Stoop ed-lod

Stéphane Ducasse 1 Stéphane Ducasse [email protected] Design Points - Law of Demeter Stéphane Ducasse --- 2005



Transcript of Stoop ed-lod

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Stéphane Ducasse 1

Stéphane [email protected]://

Design Points - Law of Demeter

Stéphane Ducasse --- 2005

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About Coupling• Why coupled classes is fragile design?• Law of Demeter• Thoughts about accessor use

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Coupling hampers...

ReuseI cannot reuse this component in another application

SubstitutionI cannot substitute easily this component for another one

EncapsulationWhen a far away change happens, I get impacted

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The Core of the Problem

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The Law of Demeter

You should only send messages to:an argument passed to you instance variablesan object you createself, superyour classAvoid global variablesAvoid objects returned from message sends other than self

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Correct Messages

someMethod: aParameterself foo.super someMethod: aParameter.self class foo.self instVarOne foo.instVarOne foo.aParameter foo.thing := Thing new.thing foo

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In other words• Only talk to your immediate friends. • In other words:

• You can play with yourself. (this.method())• You can play with your own toys (but you can't

take them apart). (field.method(), field.getX())• You can play with toys that were given to you.

(arg.method())• And you can play with toys you've made

yourself. (A a = new A(); a.method())

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To not skip your intermediate

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Heuristic of Demeter

Not a lawKnow when you can bend it or not apply itEncapsulating collections may produce large interfaces so not applying the LoD may help.

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Object subclass: #AinstVar: myCollection

A>>do: aBlock myCollection do: aBlock

A>>collect: aBlock ^ myCollection collect: aBlock

A>>select: aBlock ^ myCollection select: aBlock

A>>detect: aBlock ^ myCollection detect: aBlock

A>>isEmpty ^ myCollection isEmpty


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About the Use of Accessors

Some schools say: “Access instance variables using methods”

In such a caseBe consistent inside a class, do not mix direct access and accessor useThink accessors as protected methods (not invoked by clients)in ST: put them in accessing only when public

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Accessors are good for lazy initialization

Scheduler>>tasks tasks isNil ifTrue: [task := ...]. ^ tasks

BUT accessors methods should be Protected by default at least at the beginning

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Scheduler>>initializeself tasks: OrderedCollection new.

Scheduler>>tasks^ tasks

But now everybody can tweak the tasks!

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Accessors open Encapsulation

The fact that accessors are methods doesn’t support a good data encapsulation. You could be tempted to write in a client:

ScheduledView>>addTaskButton...model tasks add: newTask

What’s happen if we change the representation of tasks?

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If tasks is now an array, it will break

Take care about the coupling between your objects and provide a good interface!

Schedule>>addTask: aTasktasks add: aTask

ScheduledView>>addTaskButton...model addTask: newTask

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About Copy Accessor

Should I copy the structure?

Scheduler>>tasks ^ tasks copy

But then the clients can get confused...

Scheduler uniqueInstance tasks removeFirstand nothing happens!

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You will read code

Code that others wrote

Code that you wrote and forgot

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Use intention revealing names

Probably Better

Scheduler>>taskCopy or copiedTasks “returns a copy of the pending tasks”

^ task copy

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Provide a Complete Interface

Workstation>>accept: aPacketaPacket addressee = self name…

It is the responsibility of an object to offer a complete interface that protects itself from client intrusion.Shift the responsibility to the Packet objectPacket>>isAddressedTo: aNode

^ addressee = aNode nameWorkstation>>accept: aPacket

(aPacket isAddressedTo: self)ifTrue:[ Transcript show: 'A packet is accepted by the

Workstation ', self name asString]ifFalse: [super accept: aPacket]