St germain book

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    16-Mar-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    228
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

Malayalam

Transcript of St germain book

  • ^m. tkhy Jm hm-bn

    hn. sPsa-bn Hcp ]pXnb

    \-{X-am-Wv. k`m kZ-n

    DZ-bw sNbvX \h-Xm-c-Iw.

    Cu XmcIw BtKm-f-k-`-bpsS

    ta ]cn-ip--amb ]cn-afw

    ]c-n-sm-n-cn-p-p.

    ]obqkv H-Xm-a am]m

    amdm-\m aoUnb skkmtPm Sh

    sjmq tdmUv OPP.KSRTC]me-mSv 14 t^m 04912504090

    Ip

    n-Ip-thn ^m. tkhyJm hm-bn cNn-

    p \nKq-V-a F ]c--c-bnse Ggm-as ]pkvX-

    I-am-Wn-Xv. ]me-mSv cq]-Xmw-K-amWv ^ m. tkhyJm

    hmbn. [ym\-Kp-cphpw \smcp hN\{]tLm-j-I-\p-

    amWv A. ""\n temI-sapw t]mbn Fm krn-

    I-tfmSpw kphn-tijw {]kw-Kn-p-hn'' (atm. 16:5)

    F tbip-\m-Ys Xncp-h-N\w inc-m-h-lnv ip{iqj

    sNp Hcp ip{iq-j-I-\m-Wv. Cu ]pXp-bp-K-n ]pXp-

    X-e-ap-dbvv hnip-n-tbmsS Pohn-p-hm Cu hnip-

    -cpsS Pohn-X- {]tNm-Z-\-am-I-s-sbv Biw-

    kn-p-p.

    Hmtcm-cp-cpw X-fpsS kml-N-cy- icn-bmbn hn\n-tbm-Kn-m hnip-nv

    {]Xn-_w Hpw Csv sXfn-bn

    hyn-bmWv hn. sPsa-bn Ipko F

    I\y-I. P\\w apX ]cn-Xy-Pn--s--h.

    kpJ-tam-l--fpsS apI-fn-eqsS bm{X

    sNp Cu Xe-ap-dbvv apn Hcp shp-

    hn-fn-bmbn Cu I\yI {]tim-`n-p-p. Cu

    ]pkvXIw \nsf IqSp-X hnip-n-bn

    hf-cp-hm klm-bn-s Fv {]mn-

    p-p.

    V. Rev. Fr. Joy Cheekkapara

    Forane Vicar,

    Holy Trinity Church, Thavalam

  • Ipko IpSpw_w

    IZ-\-I-Y-bpsS XpSw

    GI-tZiw Ccp-qdv IpSpw-_--fp Hcp {Kma-amWv

    ]n{_m-Iv. Cu {Kma-nse Aev]w Xe-sbSpp IpSpw-_-

    amWv Ipko IpSpw-_w. temddv Bbn-cpp Cu IpSpw-_-

    ns \mY. ]e HutZym-KnI _lp-a-Xn-Ifpw hln-n-p

    Atlw 1572 aPn-t{k-m-bpw, 1573 tab-dmbpw sXc-s-Sp-

    -s-p. Cu {Kma-n GI-tZiw \mev]Xv G-tdmfw `qan

    Cu IpSpw-_-n-\p-m-bn-cp-p. temdns BZy`mcy-sb-n

    IqSp-X- Adn-hp-I \apv e`y-a-. Fnepw Ah kpIr-

    Xbpw ssZh-`-n-bpap Hcp kv{Xobm-bn-cp-p Fp-thWw

    A\p-am-\n-m. B A-bpsS {]m-\m- ssN-X-\yhpw hnip-

    nbpw DZ-c-n-em-bn-cp Ipn-tepw ]Ip. 1579 Cu

    Ipko IpSpw-_-n Hcp s]Ipv P\n-p. amXm-]n-Xm-

    Ipn\v sPsa-bn F t]cp \In. Ipns\

    amtdm-Sv tNp]n-Snv Xs lrZ-b-ns hnip-nbpw ssZh

    `nbpw ape-m-en-t\m-sSmw A sPsa-bn\v ]Ip

    \In. Fm A[n-I-\m Ignbpw apv Ahsf A\m-Y-bm-

    nb- nv B \ A Imh- ns kn[- nb- nt- ev bm{Xb- mb- n.

    ]noSv Ahsf temddv Ipkos Hcp ktlm-Z-cn-bmWv

    hfn-b-Xv.

    GXm\pw \mfp-I Ign--tm temddv hopw

    hnhmlw Ign-p. sPsa-bn Ipko IpSpw-_-n-tev

    XncnsI hp. Ap apX Ah-fpsS IZ-\-IY Bcw-`n-p.

    sNdpw apXte IWTv a- me F tcmKw Ipns\ _m[n- p.

    Igp-nse {Kn-Isf _m[n-p Cu tcmKw aqew Igpv

    \ocp-hv hop-Ibpw s]mn {hW-am-hp-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-p.

    acWw hsc Cu {hW- kpJ-s-n-. Cu imco-cnI

    thZ-\v Xo{h-X- Iq-p-hm-s\--hw Ah-fpsS he-XpssI

    ipjvn--Xpw `mKo-I-ambn Xf-Xp-am-bn-cp-p. Cu tcmKw

    ImcWw Bbn-cnmw Ahv {]mY-anI hnZym-`ym-kw-t]mepw

    ]qn-bm-p-hm km[n-n-.

    3 4

    pf k

    - . C ]W-ns ] -

    knse S q v ]Ww u-

    Sn

    K nXn N- p H p sImp - w ] -

    mdp`m v -s c

    -{Kma n{_mIv.

    hp r -f - n-cp p A - p S {] m h -a - - m w

    f a K- mb hc s [ \ cp m\a K .

