire*t!y) "s he"t re>#ire% for the s#%%en e("nsion of the se*on%"ry f#e! F"ir or

    &"ter) &hi*h (#shes the (iston %o&n&"r% for the An%(o&er stroe there+y rot"ting the

    *r"nsh"ft for "nother h"!f *y*!e. $s he"t e,o!,e% in the thstroe is not &"ste%- the

    re>#ire'ent for " *oo!ing syste' is e!i'in"te%.

    Here f#e! is in0e*te% on*e in e,ery *o'(!ete *y*!es of the *r"nsh"ft &hi*h is

    "nyti'e +etter th"n " stroe IC Engines &here f#e! is in0e*te% on*e in A *o'(!ete

    *y*!es of the *r"nsh"ft. It sho#!% +e note% th"t effi*ien*y of the = stroe IC

    ENGINES is 'ore th"n the eisting stroe IC Engines.A '"0or ty(e of se*on%"ry

    f#e!s #se% in the Bthstroe "re "ir "n% &"ter. 7"ny ty(es of = stroe IC Engines h",e

    no& +een %esigne% on these A f#e!s of &hi*h fe& i'(ort"nt ty(es &i!! +e %is*#sse%.

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    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

    B

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    A.TES O/ SIX STROKE ENGINES

    A.1)Cro&er si stroe engine.

    A.A)2e"re He"% Si Stroe engine.

    A.)2"0#!"3 si stroe engine.

    A.1) Cro&er si stroe engine :

    In " sistroe engine ("tente% in the U.S. +y 2r#*e Cro&er- "fter the eh"#st stroe-

    fresh &"ter is in0e*te% into the *y!in%er- "n% is >#i*!y t#rne% to s#(erhe"te% ste"'- &hi*h

    *"#ses the &"ter to e("n% to 1=88 ti'es its ,o!#'e "n% for*es the (iston %o&n for "n

    "%%ition"! stroe.

    This %esign "!so *!"i's to re%#*e f#e! *ons#'(tion +y 89.

    Cro&er

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    A.A) 2e"re He"% Si Stroe engine :

    /ig#re: 2e"re He"% Si Stroe Engine

    This engine si'(!y re(!"*es the *on,ention"! /o#r Stroe Engines Cy!in%er He"%. The

    '"n#f"*t#rers /o#r Stroe +otto' en% re'"ins #n*h"nge%. The Engine #ti!ises "n

    o,erhe"% short stroe Cr"nsh"ft "n% iston "rr"nge'ent &hi*h o(ens "n% *!oses In!et

    "n% Eh"#st orts !e"%ing thro#gh the U((er Cy!in%er @iner. The 2e"re He"% Te*hno!ogy*"n +e fitte% to ne& (ro%#*tion engines or retrofitte% ,i" "fter'"ret re(!"*e'ent.

    The to( "n% +otto' Cr"nsh"ft "re *onne*te% ,i" " %ri,e *h"in or toothe% +e!t. The to(

    Cr"nsh"ft "n% iston +e*o'e (ositi,e (o&er *ontri+#tors to the o,er"!! (o&er o#t(#t-

    th#s in*re"sing the "'o#nt of (o&ertor>#e gener"te% +y #( to " (ossi+!e B9- in

    essen*e- The Engine res#!ts in h",ing T&o istons O(er"ting "n% (ro%#*ing (o&er &ithin

    e"*h *y!in%er. The "+sen*e of ,"!,es- s(rings- ret"iners "n% g#i%es- 'e"n th"t the Engines

    +otto' en% h"s +een free% #( fro' !"+o#ring "n% is "!!o&e% to s(in #( (ro%#*ing 'ore

    (o&er. The "%%ition"! tor>#e "n% (o&er f#rther gener"te% +y the To( istonCr"n of the

    Cy!in%er He"% is then *h"nne!!e% ,i" the *onne*ting %ri,e *h"in to the 2otto' Cr"n. The

    net res#!t of the Engine is Tr"*tor ty(e (#!!ing tor>#e ne,er +efore re"!ise% fro' " /o#r

    Stroe Intern"! Engine- the sort of ste"%y !o*o'oti,e ty(e (erfor'"n*e g"ine% *"n on!y

    +e !iene% to Ste"' @o*o'oti,es or Diese! Engines.

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    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

    ?

