# SQL: Queries, Constraints, Triggers Chapter 5 – Part 1

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SQL: Queries, Constraints, Triggers Chapter 5 – Part 1. Agenda. Introduction Basic SQL Query Union, Intersection and Except Nested Queries Aggregate Operations Null Values Complex Integrity Constraints in SQL Triggers and Active Databases Design Active Database. About the examples. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

### Transcript of SQL: Queries, Constraints, Triggers Chapter 5 – Part 1

CS 195 Course Outline & Introduction to JavaTriggers and Active
Databases

Example Instances

We will use these instances of the Sailors and Reserves relations in our examples.

If the key for the Reserves relation contained only the attributes sid and bid, how would the semantics differ?

R1

S1

S2

Basic SQL Query

relation-list A list of relation names (possibly with a range-variable after each name).

target-list A list of attributes of relations in relation-list

qualification Comparisons (Attr op const or Attr1 op Attr2, where op is one of ) combined using AND, OR and NOT.

DISTINCT is an optional keyword indicating that the answer should not contain duplicates.

Default is that duplicates are not eliminated!

SELECT [DISTINCT] target-list

Query FROM More than One Table Using JOINs

A join combines the rows of two tables, based on a rule called a join condition; this compares values from the rows of both tables to determine which rows should be joined.

There are three basic types of join:

inner join, created with the INNER JOIN keywords

outer join, which comes in three varieties:

LEFT OUTER JOIN

RIGHT OUTER JOIN

FULL OUTER JOIN

*

Conceptual Evaluation Strategy

Semantics of an SQL query defined in terms of the following conceptual evaluation strategy:

Compute the cross-product of relation-list.

Discard resulting tuples if they fail qualifications.

Delete attributes that are not in target-list.

If DISTINCT is specified, eliminate duplicate rows.

*

on S.sid = R.sid

Where R.bid = 103

A Note on Range Variables

Really needed only if the same relation appears twice in the FROM clause.

The previous query can also be written as:

SELECT S.sname

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND bid=103

SELECT sname

Query Examples

Find the sids of sailors who have reserved a red boat (Q16)

Find the name of sailors who have reserved a red boat (Q2)

SELECT B.sid

WHERE R.bid=B.bid AND B.color = ‘red’

SELECT S.sname

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid = B.bid AND B.color = ‘red’

*

*

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid = B.bid AND S.name = ‘Lubber’

CSC411_L6_SQL(1)

Find sailors who’ve reserved at least one boat

Would adding DISTINCT to this query make a difference?

What is the effect of replacing S.sid by S.sname in the SELECT clause?

Would adding DISTINCT to this variant of the query make a difference?

SELECT S.sid

WHERE S.sid=R.sid

Expressions and Strings

Find triples (of ages of sailors and two fields defined by expressions) for sailors whose names begin and end with B and contain at least three characters.

Illustrates use of arithmetic expressions and string pattern matching:

AS and = are two ways to name fields in result.

LIKE is used for string matching. `_’ stands for any one character and `%’ stands for 0 or more arbitrary characters.

Comparison operators (=, <, >, etc.) can be used for string comparison

SELECT S.age, age1=S.age-5, 2*S.age AS age2

FROM Sailors S

*

Expressions and Strings

Compute the increments for the ratings of persons who have sailed two different boats on the same day.

Each item in a qualification can be as general as expression1=expression2

SELECT S.sname, S.rating+1 as rating

FROM Sailors S, Reserves R1, Reserves R2

WHERE S.sid=R1.sid AND S.sid = R2.sid

AND R1.day = R2.day AND R1.bid <> R2.bid

SELECT S.sname AS name1, S2.sname AS name2

FROM Sailors S1, Sailors S2

WHERE 2*S1.rating = S2.rating - 1

*

*

*

*

Find sid’s of sailors who’ve reserved a red or a green boat

UNION: Can be used to compute the union of any two union-compatible sets of tuples (which are themselves the result of SQL queries).

If we replace OR by AND in the first version, what do we get?

Also available: EXCEPT (What do we get if we replace UNION by EXCEPT?)

SELECT S.sid

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND (B.color=‘red’ OR B.color=‘green’)

SELECT S.sid

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘red’

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘green’

*

Find sid’s of sailors who’ve reserved a red and a green boat

INTERSECT: Can be used to compute the intersection of any two union-compatible sets of tuples.

Some systems don’t support it.

Contrast symmetry of the UNION and INTERSECT queries with how much the other versions differ.

SELECT S.sid

Boats B2, Reserves R2

SELECT S.sid

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘red’

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘green’

*

*

Find the names of sailors who’ve reserved a red and a green boat

Is this query correct? Why

SELECT S.sname

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘red’

WHERE S2.sid=R2.sid AND R2.bid=B2.bid

AND B2.color=‘green’

*

*

*

Find the sids of all sailors who have reserved red boats but not green boats

SELECT S.sid

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘red’

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘green’

*

*

Find the sids of sailors who have a rating of 10 or reserved boat 104

In contrast to the default that duplicates are not eliminated unless DISTINCT is specified in the basic query form, the default for UNION queries is that duplicates are eliminated!