    Hm Sp -_hpw ITn-\m - w Nbo n p- mp

    tcm Ip w

    - zm\ s vXv P h - t] - .

    a m w pw_- wXs

    p- -j -b tes- n-

    nh dp Fm IpS - -fp - BS Ir n- n-

    p {Kma s cp sXmgn n p If- \bv v

    c-b-e-

    -c - p. B

    ns a mm p n n- s - .

    m ] I A n- p Is\bn

    -s-] h s Ip- n-[ Ih w

    nfn - v

    G sp n- -b - n ] W- n \ -b n A

    - . I fn p m - Im -S mb h

    F-n- -s - -pw. n{_m-b se Xn- f

    p ImSp] - n k - Ip c-Is

    hm - a b D tb - n p- mp Sp kv ]W-ns m a -

    l\ m n ]- mK - t] - . fq - ] ]- m

    \ - A[ I- m pw {Km s kn- -. ] m

    en y - n- sa B a{K n n{_ --

    bnn

    cp- n- C -hI- - n A Bg

    se Ip sN h epS - ] n-b h

    vN-

    tXm pw c -a - tN s h - n- . a X - - b

    d H p n p-v sZ s Bcm[ p m r`n- n

    \ d {Km - n- p A .

    n Hcp aam-b cp Xv

  • cm-\--bpsS IognAhf- psS cm\- - ITn\lrZb- b- mb ~Hcp kv{Xobmb- nc- p- p.

    Cu kv{XobpsS {Iqc-amb ]oV-\v sPsa-bn Cc-bm-bn-

    op. \nmc Imcy-p-t]mepw Ah sPsa-bns\

    {Iqc-ambn an-n-cp-p. ASn-aqew ]e-tmgpw t_m[-c-ln-X-bmbn

    hoWn-p-ap-v. Nne k`--fn shdp-n-\m t{]cn-X-bmbn

    cm-\ sPsa-bns taen- Xnf--shw Hgn-p-am-bn-cp-p.

    Hcn-t]mepw~Hcp \ Blmcw Ah Ign-n-n-. Fpw

    Ipdv sdmn-I-jvW- am{Xw. hfp-\mbv Ignv _mn-

    sh ` Ww t]mepw Ignv Nne Znh-k--fn Ah Pohn-p.

    Fnepw Ahv Hn\pw ]cm-Xn-bn-m-bn-cp-p.

    IWvT-ame tcmKw Xs Ipnv ]I-cp-sav Nnn--Xn-\m-

    emImw cm\- Ahsf BSpI- s- fbpw tImgnI- s- fbpw ]mnn-

    cp ]pd-p Hcp sIn-S-ns tKmh-Wnv Xmsg-bmWv

    cm{Xn Dd-m ew sImSp--Xv. AXns apI\ne [m\y-

    p-c-bmbpw D]-tbm-Kn-n-cp-p. DW--ap-n-cnpIsImpw

    DW-nb Ce-I-sImpw Ah Xsbpm-nb InS--bn-

    emWv cm{Xn hn{i-aw. Hn-cn-tbsd GIm-X Ahv A\p-`-

    hn-tnhp. BSp-am-Sp-I-fp-sSbpw IpXn-c-I-fp-sSbpw hnk

    y h-kvXp--fpsS ZpK-hpw sImXp-Ip-I-fpsS _mlp-eyhpw

    Ah-fpsS Dd-s XS--s-Sp-n. XWp-n \nv c-t\-

    Sm IpXn-cm-e-b-n\v hmXn-ep-I t]mepw C-m-bn-cp-p.

    At\Iw Infn amUw Ipko-\p-thn Ah s\bvXp-sh-nepw

    AXn-sempt]mepw XWp-n \nv ct\-Sm

    Ahv e`n-n-. Iodn--dn--Xm-bn-cpp Ah-

    fpsS hkv{X-. Io-dn-b-`m-Kv ]gb XpWn-

    -jvW- Xpn-tv Ah icocw

    ad-p. Fm-hcpw XWp-n \nv c-

    t\-Sm Ip-d-Ifpw tkmIvkpw jqkpw

    [cn-p-tm Ahv CsXmpw

    Dm-bn-cp-n-. \-]m-Z-pIbmbn

    Ah Pohn-X-Imew apgp-h I-gn-p-

    Iq-n. Cu XWp-nepw hni-nepw

    Ign-bp-tmgpw Ah {]mn-p.

    cm{Xn-bn Iptd-t\cw tbip-hp-ambn

    Ah lrZ-b-kw-`m-j-W-n

    Gsp.

    5 6

  • CS-b-I-\yI

    sNm-bvn-S-bn-eqsS

    cm-\ D-`--W-n-\mbn sImSp-p GXm\pw

    sdmn-I-jvW--fp-ambn sPsa-bn BSp-ta-bvp-hm-\mbn

    t]mIpw. Nne-tm sNm-bv-fp h\-`m-K-tv cm-\

    Ahsf Ab-bvpw. sNmbv B{I-anp sImmepw Ipg--

    anmsbv Ah Nnn-n-cn-mw. BSp-Isf tabvp-Xn\nS-

    bn In-fn-\q Dm-p-hm\pw Ahsf Gevn-n-cp-p.

    \qens Af-hp-Ipdm a\w Dd-m-bn-cp-p. cm-\--

    bn ]nd Ipp-k-tlm-Z-c--fp-am-bn kwkm-cn-p-hm-t\m,

    Ifn-p-hmt\m Ahv A\p-hm-Z-an-m-bn-cp-p. {Kma-nse

    ]ecpw Ah-tfmSv Ah-bpw ]phpw ]pen-tm-p.

    Fm {Kma-nse ]mh-s Ipn-I A-s\-bm-bn-cp-n-.

    Ah sPsabn-t\mSv kvt\lhpw A\p-I-bpw ]pen-tm-

    p. Po, PmIvkv, Bt{Z, ]ob Fn-h Ah-fpsS D kplr-

    p--fm-bn-cp-p. Nne Znh-k--fn Ch sPsa-bns IqsS

    Ifn-p-hm-\mbn hcpw. sPsa-bn Aev]-k-abw Ah-tcm-Sp-

    IqsS Ifn-pw. XpSv Cu Iqp-Imsc Hcp-an-p-tNv P]-am-e-

    sNm-pw. Ip-Ifpw Ip-Ifpw ]pp-Ifpw tNv tZhm-ebw

    \nn-pw. amXm-hns ]Sw AXn shv ]pjv]-sm--

    e--cn-pw. Npn--p-I tNv Ipcn-ip-cq-]-ap-mn Iqp-

    Im-tcm-sSm-cp-anv Ipn apI-fn {]-Z-nWw \S-pw.