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    The net res#!t is:

    o&ertor>#e in*re"ses +y B9 F*onser,"ti,e)

    Si'(!er "n% !ess e(ensi,e '"n#f"*t#ring "n% too!ing

    Re%#*tion of *y!in%er he"% re*i(ro*"ting ("rts

    @o&er '"inten"n*e *osts %#e to !ess &e"ring ("rts F*y!in%er he"%)

    @onger ser,e IC Engines inter,"!s (ossi+!e %#e to !o&er o(er"ting te'(er"t#res

    re*or%e%

    In*re"se% e*ono'y %#e to the "+i!ity to o(er"te "n% (ro%#*e f#!! o(er"ting (o&er of

    '#*h higher $IR to /[email protected] r"tios

    Re%#*tion of eh"#st e'issions %#e to !ess f#e! +eing *ons#'e% "n% the re"! (ros(e*t of

    'eeting EURO e'issions st"n%"r%s- %oing "&"y &ith the *"t"!yti* *on,erter

    ossi+!e one (ie*e engine +!o* "n% he"% *"sting- s",ing 'ore '"n#f"*t#ring *osts

    Us"+!e tor>#e "t "s !o& "s i%!e 'e"ns s#it"+i!ity for !o&er R7 o(er"tion "n%

    "%"(t"tion to CT FConst"nt!y "ri"+!e Tr"ns'ission)

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    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    A.) 2"0#!"3 si stroe engine :

    /ig#re =: 2"0#!"3 si stroe engine

    The 2"0#!"3 si stroe engine is si'i!"r to " reg#!"r *o'+#stion engine in %esign. 2#t

    ho&e,er there "re so'e 'o%ifi*"tions to the *y!in%er he"%- &ith t&o s#((!e'ent"ry fie%

    *"("*ity *h"'+ers- " *o'+#stion *h"'+er "n% "n "ir (rehe"ting *h"'+er "+o,e e"*h

    *y!in%er. The *o'+#stion *h"'+er re*ei,es " *h"rge of he"te% "ir fro' the *y!in%er "n%

    the in0e*tion of f#e! +egins "n iso*hori* +#rn &hi*h h"s in*re"se% ther'"! effi*ien*y

    *o'("re% to " +#rn in the *y!in%er. The high (ress#re "*hie,e% is then re!e"se% into the

    *y!in%er to &or the (o&er stroe. 7e"n&hi!e " se*on% *h"'+er &hi*h +!"nets the

    *o'+#stion *h"'+er h"s h"% its "ir *ontents he"te% to " high %egree +y he"t ("ssing

    thro#gh the &"!!s fro' the +#rn. This he"te% "n% (ress#ri3e% "ir is then #se% to (o&er

    "nother stroe of the (iston in the *y!in%er. The "%,"nt"ges of the engine in*!#%e

    re%#*tion in f#e! *ons#'(tion +y "t !e"st 89- t&o e("nsion stroes F&or) in si

    stroes- '#!tif#e! #s"ge *"("+i!ity- "n% " %r"'"ti* re%#*tion in (o!!#tion

    2"0#!"3 Si Stroe Engine &"s in,ente% in 1454 +y the 2"0#!"3 S $ .

    2"0#!"3 si stroe engine fe"t#res:

    Re%#*tion in f#e! *ons#'(tion +y "t !e"st 89

    T&o e("nsions F&or) in si stroes

    7#!tif#e!

    Dr"'"ti* re%#*tion in (o!!#tion

    @i>#efie% etro!e#' G"s

    Costs *o'("r"+!e to those of " fo#rstroe engine

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    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

    4

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    /ig#re ?: 2"0#!"3 si stroe engine

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    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    .2$;[email protected]$J SIX STROKE ENGINE :

    1) Int"e ,"!,e

    A) He"ting *h"'+er ,"!,e

    ) Co'+#stion *h"'+er ,"!,e

    ) Eh"#st ,"!,e

    B) Cy!in%er

    =) Co'+#stion *h"'+er

    ?) $ir he"ting *h"'+er

    5) "!! of *o'+#stion *h"'+er

    4) /#e! in0e*tor

    18) He"ting (!#g

    11) iston1A) Cr"nsh"ft

    .1) Design "n% *onstr#*tion:

    The engine *onsists of ,"!,es:int"e ,"!,eF1)-he"ting *h"'+er

    ,"!,eFA)-*o'+#stion *h"'+er ,"!,eF) "n% the e"#st ,"!,eF)

    &hi*h *ontro! the f!o& of the f!#i%s in the *y*!e

    Engine *onsists of " *o'+#stion *h"'+er for +#rning of f#e! "ir

    'it#re F=) &hi*h is *o'(!ete!y iso!"te% fro' the *y!in%er "n% the

    +#rning of the f#e! h"s no %ire*t effe*t on the (iston "s in the *"se

    of " stroe IC ENGINES.

