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    CSCI 5273

    Computer Networks

    Stevens, Chapter 12 & 13Broadcast & Multicast

    with IGMP

    Dirk Grunwald

    Assoc. ProfessorDept. of Computer Science

    University of Colorado, Boulder

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    Using Broadcast

    u UDP broadcast involves sending to explicit broadcastaddresses

    l Most POSIX implementations require you explic itly enablebroadcast

    ret = setsockopt(sockfd, SOL_SOCKET,SO_BROADCAST, &on, sizeof(on));

    u Only applicable to UDP!

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    Broadcast Addresses

    u Limited Net Broadcast - 255.255.255.255

    l Never forwarded by a router!

    u Net-directed Broadcast - e.g., 128.138.255.255l A router must forward a net-directed broadcast, but must have

    an option to disable this.

    u Subnet-directed Broadcast - e.g., 128.138.202.255

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    Multicast

    u Class D addresses are mult icast addresses

    l 224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255

    uA specific multicast address defines a network group

    u Two special network groups

    l

    224.0.0.xxx is never routedl 224.0.0.1 - all hosts group

    l 224.0.0.2 - all routers group

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    Well-defined multicast groups

    u ntp.mcat.net is 224.0.1.1

    l Network time protocol

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    ////

    // Set socket option to to joint// Set socket option to to joint mcastmcast

    ////

    {{

    struct ipstruct ip__mreq mreqmreq mreq;;

    memcpymemcpy(&(&mreqmreq..imrimr__multiaddrmultiaddr,,

    &from_&from_addraddr.sin_.sin_addraddr.s_.s_addraddr,,

    sizeofsizeof((structstruct in_in_addraddr));));

    mreqmreq..imrimr_interface.s__interface.s_addraddr == htonlhtonl(INADDR_ANY);(INADDR_ANY);

    retret == setsockoptsetsockopt((sockfdsockfd, IPPROTO_IP, IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP,, IPPROTO_IP, IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP,

    &&mreqmreq,, sizeofsizeof((mreqmreq));));

    check_and_exit(check_and_exit(retret, ", "setsockoptsetsockopt");");

    }}

    Joining a Multicast Group prior to receive

    Desired multicast

    group

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    Using TTL to define multicast scope

    u TTL field is used to limit propogation of mult icast packets

    u In IPv4

    l 0 - node local - doesnt leave machine

    l 1 - link local - doesnt get routedl

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    ////

    ////

    // Set socket option to to joint// Set socket option to to joint mcastmcast

    ////

    {{

    u_charu_char ttlttl = 16;= 16;

    retret == setsockoptsetsockopt((sockfdsockfd, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_TTL,, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_TTL,

    &&ttlttl,, sizeofsizeof((ttlttl));));

    check_and_exit(check_and_exit(retret, ", "setsockoptsetsockopt");");

    }}

    Setting a TTL scope

    Desired TTL

    field

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    Administrative Scoping

    u 239.xxx.yyy.zzz is the administratively scope mult icast IPspace

    l Addresses assigned locally to an organization, but not uniqueacross organizations

    l Border routers must not forward

    u link-local -- 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255

    u site-local -- 239.255.0.0 to 239.255.255.255

    u organization-local - 239.192.0.0 to 239.195.255.255u global -- 224.0.1.0 to 238.255.255.255

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    Converting Multicast to Ethernet

    u Multicast addresses are targeted to a number of clients

    l How does the ethernet card know which messages to receive?

    u Could simple broadcast all packets

    l Takes the same amount of network bandwidth as selectivemulticast, but..

    l Disturbs all machines

    u Can use ARP to advertise single MAC as resolving

    multiple IP addressesl ..But multiple machines want to receive

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    u Ethernet cards can usually receive on mult iple MACaddresses

    u Multicast router enters a virtual MAC address, clients

    receive on that virtual MAC

    1110 0000

    00101 11100000 00000000 0001

    Mapping a Multicast Address toEthernet Address

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    Digression - Virtual IP Addresses

    u alias alias_address[/bitmask]

    l Establishes an additional network address for this interface.

    l Eample:ifconfig eth0 alias 128.138.241.79/26

    u The following aliaslist command adds network addresses40 through 50, inclusive, to subnets

    18.240.32, 18.240.64, and 18.240.96

    ifconfig aliaslist 18.240.32,64,96.40-50

    u Doesnt require multiple MAC addresses, but oftenimplemented using them.

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    IGMP - Internet Group ManagementProtocol

    u Part of IP layer

    u Lets hosts & routers know who belongs to what groups

    IP Header

    (20 bytes)

    IGMP

    Message (8 bytes)

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    IGMP Message Format

    Version(1) Type(1-2) MBZ 16-bit checksum

    32-bit group address (Class D IP address)

    u Typel 1 is a query sent by multicast router

    l 2 is a reponse sent by a host

    u Group address is a class D IP address

    l On query, its zero

    l On response, its the group address being reported

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    IGMP Host Reports

    Host Router

    u Host sends a report when it joins a group

    u Doesnt report when it leaves the group, but doesnt respond tonext query

    IGMP report, TTL =1IGMP group addr = group address

    dest IP addr = group address

    src IP addr = hosts IP address

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    IGMP Router Query

    Host Router

    u Router sends query at regular intervals to see if anyone sti llbelongs to anygroups. Queries sent out each interface.

    u Host responds by sending one responsefor each group to which it belongs IGMP query, TTL =1

    IGMP group addr = 0.0.0.0

    dest IP addr = 224.0.0.1

    src IP addr = routers IP address

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    Sample Query on Windows Bootup

    05:52:32.517937 arp who-has 192.168.1.6 tell

    192.168.1.6

    05:52:32.518010 linux > 192.168.1.6: icmp: echo

    request

    05:52:33.378928 192.168.1.6 > ALL-ROUTERS.MCAST.NET:

    icmp: router solicitation

    05:52:37.511385 arp who-has 192.168.1.6 tell linux

    05:52:37.511664 arp reply 192.168.1.6 is-at

    0:a0:cc:3b:95:4b

    05:52:38.453193 192.168.1.6 > ALL-ROUTERS.MCAST.NET:

    icmp: router solicitation05:52:43.477432 192.168.1.6 > ALL-ROUTERS.MCAST.NET:

    icmp: router solicitation

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    Multicast Routes

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    Sender Sends DatagramWith Specified TTL

    Pruned

    because no

    one is

    listening

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    Receiver Starts Joins group

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    Routers Form Destination Tree

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    Non-participants prune themselves