    ~Hcp Znhkw temddv Ahsf hnfn-nv ]dp:

    kptm h\-n BSp-Isf sImp-t]m-I-cp-Xv. Imc-Ww,

    AhnsS sNm-bv Dv. ]nt Znhkw cmhnse amUw

    Ipko Ipdv sdmnbpw \qm-\p In-fn-bp-ambn

    sPsabns ASp-s-n. B kv{Xo Bt{Im-inp : BSp-I

    Fmw oWn-mWncn-p--Xv, AXn-\m cmhnse Xs

    kptm h\-n-tev t]mhp-I, AhnsS [mcmfw ]pp-v.

    sNm-bv-fp e-am-Wv. BSp-Isf {im-]qw t\mn-

    sm--Ww. Hsc--sa-nepw \-s-m Rm \ns icn-bm-

    pw.Ah sRn-tm-bn. Cse Xs ]nXmhv t]mI-cp-sXv

    ]d-n-Sv amUw- Ip-ko t]mIm ]d-bp-p. Fnepw

    Ah bm{Xv Xm-dm-bn.

    Ghpw ktm-j-I-c-amb kabw

    Ipn-I-sf, km[n-p Fm Znh-khpw hnip

    Ip_m\- b- n kw_- n- pI- . hnip- -Ip_m-

    \-bn-eqsS Hmtcm Znh-khpw Bcw-`n-p-I.

    _mn-sbmw ip`-am-Ipw.

    kz-kw-KoXw

    sdmnI-jvW-fpw In-fnbpw Xn-bp-ambn Ah h\-n-

    tev bm{X-bm-bn. Iptd-t\cw \Sv \ ]-p e-s-

    n. \ ]pp-I I BSp-I ktm-j-tmsS tabm

    XpS-n. a-am-cp-X sas hoim XpS-n. AXns CS-bn

    IqSn sNm-bv-fp-sS apc-fep-Ifpw tIp-p-m-bn-cp-p.

    ae-ap-I-fn \np-tm ]n{_mIv tZhm-e-b-nse aWn

    apg-n. hn. Ip_m\-p ka-b-am-bn. Ah-fpsS Pohn-X-nse

    Ghpw ktm-j-I-c-amb A\p-`-h-amWv Znh-khpw Znhy-_-en-

    bn ]s-Sp-pI Fp--Xv. Hcp Ipdp-p-h-gn-bn-eqsS Hcp

    tXmSp-I-S-m s]sv ]n-bn-se-mw.

    Ah CS-b-hSn In-se-Sp-p. AXv

    \nev Ipn-\nn. BSp-Isf AXn-\p-

    Nppw sImp-hp \nn. Fnv BSp-

    I-tfmSv ]dp: Rm hcp--Xp-hsc Cu

    hSnv Nppw am{Xta tabm-hq. AXn-\p-

    tijw Ah thKw ]n-bn-tev

    bm{Xb- mb- n. Acph- nb- nse IpI- Nhn- n-

    -Sv ]n-bn-se-n. `n-]qw

    Ip_m-\-bn ]s-Sp-p. A\p-hm-Z-ap

    Znh-k--fn Ah ` n-tbmsS Znhy-Im-

    cpWyw kzoI-cn-p. Ip_m-\-p-tijw

    thK-n BSp-I-fpsS ASp-tv Xncn-

    s-n. ApXw BSp-I B hSn-p-

    Nppw \nv tabp-p.

    ~Hcn- cv {Kmao-W sPsa-

    bns hoSn-\-cn-In-eqsS \S-p-t]m-hp-I-bm-

    bnc- p- p. Aev]Z- qcw \S- t- m Ah Hcp

    kzKobkwKoXw tIp. AXns Dd-hnSw

    7 8

  • At\z-jnv \onb Ch sPsa-bn InS sXmgp-ns

    ASp-s-n. Ah Dn-tev t\mn. AXm sPsa-bn

    tImgnbpw BSp-Ifpw hn{i-an-p--Xns ASpv apn-cn--p-

    Ip-ap-I-fn apn-t \nv {]mnp-p. Ah-fpsS

    {]m\ Hcp lmtamWn-b-n \np hcp Km\w-t]mse

    Hcp kzKob kwKo-Xwt]mse ssZh-n--tev DbpsIm-

    t-bn-cp-p.

    Ah ]dp : t\mq, sPsabn F{X kp-cn-bm-bn-cn-

    p-p. Ah-fpsS Igp-nse X-tfm sshcq-]ytam Ctm

    ImWm-\n-. Ah-fpsS inc-n-\p-Np-nepw Hcp {]`m-h-e-bhpw

    Ah {in-p. Fm Ch-cpsS kmn-y-sampw Ah

    Adn-n-. Ah Znhym-\p-`-h-n-em-Wv. Ah hmXnXp-dv

    sPsa-bns ASp--tev sNm- {ian-p. s]sv kzob

    kwKoXw i-am-bn. AXns Kmw`o-cyX Ahsc `b-s-Sp-n.

    Ah ]nn-cnv bm{X-bm-bn.

    Hcp ap-Im-ew, sPsa-bn BSp-Isf tabvp-I-bm-Wv.

    ]n-bn hn. Ip_m-\-p aWn-b-Sn-p. Ah Acp-hn-bn-

    tev t\mn. ap-cpIn Acphn \nd-sm-gp-Ip-p. Ah hSn

    \nev Ipn-\nn. ]Xn-hp-t]mse BSp-Isf hSn-p-Np-pw

    tabp-hm hnp. ]n-bn-tev t]mIp-hm XnSpwIqn.

    Fm Iqp-Im-cnbmb Fn-tb XS-p-\nn-bnp ]d-

    p : Acp-hn-bn i-amb Hgpp-v. tNn sh-n Cd-

    -cp-Xv. Fm Ip_m-\-bn kw_-n-Ww F Nn-b-

    m-sX asmpw Ahpm-bn-cp-n-. Ah aptmp \S-

    ps- Nv Acph- nb- nt- ev Ahf- psS Im FSp- ps- h \nanjw

    Pew cmbn ]Ip-p. Im \\-bmsX Ah A-sc-sbn

    hn. Ip_m-\-bn kw_-n-p. Ip_m-\-bvp-tijw Aev]

    kabw amXm-hns cq]-n\v Acn-In-en-cpv {]mn-p. Cu

    ApXw I Fn-tb HmSn Ipko `h-\-n-se-n.

    Ips_ Acp-hn-bn kw`-hn Imcy- amUw Ipkos\ Adn-

    bn-p. Ah ]dp sPsa-bn Hcp hnip--bm-Wv. Ahv

    Acphn cmbn ]nf-cp-p

    Ap-X-kn-n-bp-v. Fm Cm-cy- tI-tm amUw

    Ipkos tcmjw Bfn--n. sshIp-tcw BSp-I-fp-ambn

    hon-se-n-b-tm amUw- Ip-ko sPsa-bn-t\mSv Xn--b-dn.