    $n "ir he"ting *h"'+er s#rro#n%s the *o'+#stion *h"'+er &hi*h

    ho!%s (#re "ir #n%er high (ress#re. He"t ("sses fro' the

    *o'+#stion *h"'+er to the "ir he"ting *h"'+er

    The &"!! of the *o'+#stion *h"'+er "!!o&s tr"nsfer of he"t to the

    "ir he"ting *h"'+er &hi*h he"ts the "ir #n%er high (ress#re &hi*h

    is e,ent#"!!y #se% in the Bthstroe.

    The +#rning of the f#e! %oes not h",e "ny %ire*t inf!#en*e on the

    (iston.the energy re!e"se% +y the *o'+#stion ("sses thro#gh ,"!,e

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    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    F) &hi*h enters the *y!in%er FB) "n% hen*e &or is %one on the

    (iston F11)

    .A) oring:

    The &oring of the = stroe IC ENGINES is ,ery si'i!"r to the stroe IC

    ENGINES.the first fo#r stroes re'"in the s"'e &ith the "%%ition of A 'ore

    stroes %is*#sse% +e!o&:

    /ig#re 5 : 1ststroe Fs#*tion stroe)

    1st stroe: The in!et ,"!,e F1) is e(t o(en. D#e to *r"ning- the (iston 'o,es

    %o&n&"r% &hi*h res#!ts in the for'"tion of " (ress#re %ifferen*e %#e to &hi*h

    (#re "ir enters the *y!in%er FB). The *r"nsh"ft *o'(!etes rot"tes for h"!f *y*!e

    /ig#re 4 : An%stroe F*o'(ression stroe)

    An% stroe: The in!et ,"!,e *!oses "n% the he"ting *h"'+er ,"!,e FA) o(ens.

    The (iston 'o,es #(&"r%s %#e to *r"ning for*ing the (#re "ir into he"ting

    *h"'+er F?). The "ir "t this st"ge is *on,erte% to high (ress#re. The f#e! is&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

    Department Of Mechanical Engineering,, GECR

    1A

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    in0e*te% in the *o'+#stion *h"'+er "n% the f#e! is ignite% "s sho&n the fig#re

    Finiti"!!y *o'(resse% "ir is (resent in the *o'+#stion *h"'+er &hi*h res#!ts in

    the for'"tion of f#e! "ir 'it#re). "rt of the he"t e,o!,e% &i!! ("ss thro#gh

    the &"!! of the *o'+#stion *h"'+er F5) "n% it he"ts #( the *o'(resse% "ir

    (resent in the "ir he"ting *h"'+er.

    The *r"nsh"ft *o'(!etes "nother h"!f *y*!e rot"tion in the A n%stroe.

    $t the en% of A stroes the *r"nsh"ft &i!! rot"te 1 *o'(!ete *y*!e.

    /ig#re 18:r%stroe F1st(o&er stroe)

    r%

    stroe F1st

    (o&er stroe): The *o'+#stion *h"'+er ,"!,e F) o(ens

    "n% the g"ses of *o'+#stion enter the *y!in%er FB). This (#sher the (iston

    %o&n&"r% "n% hen*e is no&n "s the (o&er stroe. The *r"nsh"ft rot"tes for

    " h"!f *y*!e. It sho#!% +e note% th"t the "ir in the he"ting *h"'+er is

    *ontin#o#s!y he"te% "n% this res#!ts in f#rther in*re"se of (ress#re.

    /ig#re 11: thstroe Feh"#st stroe)

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    th stroe Feh"#st stroe):The eh"#st ,"!,e F) o(ens. The (iston 'o,es

    #(&"r%s "n% the eh"#st g"ses "re re'o,e% ,i" this ,"!,e. The *r"nsh"ft

    rot"tes "nother h"!f *y*!e. $t this st"ge the *r"nsh"ft *o'(!etes A f#!! *y*!es.

    In this stroe- !ess "'o#nt of he"t energy is e(e!!e% o#t &hen *o'("re% to

    the stroe IC ENGINES "s this he"t h"s "!re"%y +een #se% to he"t the "ir "t

    high (ress#re in the "ir he"ting *h"'+er F?).