To retain duplicates, use UNION ALL, INTERSECT ALL and EXCEPT ALL

SELECT S.sid

Example Instances

We will use these instances of the Sailors and Reserves relations in our examples.

If the key for the Reserves relation contained only the attributes sid and bid, how would the semantics differ?

R1

S1

S2

Basic SQL Query

relation-list A list of relation names (possibly with a range-variable after each name).

target-list A list of attributes of relations in relation-list

qualification Comparisons (Attr op const or Attr1 op Attr2, where op is one of ) combined using AND, OR and NOT.

DISTINCT is an optional keyword indicating that the answer should not contain duplicates.

Default is that duplicates are not eliminated!

SELECT [DISTINCT] target-list

Query FROM More than One Table Using JOINs

A join combines the rows of two tables, based on a rule called a join condition; this compares values from the rows of both tables to determine which rows should be joined.

There are three basic types of join:

inner join, created with the INNER JOIN keywords

outer join, which comes in three varieties:

LEFT OUTER JOIN

RIGHT OUTER JOIN

FULL OUTER JOIN

*

Conceptual Evaluation Strategy

Semantics of an SQL query defined in terms of the following conceptual evaluation strategy:

Compute the cross-product of relation-list.

Discard resulting tuples if they fail qualifications.

Delete attributes that are not in target-list.

If DISTINCT is specified, eliminate duplicate rows.

*

on S.sid = R.sid

Where R.bid = 103

A Note on Range Variables

Really needed only if the same relation appears twice in the FROM clause.

The previous query can also be written as:

SELECT S.sname

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND bid=103

SELECT sname

Query Examples

Find the sids of sailors who have reserved a red boat (Q16)

Find the name of sailors who have reserved a red boat (Q2)

SELECT B.sid

WHERE R.bid=B.bid AND B.color = ‘red’

SELECT S.sname

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid = B.bid AND B.color = ‘red’

*

*

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid = B.bid AND S.name = ‘Lubber’

CSC411_L6_SQL(1)

Find sailors who’ve reserved at least one boat

Would adding DISTINCT to this query make a difference?

What is the effect of replacing S.sid by S.sname in the SELECT clause?

Would adding DISTINCT to this variant of the query make a difference?

SELECT S.sid

WHERE S.sid=R.sid

Expressions and Strings

Find triples (of ages of sailors and two fields defined by expressions) for sailors whose names begin and end with B and contain at least three characters.

Illustrates use of arithmetic expressions and string pattern matching:

AS and = are two ways to name fields in result.

LIKE is used for string matching. `_’ stands for any one character and `%’ stands for 0 or more arbitrary characters.

Comparison operators (=, <, >, etc.) can be used for string comparison

SELECT S.age, age1=S.age-5, 2*S.age AS age2

FROM Sailors S

*

Expressions and Strings

Compute the increments for the ratings of persons who have sailed two different boats on the same day.

Each item in a qualification can be as general as expression1=expression2

SELECT S.sname, S.rating+1 as rating

FROM Sailors S, Reserves R1, Reserves R2

WHERE S.sid=R1.sid AND S.sid = R2.sid

AND R1.day = R2.day AND R1.bid <> R2.bid

SELECT S.sname AS name1, S2.sname AS name2

FROM Sailors S1, Sailors S2

WHERE 2*S1.rating = S2.rating - 1

*

*

*

*

Find sid’s of sailors who’ve reserved a red or a green boat

UNION: Can be used to compute the union of any two union-compatible sets of tuples (which are themselves the result of SQL queries).

If we replace OR by AND in the first version, what do we get?

Also available: EXCEPT (What do we get if we replace UNION by EXCEPT?)

SELECT S.sid

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND (B.color=‘red’ OR B.color=‘green’)

SELECT S.sid

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘red’

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘green’

*

Find sid’s of sailors who’ve reserved a red and a green boat

INTERSECT: Can be used to compute the intersection of any two union-compatible sets of tuples.

Some systems don’t support it.

Contrast symmetry of the UNION and INTERSECT queries with how much the other versions differ.

SELECT S.sid

Boats B2, Reserves R2

SELECT S.sid

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘red’

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘green’

*

*

Find the names of sailors who’ve reserved a red and a green boat

Is this query correct? Why

SELECT S.sname

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘red’

WHERE S2.sid=R2.sid AND R2.bid=B2.bid

AND B2.color=‘green’

*

*

*

Find the sids of all sailors who have reserved red boats but not green boats

SELECT S.sid

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘red’

WHERE S.sid=R.sid AND R.bid=B.bid

AND B.color=‘green’

*

*

Find the sids of sailors who have a rating of 10 or reserved boat 104

In contrast to the default that duplicates are not eliminated unless DISTINCT is specified in the basic query form, the default for UNION queries is that duplicates are eliminated!

To retain duplicates, use UNION ALL, INTERSECT ALL and EXCEPT ALL

SELECT S.sid