    BSp-Isf hnv ]n-bn t]mb-Xn\v hg-p-]-d-bp-Ibpw ASn-p-

    Ibpw sNbvXp. Fnepw Ah AsXmw ]cm-Xn-Iq-SmsX

    kln-p. cm-\-bvv thn {]mn-p.

    Hcn- sPsab- ns PohnX- - n Hcp ApXw kw`h- n- p.

    Hcp ap-Imew amUw Ipko ]cm-Xn-bp-ambn aptm-p-h-p.

    sPsa-bn hon \nv sdmn-I-jvW- tamnv `n-

    p-I-bpw, tdmUn ImWp sXn-Ismw ` Ww hnX-

    cWw sNp-Ibpw sNp-p-sh-mWv ]cm-Xn.- amUw Ipko

    Hcp henb hSn-bp-ambn sPsabns\ s]cp-h-gn-bn-eqsS HmSn-p-

    I-bm-Wv. Ah Ic-p-sImv HmSp-p. H-tIv ]cn-k-c-hm-kn-

    I HmSn-q-Sn. sPsabn tamn-p-Itbm? Ahv AXv

    hniz-kn-m km[n-p-n-. amUw Ipko Ae-dn-hn-fn-p.

    Xpd-sSo \ns G{]. \o InbmsWv Fm-hcpw a\-n-

    em--s. \o Is-Sp sdmn Ahsc ImWn-p-I. ]cn-k-c-hm-

    kn-I-fnepw Iqp-Im-cnepw Nne A-emv. C\n Ch In-

    bmtWm? Ch tamn-n-cn-ptam? Cs\ Nnn-p-sIm-n-cn-

    p Ah-k-c-n Ah G{] Xpd-p. Ah-scmw

    Aw-hnv \np-t]m-bn. AXm sPan-bs G{]\v Dn

    kpc-`ne ]cn-afw ]c-p ]\n-\o]q-. kz-]p-jv]-

    t]mse B {]tZ-i-amsI AXv ]cn-afw ]c-n. Bfp-I

    Fmw apn-t \nv s\n-bn Ipcn-ip-h-cv ssZh-n\v

    alXzw \In. Ah ]c-kv]cw ]dp sPsabn hnip--

    bm-Wv. amUw Ipko en-X-bmbn Xe-Xm-gvn. Fnepw

    sPsa-bn-t\mSv am-]Ww \S-m-s\mpw Ah Xm-dm-

    bn-. BSp-Isf \mbn t\mWw Fv ]Xn kzc-n

    ]d--Xn-\p-tijw `h-\-n-tev Xncns- It- ]m- p. P\-

    Ahc- psS hoSpI- f- nt- ev Xncns- It- ]m- p.

    ]pjv]- s]mgn sPsa-bn

    Ipn-I-sf, Bcp-sSbpw Hcp hkvXp-fpw \n tamn--

    cp-Xv. AXv Im-hns Iev]-\-bm-Wv.

    9 10

  • ]q-fpsS ApXw

    sNmbv app-Ip-pp

    Hcn- {]mn-p-sIm-n-cp Ah-k-c-n Ah

    Hcp ssZh-kzcw {ihn-m-\n-S-bm-bn. AXn-{]-Im-c-am-bn-cpp

    ""\msf Cutim \ns kin-pw''. Ah B\-w-sImv

    aXn-a-d-p. tbip-\m-Y Xs kin-p-Itbm? Ahv

    hniz-kn-m km[n-p-n. Ap cm{Xn Gsd kabw {]m-

    \-bn sNe-h-gn-p. Znhy-amb Hcp {]m-\m-\p-`-h-n-tev

    Ah IS-p-h-p. \mYs\ FXn-tcp-hm Ap-cm{Xn

    Ah lrZ-bs Hcp-n. ]m]--sftbmv a\x-kvX-]n-p.

    Xs sNdnb sXp-I t]mepw ssZh-tmSv Ah Gp-]-d-

    p. ssZhw kin-p Ah-k-c-n ssZ-h-n\v Fp-

    sIm-Sppw? ssIhiw Hpw-X-s-bn-. Ah t\mn-b-tm

    AXm Ae-am-c-bn cm-\ Ipdv ]pXnb sdmn-I-jvW-

    Dm-n-sh-n-cn-p-p. Ah AXn cs--sa-Sp-p. CXv

    cm-\ Ip. Ah hSn-bp-ambn HmSn-sb-n. sdmn

    s]mXnp kqn Ah-fpsS DSpv hen-p-Xm-gvn. Atm-

    gXm sdmnI- j- vW- f- psS m\ v Iptd ]pjv]- . As\

    cmw {]mh-iyhpw cm-\--bpsS In \nv ssZhw

    Ahsf cn-p.

    Hcn- sPsa-bn Ipn sNcp-hn BSp-

    Isf tabvp-sIm-n-cn-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p. BSp-Isf

    Xs CS-b-hSn \mn-\ndpn AXn-\p-Nppw tabp-

    hm hnp. AXn-\p-tijw Ah

    \q \qp-hm XpS-n. Cu

    k-abw Hcp bmN-I B hgn

    hcp-hm CS-bm-bn. Ah

    t\mn. Iodn- - -dn hkv{Xw,

    XWp-n jqkv CSmsX sFkp-

    I--Iv apI-fn-eqsS Abm

    \Sp hcn-I-bm-Wv. sPsa-bn-

    t\mSv Abm ` Ww tNmZn-p.

    cm-\ sImSp-p-hn sdmnI- -

    jvW- fpw shhpw Ah

    Abmv km-\n-p. sdmn Ign-p-sIm-n-cn-p-tm AXn-`o-

    I-c-amb Hcp ImgvN Ip. Ipsd sNm-bv HmSn-h-cp-p.

    Abm ` b-hn-lp-e-\m-bn. sPsa-bn Abmsf ss[cy-s-Spn.

    Ah Xs CS-b-hSn Hcn-IqSn In-se-Spp. kz-n-te-

    p-t\mn Hcp-\n-anjw {]n-p. AXn-\p-tijw hSn Bp

    \ne-p-Ip-n. a-\-p-sImv hSn-p-Nppw Hcp hrw hc-p.

    F-nv sNm-bv-tfmSv Ah Iev]n-p. Cu he-b-n-\p-n

    Ib-d-cp-Xv. sNm-bv AXv A\p-k-cn-p. Xo ]mdp Ip-I-

    fp-ambn Ah Iptd-t\cw BSp-Isf t\mn. Ah-fpsS Ip-I-

    fn \npw Hcp ssZhnI in sNm-bv-fn-tev {]h-ln-p.