    /ig#re 1A: Bthstroe FAn%(o&er stroe)

    Bth stroe FAn% (o&er stroe):The he"ting *h"'+er ,"!,e o(ens "n% the

    (#re "ir no& "t high (ress#re "n% high te'(er"t#re enters the *y!in%er "s

    sho&n in the fig#re &hi*h %oes &or on the (iston "n% hen*e it 'o,es

    %o&n&"r%s res#!ting in the An% (o&er stroe. The *r"nsh"ft *o'(!etes

    "nother h"!f *y*!e.

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    /ig#re 1A: =thstroe

    =th

    stroe:/in"!!y the *o'+#stion *h"'+er ,"!,e F) o(ens the (iston 'o,es#(&"r%s for*ing the (#re "ir into the *o'+#stion *h"'+er &hi*h &i!! +e #se%

    "s "ir for the f#e!"ir 'it#re in the r%stroe or the first (o&er stroe.

    The *r"nsh"ft &i!! *o'(!ete f#!! *y*!es "t the en% of the = thstroe. Hen*e

    f#e! is in0e*te% on*e e,ery in *y*!es of the *r"nsh"ft &here"s in " stroe

    IC ENGINES f#e! is in0e*te% on*e in e,ery A *y*!es.

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    .) Gr"(hi*"! re(resent"tion:

    /o!!o&ing is the gr"(hi*"! re(resent"tion of the si stroes in " *y*!e. The

    *r"nsh"ft rot"tes " tot"! of 1858oin 1 *o'(!ete *y*!e. The si stroes "re %i,i%e% into 5

    e,ents &hi*h "re intern *!"ssifie% into A *"tegories ie:

    St"ti* e,ent: e,ent o**#rs &itho#t the 'o,e'ent of (iston

    Dyn"'i* e,ent:e,ent &hi*h o**#rs &ith the 'o,e'ent of (iston

    /ig#re 1: Gr"(hi*"! re(resent"tion of si stroes

    ..1) Etern"! *o'+#stion *y*!e:

    In this *y*!e there is no *ont"*t +et&een the "ir "n% the he"ting so#r*e.The e,ents &hi*h t"e (!"*e "re "s fo!!o&s:

    FRefer gr"(h)

    e1. FE,ent 1): #re "ir int"e in the *y!in%er F%yn"'i* e,ent).

    eA. FE,ent A): Co'(ression of (#re "ir in the *y!in%er F%yn"'i* e,ent).

    e. FE,ent ): Kee(ing (#re "ir (ress#re in *!ose% *h"'+er &here " '"i'#' he"t

    e*h"nge o**#rs &ith the *o'+#stion *h"'+er &"!!s- &itho#t %ire*t "*tion on the

    *r"nsh"ft Fst"ti* e,ent).

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    SIX STROKE IC ENGINE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

    e. FE,ent ): E("nsion of s#(erhe"te% "ir in the *y!in%er &hi*h %oes &or on the

    *y!in%er F%yn"'i* e,ent).

    ..A) Intern"! *o'+#stion *y*!e:

    In this *y*!e %ire*t *ont"*t t"es (!"*e +et&een the "ir "n% the he"ting so#r*e

    The e,ents &hi*h t"e (!"*e "re "s fo!!o&s:

    i1. FE,ent B): Re*o'(ression of (#re he"te% "ir in the *o'+#stion *h"'+er F%yn"'i*

    e,ent).

    iA. FE,ent =): /#e! in0e*tion "n% *o'+#stion in *!ose% *o'+#stion *h"'+er- &itho#t

    %ire*t "*tion on the *r"nsh"ft Fst"ti* e,ent).

    i. FE,ent ?): Co'+#stion g"ses e("n% in the *y!in%er "n% &or is %one on the (iston

    F%yn"'i* e,ent).

    i. FE,ent 5): Eh"#st g"ses "re re'o,e% F%yn"'i* e,ent).

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    .) Gr"(hi*"! *o'("rison of si stroe engine "n% fo#r stroe

    engine:

    Gr"(h 1: otto *y*!e

    It is *!e"r fro' the first gr"(h th"t the &or %one +y the = stroe engine is gre"ter th"n the

    stroe engine. Gr"(h 1 is in referen*e &ith " etro! engine.

