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ABSTRACTAlthough phenomenon of advertising is researched for several decades but intercultural advertising is rather new scope of research. One of the key elements that characterise culture is cultural values. The paper proposes two different points of view towards cultural values and their impact on advertising as one of marketing elements. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to reveal how stability of cultural values can impact strategy of advertising. Cultural values doubtless affect both: customer behaviour and marketing solutions of advertising. Thus cultural values are the crucial element while making decisions concerning with segmentation and positioning. Two different approaches regarding stability of cultural values are represented in scientific literature. Some authors believe that within changing environment mutations of consumption appear, respectively, cultural values undergo changes as well. This means that some values are changed with the other ones. Despite of this, some of scientists highlight that values are basis of culture, so they cannot change. Impact of these two approaches on advertising is revealed in the paper.
INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC he advertising business has become such an important factor in the economy in many countries, especially in the United States, that it also changes the economy itself, society, culture, and the political system. The stimulation for the demand of products and services helps the economy grow stronger and stronger. New inventions become known much faster and can establish their spot in the sales figures of the economy. If there are more people buying these products the overall costs will drop and the product will become cheaper for the customer which raises his willingness to buy even more. On the other hand advertisements are very expensive and some economists believe that these costs are put on top of the actual price paid by the customer. Critics argue that advertising can also have a huge influence on society. It tells the consumers that only purchasing products makes you happy and therefore people compare each other on their belongings. Women also compare themselves with the beautiful and very skinny models they see on commercials and ads. This sometimes results in eating disorders and a low self-esteem of women who dont look like these models. Another bad effect is, that minority groups, especially in the United States are portrait in a subordinate position, which settles in the minds of people. Commercials are also an important part of the income of a TV station which leads to the suspicion that a news channel might not report on an incident about a company they depend on. A lot of TV shows are also based on these commercials, and if the ratings arent good enough the show will be stopped. Only those shows which attract a lot of viewers will be shown, which is not very differentiated and put minorities like older people at a disadvantage. Advertising can also have an impact in politics. $ 467 million were spent on advertisements and TV commercials in the elections of 1998. It gives the opponents the chance to respond to charges very quickly reaching a few million viewers. But since this is very expensive only very rich people have to chance to run for a political position or at least depend on the donation of wealthier people who could have a huge impact on
democracy this way. The political issues talked about in an election are also very much simplified because the spots are only about 30 seconds long, and you cant really discuss a lot in such a short period of time. There is finally the impact advertising can have on the culture of a country. The globalized economy uses the same commercials in a lot of different countries, which leads to a break down in the differences of these societies. Children will grow up not knowing how their culture has been before in their country. It can also lead to a lot of discussion about moral values if we just think about the very controversial ads of Benetton we have discussed \ English-language advertising in India is among the most creative in the world. TV advertising (especially in the Hindi language) has made major headway in the past 10 years, especially with the advent of satellite TV. Hindi TV channels - such as ZEE and Sony TV - have fashioned themselves on lines of Western channels, and most advertising on such channels is glitzy, smart and tailored for the middle classes. Such channels have forced the state-owned channel, Doordarshan, to add spice to their programmes which, earlier, were quite drab. The importance of the Hindi-speaking market (which is also fluent in English) is borne out from the fact that STAR TV, once an all-English channel, is now rich in Hindi programmes. Even the British Broadcasting Corporation is reportedly toying with the idea of airing Hindi programmes. Most major international advertising firms have chosen local Indian partners for their work in this market. Mumbai (formerly Bombay) remains the centre of the advertising business in India. India has a diverse and growing number of daily newspapers. Since 1991, the increase of business and financial news reports in English-language and vernacular dailies has paralleled the economic reform programme and the movements of the stock markets. Most leading publications have their circulation audited by the Audit Bureau of Circulation which has an India-dedicated office in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). Leading business newspapers include Business Standard and Economic Times. Magazines include
India Today, Business India , Business Today, and Business World. In addition to advertising, other kinds of trade promotion activities are also well-developed in India. A large of exhibitions are held all over India, the most prominent ones at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi. Conferences and seminars are also widespread.
Marketing The mail service in India is slow though generally reliable. Telephone service is poor, but rapidly improving.
While private courier services are growing strongly and the telecommunications sector is opening up for a range of modern services, until goods can be ordered conveniently and delivered with certainty, Marketing will be limited to door-to-door sales. An inefficient state-owned banking system also prevents prompt transfers of funds from consumers to retailers. Credit card companies are increasingly targeting India's one million cardholders through directly-mailed offers of goods and services. The most successful direct marketers in India today are the millions of door-to-door sales representatives who visit neighborhoods and villages across India. From ice cream vendors to carpet sellers, India 's residential neighbourhoods are frequently visited by merchants offering a variety of products. Some soft-drink companies have used beauty queens to make surprise knocks on the doors! Marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers' (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. The term was coined in the 1970s by Lester Wunderman, who pioneered Marketing techniques with brands such as American Express and Columbia Records, and by Herb Ahrend who introduced mass direct mail advertising techniques as early as the 1940s (employing hundreds of typists in New York City to mass produce offerings, the likes of which are now done by computer and laser printer). Marketing is a form of marketing that attempts to send its messages directly to consumers, using "addressable" media such as mail and email.
Therefore, Marketing differs from regular advertising in that it does not place its messages on a third party medium, or in the public market, such as a billboard or a radio commercial would. Instead, the marketing of the service or commodity is addressed directly to the target customer. Marketing uses non-addressable media as well as addressable ones. The important thing is that it seeks a response and it is this which the recipient, usually a marketer, bases their future actions, or contact strategy, on. In fact all Marketing is done through media, it's just that many, e.g. email, telemarketing, SMS, are "addressable". It usually is not taken to include face-to-face contact. directly. For example, if a marketer sends out one million solicitations by mail, and ten thousand customers can be tracked as having responded to the promotion, the marketer can say with some confidence that the campaign led directly to the responses. By contrast, measurement of other media must often be indirect, since there is no direct response from a consumer. Measurement of results, a fundamental element in successful Marketing, is explored in greater detail elsewhere in this article. While many marketers like this form of marketing, it is sometimes criticized for generating unwanted solicitations, which are sometimes referred to as junk mail and e-mail spam. Direct selling is a dynamic, vibrant, rapidly expanding channel of distribution that has proven to be a highly successful and effective method of compensating direct sellers (independent contractors) for the marketing and distribution of products and services directly to consumers. Direct selling can best be described as the marketing of products and services directly to consumers in a face to face manner, generally in their homes or the homes of others, at their workplace or other places away from permanent retail locations. Direct sales typically occur through explanation or personal demonstration by an independent direct salesperson. These salespeople are commonly referred to as direct sellers. The strength of direct selling lies in its tradition of independence, service to consumers, and commitment to entrepreneurial growth in the free market system. Direct Marketing is attractive