    Ah XWw app-a-S-n. bmNI- Ahsf XmWph- W- - n.

    Ahf- psS ssZh- n\v Abm \n ]d-p. Iqp-Im-scmw HmSn-

    sbn. Ah AhnsS Ifn-Ifpw {]m-\-Ifpw Bcw-`n-p.

    t]mIm t\cw B bmN-I C{]-Imcw sPsa-bn-t\mSv ]dp

    ""sPsa-bn \o Hcp ]pWy-h-Xn-bmWv. \o Hcp hnip--bmIpw''.

    sPsa-bns Btcm-Ky-nXn Hpw sa-s-n-. Ah-fpsS

    Igp-nse IWvT-ame tcmKw IqSn-h-p. Ahv bmsXm-cp-

    hn[ sshZy-k-lm-bhpw e`n-n-. amUw Ipko {Iqc-ambn ]oVn-

    n-psImncp-p. ASn-pI, ]n-Wn-n-Sp-I, NqSp-shw tZl-

    sm-gn-pI Ch-sbms amUw Ipkos {Iqc-hn-t\m-Z--fn

    Nne-Xp-am-{Xw. Fnepw Ch-sbmw Ah \ni--ambn kln-p.

    Hcn-t]mepw amUw -Ip-ko-s\-Xnsc kwkm-cn-p-Itbm {]h

    n-p-Itbm sNbvXn-cp-n-. sPsa-bns lrZbw cm-\--

    p-thn ssZh-k-n-[n-bn hnn-sm-n. ""Hm Fs ssZhta

    Av Fs Pohn-X-n-tev sNmcn kvt\lns Hcp

    Awi-sa-nepw Fs A-bn-tev ]I-cp-hm Fs klm-bn-

    t-Wta''. Fpw Ah cm-\--p-thn {]mn-pw.

    Xs kzw Bh-iy-p-]-cn-bmbn Ftmgpw ssZh-kvt\-l-

    n\v Ah {]m[m\yw sImSp-p. Zmcn-{Zy-n\v \Sp-hn h-

    tmgpw Inp sdmn IjvW- Cm--h-cp-ambn ]p-sh-p.

    sImSnb XWp-v In-fn-bn-msX apn-cn--p-Iv apI-

    fn InSv Ah Dd-n. sNcp-n-msX sImSpw XWp-v

    Ah k-cn-p.

    Hcp kl-\-bm{X

    11 12

  • BIm-i-p-\nv `qan-hsc Fp Hcp {]Imi hoYn Ip.

    Ah kqnp t\mn. Aev]w Ign--tm Nnd-Ip cv

    {]Im-i-cq-]- Cu {]Imi hoYn-bn ImW-s-p. kzo-b-

    amb Hcp kwKoXw AhnsS apg-n-sm-n-cp-p.

    Aev]w Ign--tm Cu Zi\w AI-se-bp Hcp ]gb

    sIn-S-n-\p-n Ah-km-\n-p--Xp-t]mse tXmn. B cv

    {]Imi cq]-fpw B sIn-S-n-\p-n-tev Ib-dn-t]m-Ip-Xv

    Ah Ip. Aev]-k-abw Hcp-\n--em-h-... hopw B sIn-

    S-n\p ]pdv B kzob cq]- ImW-s-p. Ctm

    AXm Ah-tcm-sSmw asmcp kv{Xo cq]w IqSn. Ahv Nnd-Ip-

    I-fn-. Nnd-Ip Cu amem-J-am D-X--fn-tev kwh-ln-p-

    sIm-p- t]m-hp-I-bm-Wv. cm{Xn Iptd t\cw Cu Zi-\-s-n

    kwkm-cn-p, Nnn-p. Ah ]mXn ab-n-tev hgp-Xn-

    ho-Wp. ]ntv {]`m-X-n Fgp-tv Ah B {Kma-n-

    tev \S-p.

    {]`m-X-n ]Xn-hp-t]mse amUw-Ip-ko tPmen-I

    Bcw-`n-p. sPsabn-\p sdmnbpw shhpw tai-p-d-p-sh-

    p. kabw Ign-npw sPsa-bns\ ImWp-n-. amU-n\v

    DXvIWvT tXmn. sdmnbpw sh-hp-ambn sXmgp-n-\-Sp-tv

    \on. sXmgp-n BSp-I Ic-bp-Ibpw Akz-X Imp-

    Ibpw sNp-p. Ah Dn-tev t\mn. AXm sPsa-bns

    tNX-\-b ico-cw.

    sPsa-bn, amUw- Ip-ko Dds hnfn-p. D-c-an-.

    Imc-Ww, Cse cm{Xn-Xs Ah- amem-J-am-cpsS AI--Sn-

    tbmsS kzK-n-tev bm{X-bmbn Ign-n-cp-p. s\n-bn

    Ipcn-ip-h-c-p-sImv sPsa-bns InS-bvv kao]w app-

    Ipn Ah hnXp-n--c-p. FtmSv anq tamtf..

    FtmSv an-q... sPsa-bn\p thn ]eXpw sNm Ah

    B{K-ln-p. Fm hfsc sshIn-tm-bnsbp am{Xw.

    Ipn-Isf, \mbn Pohn-m ac-W-\m-gn-I-bn tbip

    \sf Biz-kn-n-p-I-bpw, amem-J-am \psS Bm-hns\

    ssII-fn kwh-lnv kz-n-tev sImp-t]m-hp-Ibpw

    sNpw.

    sshIn-sb-nb kl-Xm]w

    Nne cm{Xn-I-fn Znhy-amb ssZhm-\p-`hw Ahv e`n-

    p. P]-am-e-bm-bn-cpp C-s {]m-\. ]n{_m--bnse

    ]n-bm-bn-cpp Ah-fpsS bYm ` h-\w. Ahn-sS-bm-bn-cpp

    Ah Bizmkw Is-n-bn-cp--Xv.

    Igp-nse IWvT-ame tcmKhpw, timjn ssIIfpw

    Ahsf Xopw Ah-i-bm-n. t]mj-Im-lm-c-ns Ipdhv

    Ah-fpsS ico-cs Hcp An-Iq-S-amn amn. sImSn-b -

    X-Wppw, ZpKw han-p IpXn-cm-e-b-nse Xma-khpw

    Ahsf Xopw Ah-i-bmn Ign-n-cp-p. t]mcm--Xn\v

    amUw Ipkos {Iqc-amb ]oV-\-hpw, ASn-bp-sSbpw s]m-en-

    sbpw apdn-hp-I Ah-fpsS ico-c-n DW-msX InS-n-

    cp-p.

