steel plants kewwords

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rolling mill keywards

ROLLING MILL KEYWORDSWORDS MOSTELY USE IN ROLLING MILLBY- ANIL SHARMA , AFRICAN FOUNDERY LTD, NIGERIAADDITIONSMaterials, typically alloy elements, added to molten steel to produce the chemical specifications for the desired steel grade.

ALLOYA substance that has metallic properties and is comprised of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is a metal.ALLOY STEELSteel containing one or more alloying element. Steel is classified as alloy when the maximum content of alloying elements exceeds one or more of the following: manganese 1.65%, silicon 0.60%, copper 0.60%.ALLOYING ELEMENTSChemical elements added for improving the properties of the finished products. Some alloying elements are: nickel, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, and silicon.ANNEALINGA process involving heating and cooling, usually applied to induce softening of steel. The term also refers to treatments intended to alter mechanical or physical properties, produce a definite microstructure or remove gasses.ARGON SHROUDA procedure using argon gas to shield molten steel from oxygen as it is teemed from the ladle.ARGON STIRRINGAn inert gas introduced through a nozzle to stir molten steel to promote chemical and temperature homogenization and float out inclusions.AUSTENITEHigh-temperature solid form of steel with face-centered cubic crystal structure.BILLET

A semi-finished piece of steel that results from rolling an ingot or a bloom. It may be square but is never more than twice as wide as thick. Its cross-sectional area is usually not more than 36 square inches.

BLOOM

A semi finished piece of steel resulting from the rolling or forging of an ingot. A bloom is square or not more than twice as wide as thick and usually not less than 36 square inches in cross-sectional area.

BLOOM SHEAR

A shear used to cut a rolled ingot into shorter bloom lengths or to cut off the ends of a bloom.

BLOWHOLE

An internal cavity in steel produced by gases during the solidification of the metal.

BREAKOUTLiquid steel flowing through the shell of a ladle or EAF.

BRINNEL HARDNESS

A hardness test commonly used for soft steel and metals which measures diameter of an indentation made by a steel ball under a given load.

CARBIDEA compound of iron (or other element) and carbon in steel, forming a very hard, nonmetallic substance (Fe3C). Fe3C is also called cementite.

CASTING

Pouring molten metal into a mold, or the metal object (i.e., ingot) produced by such pouring.

CASTING POWDER

A powder applied to the inside of a mold before teeming to prevent the metal from sticking to the mold.

CHARGE

To load a furnace with scrap and flux prior to melting, or to load a soaking pit with ingots for reheating.

CHEMISTRY

The chemical constituents of a heat of steel.

COLD WORKING

Rolling or drawing semi-finished steel products to provide higher physical properties or better surfaces than can be produced by hot-working.

CONTINUOUS CASTER

A machine used to continuously produce blooms from molten steel with no interruptions or intermediate operations.

CREEPFailure of a metal caused by gradual elongation due to constant stress.

DEOXIDIZE

Removal of oxygen from steel.

DUCTILITY

Ability to undergo permanent changes of shape without rupturing.-----

ELASTIC DEFORMATION

Temporary distortion of a material under the action of applied stresses.

ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF)

A refractory-lined steel vessel used to melt steel. An electric arc generates the heat.

ELECTRODE

A carbon (graphite) rod that carries electricity to melt the scrap in an EAF.

FORGING

Forming hot metal in the desired shape by means of hammering or pressing.

GRADE

Classification of steel based on carbon content or mechanical properties.

GRAIN

Orderly arrangement of atoms or crystal structure. Individual crystal of a microstructure.

GRINDING

Method of conditioning steel by removing surface flaws using a power-driven grinding wheel.-----

HARDENABILITY

The depth and distribution of hardness below the surface of steel.

HARDENING

The process of increasing the hardness of steel through controlled heating and cooling.HARDNESS

Resistance to indentation.HEAT

An individual batch of metal as it is treated in a furnace.

HEAT TREATMENT

A combination of heating and cooling operations applied to a metal or alloy to obtain desired microstructure conditions or properties.

INGOT

Steel, formerly in a molten state, transferred to an ingot mold to solidify.

IRON

A pure metal that serves as the basis for steel, cast iron and stainless steel. Iron is relatively weak and soft when in its pure form.

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KILLED STEEL

Steel that is deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent, such as silicon or aluminum. Reducing the oxygen content minimizes chemical reaction between carbon and oxygen during solidification.-----

LADLE

A vessel for receiving and handling liquid steel. It is constructed of a refractory-lined steel shell.

LOW-ALLOY STEEL

Steel containing up to 5% alloying elements other than carbon.

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MARTENSITE

Room temperature structure of steel formed as a result of a rapid quench from the austenitic condition. Hard, strong, and brittle structure.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Those properties of a material that reveal the elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied or that improve the relationship between stress and strain.MICROSTRUCTURE

Microscopic structure of steel. Under a microscope, certain elements of the solidified metal are visible (crystal structure).

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

A measurement of the stress-per-unit strain, an indication of the resistance of the steel to deformation within its elastic limit.

MOLD

An iron-casting container used to hold and cool molten metal as it solidifies.

OXIDATION

Process in which carbon combines with oxygen to form oxides.PLAIN CARBON STEEL

Iron-carbon alloys with minimal alloy content.PLASTIC DEFORMATION

Permanent distortion of a material under the action of applied stressesPULPIT

An enclosed operator's platform.-----

QUENCHING

The process of rapidly cooling the steel from a temperature above the critical temperature.

SCRAP

Iron or steel discard, cuttings, or raw material which will be reprocessed.SHEAR

A machine for cutting steel products.

STRESS

The load per unit of area.

TENSILE STRENGTH

A measurement of the maximum load per unit of original area that a steel has prior to fracture.

TOUGHNESS

Ability to absorb impact energy.