Strengthening Early Reading Instruction through · PDF fileInstruction through Evidence-Based...

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Margie McGlinchey, Ph.D Assistant Superintendent of Instruction Kalamazoo RESA Strengthening Early Reading Instruction through Evidence - Based Strategies Debbie Boersma. M.A. Literacy Consultant and Instructional Coach Kalamazoo RESA

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  • Margie McGlinchey, Ph.DAssistant Superintendent of InstructionKalamazoo RESA

    Strengthening Early Reading Instruction through Evidence-Based Strategies

    Debbie Boersma. M.A.Literacy Consultant and Instructional CoachKalamazoo RESA

  • Learning Objectives Participants will:

    Enhance current knowledge base on the most current research and evidence-based strategiesDiscuss the relationship between the foundational reading skills and becoming a readerLearn and practice instructional routines that support the foundational reading skills Deepen understanding of the instructional shifts of the Common Core State Standards

  • Discussion Partners Step 1: Find a discussion partner.

    Step 2: Find a location on the perimeter of the room that will be your discussion zone.

    Step 3: Practice: Introduce yourself Role/years in education Hopes for this session Current educational read Success/Challenge

  • Why focus on the foundational reading skills?

    1.Setting the Stage

  • 5

    Print Concept

    Phonological Awareness

    Phonics and Word Recognition

    Reading Fluency

    The Essential Goal is.


    (Willingham, 2007)

  • 6

  • Critical Foundational SkillsPrint Concepts (RF.K-1.1) Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print

    Phonological Awareness (RF.K-1.2) Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes)

    Phonics and Word Recognition (RF.K-5.3) Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words

    Fluency (RF.K-5.4) K Read emergent-reader text with purpose and understanding 1-5 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension

  • Foundational Skills Goal is to develop proficient readers who are able to:

    Decode regularly spelled words accurately without conscious effort

    Accurately read irregularly spelled high frequency words without conscious effort

    Understand how basic word parts (prefixes, suffixes, roots, base words) work in the English writing system

    Read connected text with near perfect accuracy and sufficient rate in order to comprehend text

  • Foundational Skills

    Students who learn the alphabetic system and can decode effortlessly reap many benefits including:

    Focus mental energy on comprehension

    Experience joy of engagement with text

    Access a wide range of texts

    Increase vocabulary and knowledge

    (Brady, 2012)

  • Simple View of Reading Two Domains and Five Essential Components of Reading


    Decoding Language Comprehension

    Phonemic Awareness

    PhonicsVocabulary Receptive Comprehension


    X = Reading Comprehension

  • Reading Comprehension

    Decoding Ability to accurately

    read familiar words automatically (sight words) and decode unfamiliar words out of context

    Dependent on: Phonemic Awareness Phonics

    Language Comprehension

    Ability to understand oral language

    Dependent on: Background Knowledge

    Social context Vocabulary Story Structure Verbal Reasoning

    Fluency Ability to

    read text accurately, at an appropriate rate, with suitable prosody


  • Teaching these skills improve outcomes: If established in PSF at the end of Kindergarten, then a 75% chance of meeting the benchmark in ORF at the end of 1stgrade. However, if deficit then only a 19% chance.

    If established in CLS in the middle of 1st grade, then an 89% chance of meeting the benchmark in ORF at the end of 1stgrade. However, if deficit then only a 19% chance.

    If benchmark in ORF at the end of 1st grade, then an 87% chance of meeting the benchmark in ORF at the end of 4thgrade. However, if deficit then only a 12% chance.

    If behind in first grade, the gap appears to grow as evidenced by the increase in students with intensive needs in grades 2-5.

  • 13

    The Reading Process

    Dr. Reid Lyon: Unpacking the Reading Process

  • Discussion Partners:

    Step 1: Find your partner and go to your designated discussion zone. Step 2: Discuss the following questions: Why are the foundational skills important in the k-3rd classroom? Which foundational skills are your students showing proficiency with?Which skills are they not? If needed use these language starters: The foundation skills are important in the k-3 classroom becauseOn Monday, I will start doing

  • IES Practice Guide:

  • Recommendation 2: Teach students to recognize and manipulate segments of sound in speech.