    1601 Pq amkw. cv k\ym-kn-I Spfq-kn \nv bm{X-

    sN-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p. Ah cm{Xn-bn ]-W-nse Hcp tIm-

    bn hn{i-an-m Xocp-am-\n-p. cm{Xn hfsc sshIn Ahn-sS-

    sb-n. Ah-cn-sem-cm BIm-i-n-tev t\mn-b-tm

    AyZn\--fn-tev

    amem-J-am-cpsS Ic--fn

    13 14

  • ]n{_m--bnse ]n-bn

    kz-ns AwKo-Imcw

    amUw Ipko sXmgp-n \nv ]pd-n-d-n-b-tm

    AXm apv cv k\ym-kn-I. Ah Ip-\o XpSp-

    sImv Ahv `Ww \In. `Ww Ign-p--Xn-\n-S-

    bn Ah tNmZnp: Cse cm{Xn Cu {Kma-n Bsc-

    nepw acn-pthm? Cu tNmZyw amUw Ipkos lrZ-bs

    Iodn-ap-dn-p. Ah hnn-smn kXy- k\ym-kn-I-tfmSv

    ]d- p. Ah ]dp Cse cm{Xn Hcp {]Imi hoYn-bn

    IqSn ssZh-Zq-X-m Ah-fpsS Bm-hns\ kz-n-tev

    sImp-t]m-Ip-Xv R Ip. Ah ]dp, B Ipv

    hnip--bm-Wv. Ign cm{Xn apgp-h {Kma-n kzob

    kwKo-Xhpw ]cn-a-f-hp-ap-m-bn-cp-p.

    sPsa-bns tNX-\-b icocw Ah sXmgp-n \nv

    hon-tev sImp-h-p. Ahsf Ipfn-nv ]pXnb sh

    hkv{X- [cn-n-p. sImp-Iq-p-Im HmSnsb-n. Ah

    ]qsm-v Hcp IncoSw Dmn Ah-fpsS inc-n shp.

    In Hcp sagp-Ip-Xn-cn-bpw ]nSn-n-p. {Kma-hm-kn-Ifpw IpSpw-

    _mw-K-fpw arX-i-co-c-n\v Nppw IqSn P]-am-e-sNmn

    {]mn-p.

    As ]Xn-h-\p-k-cnv ]n{_m--bnse sNdnb CS-h-I-

    -n-bnse {]kw-K-]o-T-n-s\-Xnsc Ahsf kwkv-cn-p.

    Ahsf AS-nb ev {]tXyI Fgptm AS-bm-f-tfm

    Hp-anm-bn-cp-p.

    Cu CS-b-I-\y-I-bpsS PohnXw Bd-Sn-a-n Ah-km-\n-m-

    \p--X-. Ah-fpsS PohnXw At\-Iv Bizm-k-n\v CS-

    \Ip-sav Av Bcpw Nnn-n-cp-p-an-.

    GXm\pw hj- IS-p-t]m-bn. B {Kmaw Xs sPsa-

    bns\ ad- p I- g- n- nc- p- p. 1644. sPsab- ns ~Hcp _ph- mb

    Fhp-Zm-sesK F kv{Xo acn-p. ac-W-n-S--bn shv B

    kv{Xo Xs Aym-`n-emjw Ipko IpSpw-_s Adn-bn-p.

    Ipn-I-sf, acW hoSp-I-fn \n t]mI-Ww. ]tc-X-cpsS

    Bm-p-thn {]mn-pIbpw ]pjv]- An-

    pIbpw sNWw.

    15 16

  • AXv C{]-Im-c-am-bn-cp-p. Xm acn-p-tm Ipko IpSpw-_-

    ns I-d-bn kwkv-cn--Ww. Cu B{K-l-{]-Imcw Fhp-

    Zm-se-sK-bpsS ac-W-tijw I-d-bpsS GXm\pw Ip-I

    \on. Atm ]Wn-m Ap-X-kvX-_v[-cmbn \np-t]m-

    bn. Ah Ip-I amnb ev AXm Hcp bph-Xn-bpsS

    Agp-Im ico-cw. Xe-bn ]qsm-p Inco-Sw.

    ]pXnb sh hkv{X-. ]q-fp-sS kpKw t]mepw \-

    s-n-cp-n-. Inse sagp-Ip-Xn-cnbpw AtX-]Snbncn-p-p.

    Cu I\yI BcmsWv a\-n-em-m ]n{_m CS-h-I-

    Imv _pn-ap-p-m-bn-. \mev]-n-aqv hjw apv acn

    sPsa-bn Ipko-\mWXv F-hv a\-n-em-bn.

    Ah-fpsS ]qPy-i-cocw s]mXp-Zi-\-n-\mbn tZhm-e-b-

    n shp. {Kma-hm-kn-I Hsm-gn-bmsX Ahn-sS-hv

    {]mn-p.

    acnb a v F k kv{Xo ]n{_m--bn Xma-kn-

    n-cp-p. Ahv ]n-bn {]tXyI Ccn-nSw Xsbpm-

    bn-cp-p. sPsa-bns ]qPy-i-cocw s]mXpZi-\-n\v sh-

    Xn Ahv AXr]vXn Dm-bn. m\aln-a-aqew sPsa-

    bns icocw \ow sN-W-sav acnb a v Bh-iy-s-p.

    Fm ASp- Z- nh- kw AXn\- p X{- ]X- n-^ ew e`n- p.

    Ah-fpsS Ipn\v Ie-i-emb Zo\w ]nSn-s]-p. NnIn--I

    Hpw ^en-n-. Ipn acn-p-sa Ah--bn-em-bn. Ah-cpsS

    `mhv s{^Un-\mdn\v Cu Akp-J-ns ImcWw sPsa-

    bn-t\mSv ImWn A\m-Z-c-hmWv Fv t_m[y-s-p. Atlw

    `mcy-tbmSp ]dp ""\apv ]m--]nv sPsa-bn-t\mSv

    am-t]-n-mw. Ah As\ sNbvXp. Av cm{Xn Ah-

    cpsS InS-p-ap-dn-bn Hcp {]Im-i-[m-c-bn sPsa-bn {]Xy-

    -s-p. \n-fpsS At]--t]mse kw`-hn-n-cn-p-p-shv

    Adn-bn-p. s]sv Ipv kuJy-s-p. Abm-scbpw

    the-m-scbpw hnfnv Cmcyw Av cm{Xn-Xs Ah

    kmy-s-Sp-n. sPsa-bns ico-c-n\v apn app-Ipn

    ]-c-ky-ambn IrX-X {]I-Sn-n-p.