    Gr"(h A: D#"! *y*!e

    Gr"(h A refers to " %iese! engine. The &or %one +y si stroe engine is gre"ter th"n "

    stroe engine for the s"'e "'o#nt of f#e! #se%

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    . /$CTORS CONTRI2UTING TO INCRE$SED

    [email protected] E//ICIENC- REDUCED /[email protected]

    CONSU7TION $ND [email protected]@UT$NT E77ISION:

    1) The he"t th"t is e,"*#"te% %#ring the *oo!ing of " *on,ention"! engines *y!in%er

    he"% is re*o,ere% in the sistroe engine +y the "irhe"ting *h"'+er s#rro#n%ing the

    *o'+#stion *h"'+er. $s " res#!t of this !ess he"t is &"ste% &hi*h in*re"ses the ther'"!

    effi*ien*y.

    A) $fter int"e- "ir is *o'(resse% in the he"ting *h"'+er "n% he"te% thro#gh ?A8 o

    of *r"nsh"ft "ng!e- =8o of &hi*h in *!ose% *h"'+er Fetern"! *o'+#stion).

    ) The tr"nsfer of he"t fro' the ,ery thin &"!!s of the *o'+#stion *h"'+er to the "ir

    he"ting *h"'+ers !o&ers the te'(er"t#re "n% (ress#re of the g"ses on e("nsion "n%

    eh"#st Fintern"! *o'+#stion).

    ) 2etter *o'+#stion "n% e("nsion of g"ses th"t t"e (!"*e o,er B8oof *r"nsh"ft

    rot"tion- =8 of &hi*h is in *!ose% *o'+#stion *h"'+er- "n% 158 for e("nsion.

    B) The g!o&ing *o'+#stion *h"'+er "!!o&s the o(ti'"! +#rning of "ny f#e! "n%

    *"!*in"te the resi%#es.

    =) 2etter fi!!ing of the *y!in%er on the int"e %#e to the !o&er te'(er"t#re of the

    *y!in%er &"!!s "n% the (iston he"%.

    ?) E!i'in"tion of the eh"#st g"ses *rossing &ith fresh "ir on int"e. In the si

    stroeengines- int"e t"es (!"*e on the first stroe "n% eh"#st on the fo#rth stroe.

    5) @"rge re%#*tion in *oo!ing (o&er. The &"ter (#'( "n% f"n o#t(#ts "re re%#*e%.

    ossi+i!ity to s#(ress the &"ter *oo!er.

    4) @ess inerti" %#e to the !ightness of the 'o,ing ("rts.

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    /ri*tion !osses- theoreti*"!!y higher in the sistroe engine- "re +"!"n*e% +y " +etter

    %istri+#tion of (ress#re on the 'o,ing ("rts %#e to the &or +eing s(re"% o,er t&o

    stroes "n% the e!i'in"tion of the %ire*t *o'+#stion.

    B. 7$IN $D$NT$GES $ND DIS$D$NT$GES

    O/ SIX STROKE ENGINE

    eduction in fuel consu$%tion by at least #"':

    T&o e("nsions F&or) in si stroes:Sin*e the &or *y*!es o**#r on t&o stroes or 59 'ore th"n in " fo#rstroe engine the

    tor>#e is '#*h 'ore e,en. This !e"%s to ,ery s'ooth o(er"tion "t !o& s(ee% &itho#t "ny

    signifi*"nt effe*ts on *ons#'(tion "n% the e'ission of (o!!#t"nts- the *o'+#stion not

    +eing "ffe*te% +y the engine s(ee%. These "%,"nt"ges "re ,ery i'(ort"nt in i'(ro,ing the

    (erfor'"n*e of *"r in to&n tr"ffi*.

    7#!tif#e!:7#!tif#e! ("r e*e!!en*e- it *"n #se the 'ost ,"rie% f#e!s- of "ny origin Ffossi!or ,eget"+!e)- fro' %iese! to @..G. or "ni'"! gre"se. The %ifferen*e in inf!"''"+i!ity or

    "ntino* r"ting %oes not (resent "ny (ro+!e' in *o'+#stion.

    Its !ight- st"n%"r% (etro! engine *onstr#*tion- "n% the !o& *o'(ression r"tio of the

    *o'+#stion *h"'+er- %o not e*!#%e the #se of %iese! f#e!. 7eth"no!(etro! 'it#re is

    "!so re*o''en%e%.