    2. Phonological Awareness

  • Lets Make the Connection: Common Core Foundational Standard:

    Phonological Awareness (RF.K-1.2) Demonstrate understanding of

    spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

    IES Recommendation #2

    Develop an understanding of segments of sounds and how they link to letters: 1. Teach students to recognize and manipulate segments of sounds in speech.2. Teach students letter-sound relationship.3. Use word-building and other activities to link students knowledge of letter/sounds relationships to phonemic awareness.

  • Learning Map: Highlight Big Ideas Effective Literacy Instruction

    IES Practice Guide

    Recommendation 2

    Detail Detail

  • Check for Understanding: True or False

    Teaching students to recognize and manipulate the segments of sound in words and to link those sounds to letters is necessary to prepare students to read and comprehend text.

    The system for linking sounds to letters is referred to as the alphabetic principle.

    To effectively decode and encode words students must be able to sing the alphabet song.

  • Tip to Remember:Phonological

    Bigger word=

    Bigger parts


    Smaller word=

    Smaller parts

  • Phonemic Awareness is NOT PhonicsPhonemic awareness - understanding that the phonemes of spoken language work together to make words

    Phonics - understanding there is a predictable relationship between phonemes and graphemes, the letters that represent those sounds in written language, in order to read words


  • Phonemic Awareness Children who cannot hear and work with the phonemes of spoken words will have a difficult time learning how to relate these phonemes to the graphemes (letters) when they learn to read and spell words

    Studies show that 80% - 90% of students who struggle learning to read have weaknesses in phonemic awareness

    Phoneme awareness performance is a strong predictor of long-term reading and spelling success and can predict literacy performance more accurately than variables such as intelligence, vocabulary knowledge, and socioeconomic status (Gillon, 2004)

  • Phonemic Awareness When?

    Also In beginning reading programs for students of any age As a warm-up before phonics instruction Incorporated into daily spelling instruction K-5 Targeted intervention for students who have not yet demonstrated mastery of the skills


    10-15 minutes daily

    Sept June

    First Grade

    10 minutes daily

    Sept Nov

  • Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness activities should be:

    1. Few in number2. Explicitly and systematically taught3. Supported by concrete materials or gestures4. Teach blending before segmenting5. Connected to phonics6. Designed to include all students7. Reinforced in small groups

  • Phonemic Awareness

    Blending and segmenting activities have the greatest benefit to reading acquisition.

    (National Reading Panel, 2000; Snider, 1995)

  • Continuous Sounds Stop Soundsaefilmnorsuvwyz




    bcdghjk pq (kw)tx (ks)


  • Blending Sounds into Words

    1. Were going to play a say-the-word game. Ill say the sounds slowly, then you say the word fast.

    2. (hold hand up) Listen. ssssaaaat3. What word? (drop hand) sat 4. (Repeat with 3-4 more words.)5. (Repeat until firm.)6. (Give individual turns.)

    * Remember to hold each continuous sound for one full second and do notstop between the sounds

  • Segmenting Words into SoundsSmooth Segmenting -- Scaffold1. Were going to say words slowly. Put your fists together.2. Get ready to stretch the word.3. The word is sat. What word? sat4. Stretch it. ssssaaaat 5. Shrink it. Sat6. Repeat with 3-4 more words.7. (Repeat until firm.)8. (Give individual turns.)

  • Segmenting Words into SoundsSeparate Segmenting 1. Were going to say the sounds in a word.2. Fist in the air. Put up one finger for each sound.3. The word is sat. What word? sat4. First sound? /sss/ Next sound? /aaa/ Last sound? /t/

    (Hold up one finger as you say each sound.)5. What word? sat6. Repeat with 3-4 more words. (slip, flat, chat)7. (Repeat until firm.)8. (Give individual turns.)

  • Discussion Partners Step 1: Find your partner and go to your designated discussion zone.

    Step 2: Choose a routine(s) and teach your partner the following words:

    mad slip cat

    math broom menu

    trip queen gooseStep 3: Discuss which routines you will use to enhance the phonemic awareness instruction in your classroom/school.

  • Link Knowledge of Letter-Sound Relationship with Phonemic Awareness

  • Letter-Sound Correspondence

    f1. When I touch under the letter, you say the sound. Keep saying the

    sound as long as I touch it. 2. My tur