    ]qPy-i-cocw Cu-t]-S-I-n

    17 18

  • Cu A\p-{K-l-n\v \n-

    bmbn Ah sPsab- ns icocw

    ]qPy-ambn kqn-p-hm Hcp

    Cut- ]S- Iw ]n- v km\- n- p.

    Cu Cu-t]-S-I-n-emWv {^v

    hnhw hsc sPsab- ns icocw

    ]n kon-bn kqn-

    -Xv.

    Agp -Im sPsa -bns

    icocw Is-n-b-Xn-\p-tijw

    ]n{_m--bnse P\- Ah-

    fpsS amyyw tXSm XpS-

    n. {ItaW Cu ` n {^mkp

    apgp-h hym]n-p. At\Iw

    ApX- - kw`h- n- p. ]n{_m

    ]n-bn-tev P\-{]-hm-l-am-bn.

    1661 sk]vw-_ 22-mw XnXn

    Spfqkv AXn-cq-]-X-bpsS hnImcn

    P\-dm sPsa-bns t]SIw

    Xpdv ]mh-\-i-cocw ImWp-

    Ibpw \mp-Im-cn \nv kw`-

    hn Ap-X--sf-n ]Tn-p-

    Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu hni-Z-amb

    ]T\dntmv Atlw Bp-

    _n-j-n\v kan-p.

    sPsa-bns\ hnip--bm-p--

    Xn -\p {]h-\-v

    AtXmsS XpSw Ipdn -p.

    Spfqkv cq]X Xm-dm-nb hni-Z-

    amb ]T\ dntmv Av tdman-

    tev bm{X-bmb ^mZ tIm

    s-bns ssIhiw am]m-

    v kan-p-hm-\mbn sImSp-

    -b-p. tdman Fnb Cu

    \ma-I-cW \S-]-Sn-I

    Iq-n ^ mZ-dn\v DS Xs ew amw Innb- X- n\- m Cu

    dntmv ]cn-ip knwlm-k-\s Gevn-p-hm km[n-

    n-. ]no-SXv Is-m\pw Ign-n-. CsXmpw Adn-

    bmsX ]n{_mv \nhm-kn-I Imn-cn-p-bm-Wv. Hcp hnip

    ]Z-hn-p-th-n.

    hopw hj- IS- pt- ]mb- n. ]n{_mv \nhmk- nI- \ncm -

    i-cm-bn. 1793 Bb-tm-tgpw {^p-hn-hw s]mn-p-d-sp.

    hn-h-s- Xp-Sv kmaqly cm{ob am-fpw kw`-hn-p.

    sPsa-bns t]cn-ep `n A-hn-izm-k-am-sW

    hm ]c-p. Spfqkv `c-W-IqSw sPsa-bns ]mh-\-i-co-

    cs \in-n-m {ian-p. Ah Hcp Ipgn-bp-mn AXn

    sPsa-bns icocw \nt-]n-p. icocw thKw s]mSn-p-

    t]m-Ip-hm apI-fn Ipmbw hnX-dn. AXn-\p-tijw Ipgn-aq-Sn.

    Cu-t]-SIw shSn-bp--I \nn-p-hm-\mbn Ah

    sImp-t]m-bn.

    \oXn-am-\mb ssZhw CsXmw ImWp-p-mbn-cn-p. Cu

    \oN-IrXyw sNbvX-hv DS Xs X-in--In-n.

    Hcp-hs ssI Xfp. asm-cm-fpsS Xebpw Igppw

    Hcp hi-tv Ncn-p. asm-cmv \mep-Im-en \S-

    tn hp. thsdm-cm ]e-Xcw tcmKw aqew ]oVn-n--

    s-p. Ccp-]-Xp-hj-tmfw Ch Cu ]oV A\p-`-hn-p.

    ]no-S-h sPsa-bns amyyw tXSp-I-bpw, Imhv

    Ahsc Ap-X-I-c-ambn kpJ-s-Sp-p-Ibpw sNbvXp.

    1815. {^v hn-h-n\v Aev]w Ab-hp-h-p. ]n{_mv

    \nhm-kn-I ]n-bn sNv Ipgn-Xp-d-p. ApXw sPsa-

    bns ]mh-\-i-cocn\v tISp-I-sfmpw kw`-hn-n-n-.

    CtXm-Sp-IqSn sPsa-bn-t\m-Sp `n {^mkns

    AXnn IS-p-hm XpS-n. hopw \ma-I-c-W-n-\p

    HutZym-KnI {]h-\- Bcw-`n-p. CXn-\mbn Npa-X-e-s-

    Sp-nb ^m. FkvtZmZv \m\q-dn]cw Ap-X--fpsS tUm

    Iyp-sa v {KnKdn ]Xn-\m-dm-a am]m-v kan-p. am]m

    \oN-Ir-Xy-n\v X-in

    Ipgn-amSw hopw Xpd-pp

    19 20

  • AXn-s\-n ]Tn-p. Ah-fpsS PohnXw am]m--sbbpw Gsd

    kzm[o-\n-p. Xs Nn-I-fpw, {]iw-km-h-N-\-fpw D]-kw-l-

    cn-p-sImv {KnKdn ]Xn-\m-dm-a am]m Hcp lrZ-b-kv]in-

    bmb {]Jym-]\w \S-n.

    sPsa-bn\v "hy-]-Zhn'

    \In k` BZ-cn-p. Cu HutZym-KnI {]Jym-]-\-n Hnv

    cv Znhkw Ign--tm am]m Cl-tem-I-hmkw sh-Sn-

    p. Ahsf hm-gv-s--h-fmbn {]Jym-]n-m km[n-m--

    Xn X\nv Zpx-J-ap-sv am]m Adn-bn-p.