    Dr"'"ti* re%#*tion in (o!!#tion: Che'i*"!- noise "n% ther'"! (o!!#tion "re re%#*e%-on the one h"n%- in (ro(ortion to the re%#*tion in s(e*ifi* *ons#'(tion- "n% on the other-

    thro#gh the engines o&n *h"r"*teristi*s &hi*h &i!! he!( to *onsi%er"+!y !o&er HC- CO

    "n% NOX e'issions. /#rther'ore- its "+i!ity to r#n &ith f#e!s of ,eget"+!e origin "n%

    &e"!y (o!!#t"nt g"ses #n%er o(ti'#' *on%itions- gi,es it >#"!ities &hi*h &i!! "!!o& it to

    '"t*h #( to the stri*test st"n%"r%s.

    @i>#efie% etro!e#' G"s:The gre"t re%#*tion in s(e*ifi* *ons#'(tion sho#!% '"ethe #se of @..G. in 'onof#e! "ttr"*ti,e- %#e to the !o&er *ost "n% '#*h !o&er (o!!#tion

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    e'issions th"n those of (etro!. In "%%ition- &ith the s"'e o(er"ting r"nge- the ,o!#'e

    o**#(ie% +y the t"ns &i!! +e e>#i,"!ent to th"t of (resent t"ns.

    Cost *o'("r"+!e to those of " fo#rstroe engine: The sistroe engine %oes not re>#ire

    "ny +"si* 'o%ifi*"tion to the eisting engines. $!! te*hno!ogi*"! e(erien*e "n%

    (ro%#*tion 'etho%s re'"in #n"!tere%.

    The *ost of the 'o%ifi*"tion to the *y!in%er he"% F*o'+#stion *h"'+er "n% he"ting

    *h"'+er) is +"!"n*e% +y the si'(!ifi*"tion of se,er"! e!e'ents- ("rti*#!"r!y +y the

    !ightening of the 'o,ing ("rts- the re%#*tion of the *oo!ing syste'- the si'(!ifi*"tion of%ire*t in0e*tion &ith no s("r (!#g- et* .The re%#*tion in the %i'ensions of the t"n "n%

    its ho#sing in " ,ehi*!e "re "!so to +e t"en into *onsi%er"tion.

    I'(ro,e'ents nee%e% in the si stroe engine:

    The si stroe engine- tho#gh ,ery effi*ient "n% "%,"nt"geo#s h"s not +een

    (r"*ti*"!!y i'(!e'ente% on " !"rge s*"!e.

    The engine t#rns o#t to +e +#!y &hen *o'("re% to the *on,ention"! fo#r stroe

    engine .Th#s it h"snt +een #se% in "#to'o+i!es yet.

    The si stroe engine is >#iet *o'(!e "n% th#s it is %iffi*#!t to '"ss (ro%#*e it.

    The (erfe*t *oor%in"tion +et&een the fo#r ,"!,es is >#iet %iffi*#!t to "*hie,e.

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    =. [email protected]

    2i!!ions of e(!osion engines "re r#nning &or!%&i%e "t this ti'e- "n% this er" is not "+o#t

    to en%. It is *o''er*i"!!y o+,io#s th"t the +ig '"ret is for "#to'o+i!e- he",y goo%s-

    *onstr#*tionsite "n% f"r' ,ehi*!es. This is " (riority for the sistroe engine.

    1) Dr"sti*"!!y re%#*ing f#e! *ons#'(tion "n% (o!!#tion &itho#t r"%i*"!!y

    "ffe*ting (erfor'"n*es &o#!% "!!o& the *#rrent *on*e(t of the

    "#to'o+i!e to +e re"ssesse%.

    A) There is- "t this %"y- no &on%er so!#tion for the re(!"*e'ent of the

    intern"! *o'+#stion engine. On!y i'(ro,e'ents of the *#rrent

    te*hno!ogy *"n he!( it (rogress &ithin re"son"+!e ti'e "n% fin"n*i"!

    !i'its.

    ) The sistroe engine fits (erfe*t!y into this ,ie&. Its "%o(tion +y the

    "#to'o+i!e in%#stry &o#!% h",e " tre'en%o#s i'("*t on the

    en,iron'ent "n% &or!% e*ono'y- "ss#'ing #( to 89 re%#*tion in f#e!*ons#'(tion "n% =89 to 489 in (o!!#ting e'issions- %e(en%ing on the

    ty(e of f#e! +eing #se%.

    ) /#e! *ons#'(tion for 'i%si3e% engines sho#!% +e &ithin "n% B !itres

    (er 188'. "n% to !itres for the s'"!!si3e% engines.

    B) $#to'o+i!es e>#i((e% &ith the sistroe engine *o#!% "((e"r in the

    '"ret &ithin to B ye"rs.

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