    1854 sabv 7mw XnXn Av sPsa-bns\ hmgv-s--h-

    fmbn Xncp-k` Dbp-I-bm-Wv. henb Hcp P\-qw Xs

    ]t{Xm-kns _kn-en--bpsS apn Dv. am]m-bpw In-

    \mamcpw sa{Xm-sm-en--am-cpw, sa{Xm-m-cpw, sshZn-Icpw

    k\y-kvXcpw Bbn-c--W-n\v hnizm-kn-Ifpw {]Z-n-W-ambn

    ssZhm-e-b-n-tev {]th-in-p. sPsa-bns Hcp henb

    Ombm-Nn{Xw _kn-en--bn Xqn-bn-n-p-m-bn-cp-p.

    \ma-I-c-W-n-\p HutZym-KnI Adn-bnv hmbnp:

    ""sPsa-bn Hcp ]pXnb \-{X-am-Wv. k`m-k-Z-n

    DZbw sNbvX \h-Xm-c-Iw. Cu XmcIw BtKm-f-k-`-bpsS ta

    ]cn-ip--amb ]cn-afw ]c-n-sm-n-cn-p-p.''

    ]t{Xm-kns knwlm-k-\-n \nv ]obqkv H-Xm-a

    am]m sPsa-bns Ombm-Nn-{X-n\v apn app-Ip-n.

    tdmam-\-K-cn-bnse tZhm-e-b-a-Wn-I \on-ap-g-n. am]m

    {^mkn \np-h Xom-S-I-tcmSv ]dp

    ]n{_m--bnse CSbI-\y-Ibvv

    k` F{X-am{Xw {]m[m\yw \Ip-p-shv am]m--bpsS Cu

    hmn \nv a\-n-em-Ipw.

    {^mknse Spfq-knepw henb BtLm-j- kwL-Sn-

    n--s-p. B ]Ww Cp-hsc I-Xnshv Ghpw

    henb BtLm-j-am-bn-cpp AXv.

    hj- IS-p-t]m-bn. [mcmfw Ap-X- tcJ-s-

    Sp--s-p. Ahsf hnip--bm--sWv ]d-p-sIm-p

    [mcfw At]--I tdman\v e`n-p.

    ""sPsa-bns\ t]mep ]pWy-h-Xn-

    I-sf-bmWv k`v Cv Bh-iyw''.

    hmgv-s--h

    ""sPsa-

    bns ]-tev t]mhpI''

    Hcp ]pWy-Zn\w

    As\ B ]pWy-kp-Zn\w \n-bn-p. 1867 Pq 29.

    sPsa-bns\ hnip ]Z-hn-bn-te-p-bm Xncp-k` Hcp-n.

    B Zn\-n\v asmcp {]tXy-I-X-Iq-Sn-bp-m-bn-cp-p. hn. ]t{Xm-

    kns c-km-n-Xz-ns ]Xn-s\mw iXm-_vZn- Iq-Sn-bm-bn-

    cpp Av. AXn-\p Hcp--fpw tdman \S-p-I-bm-Wv.

    henb Hcp {]Z-nWw tdmam \K-cs `n-km-{-am-n.

    At\Iw In-\mam, Aq-tdmfw sa{Xm-m, Bbn-c--W-

    n\v sshZn-I, Hcp-e--tmfw hcp hnizm-kn-I Ch

    {]Z-n-W-ambn tZhm-e-b-n-tev \on. am]m e--W-

    n\v hnizm-kn-Isf kmn-bmn C{]-Imcw ]dp: ""]n{_m-

    -bnse sPsa-bns\ Rm hnip--bmbn {]Jym-]n-p-Ibpw

    Ahsf hnip--cpsS ]nI-bn tNp-Ibpw sNp-p.'' P\w

    ISnv AXv kzoI-cn-p. Xmf-ta-f-fpw hmZy-tLm-j-fpw D-

    n-em-bn. {]Im-i-Zo-]- sISm-sX -I-n-\n-p. tdmanse

    aqq-tdmfw ]n-I-fnse aWn-I \on-b-Snv temI-tmSv hnfn-

    p-]-dp ""]n{_m--bnse sPsa-bn hnip--bm-bn-cn-

    pp''.

    Spfqkv ]-W-nse `c-Wm-[n-]-m hn. sPsa-bn-t\m-

    Sp _lp-am-\mw Hcp henb am_n {]Xna \K-c-n

    m]n-p. sPsa-bn {]m\m \nc-X-bmbn \np cq]w.

    Im Nph-n Hcp BnIp-n-bp-apv. At\-I B cq]-n\v

    apn hp-\nv {]mn-m Bcw-`n-p. Xs klmbw

    tXSn-b-hsmw Ah-fpsS kmz\ kv]i\w Inn. {]Xna

    m]nv GI-tZiw 14 hjw Ign--tm \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn-I-

    fmb Hcp-]w DtZym-K- `cWw I-S-n. 1881 Pqembv 7\v

    Ah hn. sPsa-bns {]Xna XIp. hnip--bpsS cq]-

    n\v ]-W-n CSw-sIm-Sp-m--Xn\v ]cn-lm-c-ambn

    GXm\pw hj Ign--tm Spfqkv cq]X AhnsS CS-

    hI m]n-p-Ibpw hnip--bpsS \ma-n henb Hcp tZhm-

    ebw ]Wn-bn-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu tZhm-e-b-n \nv

    Cpw A\p-{K-l-hj- s]mgn-bp-p.

    ]-W-nse {]Xna

    21 22

  • Hcp ssIv kzm[o-\-an-m s]Ip-n. hmbn-mt\m

    Fgp-Xmt\m Imcy-ambn Hpw Adn-bm--h. ssZh-am-Xm-hn-

    t\mSv {]tXyI `n Ahp-m-bn-cp-p. P]-am-e-bm-bn-

    cpp {][m\ {]m-\. ]n {]kw-K--fm-bn-cpp hnm-

    \-tIm-iw. Znh-khpw Ah hnip Ip_m-\-bn kw_-

    n-n-cp-p. aI-fpsS hnip-n-sb-n ]nXm-hn\v Adn-bm-am-bn-

    cp-p. Fm ` mcy-bpsS {Iqc-Xv apn B ]nXm-hn\v Xe

    Xmgvtn hp. Ccp-]-n-cv hj-mew Ah Cu ` qan-

    bn Pohn- p. Ahf- psS {]ik- vXa- mb hnipn \ma-I-c-W-

    n\v hgn-sX-fn-p. Pq 15-mw XnXn Xncp-k` hn. sPsa-

    bns Xncp-\m BtLm-jn-p-p.

    23

    Page 1Page 2Page 3Page 4Page 5Page 6Page 7Page 8Page 9Page 10Page 11Page 12Page 13