Sport Books Publisher1 Developing a Strength and Cardio- Respiratory Fitness Program.
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Sport Books Publisher1 Developing a Strength and Cardio- Respiratory Fitness Program Slide 2 Sport Books Publisher2 Training Components to Consider Training time Frequency of exercising Intensity of exercising Volume of training Work-to-rest ratio Type of exercise Order of exercises Number of repetitions per set Number of sets Recovery periods between exercises Slide 3 Sport Books Publisher3 Training Time Refers to the total time devoted to developing fitness Based on the duration of each training session and frequency of training per week, month, or year Slide 4 Sport Books Publisher4 Training Frequency Depends on the goals of the individual Athletes may train 2-10 times per week for strength and cardiovascular endurance For general fitness training, 2-3 sessions per week may be sufficient to maintain levels of strength and endurance For weight loss or strength or endurance gains, however, 4-6 sessions per week are necessary Slide 5 Sport Books Publisher5 Training Volume Refers to the sum total of work performed during a training session or phase of training Measured in various units depending on the type of activity metres or kilometres as a measure of distance Strength using body weight - measured by the number of repetitions performed and the number of exercises done Strength exercises using weights are measured by the sum of all weight lifted per session, and the number of repetitions performed with a given load Slide 6 Sport Books Publisher6 Training Intensity Probably the most important component of strength training Characterizes the degree of stimulation or intensity of exercise per unit of time Expressed as a percentage of a trainees personal best or 100% performance in the activity This becomes the benchmark, or starting point, for defining relative intensities to be used to plan workouts Slide 7 Sport Books Publisher7 Work-to-Rest Ratio Slide 8 Sport Books Publisher8 Work-to-Rest Ratio Refers to the relationship between the phases of work and rest during training In general, the lower the intensity of exercise per unit of time, the shorter the rest periods required Conversely, the higher the intensity of exercise, the longer the rest periods must be Must be considered in connection with all components of training such as the volume of exercise and types of exercises performed Slide 9 Sport Books Publisher9 Relationship Between Intensity and Volume Slide 10 Sport Books Publisher10 Relationship Between Distance and Speed of Running Slide 11 Sport Books Publisher11 Type of Exercise Fitness development is dependent upon the type of physical exercises practiced Slide 12 Sport Books Publisher12 Type of Exercise In strength training, load dosage can be achieved using ones own body weight, the weight of a partner, free- weights, machines, etc. Slide 13 Sport Books Publisher13 Warm-Up and Cool-Down Slide 14 Sport Books Publisher14 Benefits of a Warm-Up Raising the body temperature, increasing respiration, heart rate, blood flow, metabolic rate, oxygen exchange Increasing range of movement, decreasing muscle tension, preventing muscle, tendon, ligament strains Increasing central nervous system activity, improving coordination, reducing reaction time Slide 15 Sport Books Publisher15 Benefits of a Cool-Down Helps speed recovery from a bout of exercise Helps physiological systems return to normal levels Slide 16 Sport Books Publisher16 Other Components of Training Slide 17 Sport Books Publisher17 Exercise Speed Lower exercise speeds promote an increase in muscle diameter Brisk exercise speeds develop power or muscular explosiveness Slide 18 Sport Books Publisher18 Number of Repetitions The number of sets or repetitions depends on the training method, the individuals performance level, and personal goals A lower number of repetitions per set promotes maximal strength A greater number of repetitions is suitable for endurance training Slide 19 Sport Books Publisher19 Variety of Exercise The variety of exercises used depends on ones goal(s) Recreational athletes will tend to perform a large number of exercises Competitive athletes with a specific goal will tend to perform fewer, more sport-specific, exercises Slide 20 Sport Books Publisher20 Principles of Strength Training Slide 21 Sport Books Publisher21 New and progressively higher training demands enable athletes to adapt their physical and mental functions to increase performance capacity To ensure that muscles are being adequately overloaded, resistance should be periodically increased Training volume and training intensity can be progressively increased Slide 22 Sport Books Publisher22 1.Gradual Load Increase Involves increasing training load gradually Using small steps, training load is increased from one training cycle to another All training and individual exercises should be performed to fatigue Load increase depends on training frequency, volume, and intensity in that order Slide 23 Sport Books Publisher23 2.Explosive Load Increase Involves abrupt or explosive increases in training load Is effective in more sport-specific, goal- oriented training, especially for competition Requires a substantial increase in volume and/or intensity of training from one training cycle to another Slide 24 Sport Books Publisher24 Interruptions in training have a negative effect on performance; results in a stagnation or decline in performance Cardiovascular and muscular endurance decline faster than maximal power or strength performance Loss in performance applies to coordination, technical skills, and tactical skills, leading to an overall decline in performance Athletes who have trained for many years are more resistant to the effects of training interruptions Slide 25 Sport Books Publisher25 The principle of specificity states that the responses to exercise are specific to the nature or type of exercise performed Specific exercises lead to specific physiological responses This principle applies to the following: Strength Muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance Coordination Speed of movement Motor patterns Joint angle of movement Neuromuscular components involved Speed of muscle contraction Type of muscle contraction Slide 26 Sport Books Publisher26 The systematic division of the training year into periods that allow for optimal performance development during the competitive season Three major periods are involved: 1. The Preparatory Phase (PP) 2. The Competition Phase (CP) 3. Transition Periods (TP) Individual periods are further subdivided: 1. Macro-cycles (2-6 weeks) 2. Microcycles (7 days) 3. Daily cycles (1-2 training sessions) 4. Training sessions (1-2 hours) Slide 27 Sport Books Publisher27 Preparation Period (PP): Development of a high level of fitness from which to build Characterized by a gradual and progressive increase of exercise volume at medium intensity levels Slide 28 Sport Books Publisher28 Competitive Period (CP): Maintenance of the level of fitness achieved in the PP Volume and intensity of fitness work are reduced The main emphasis is on sport-specific skill training Slide 29 Sport Books Publisher29 Transition Period (TP): Relatively short in duration (2-4 weeks) Designed to offer a break from competition and intensive training Relaxation in addition to recreation is recommended Ensures that strength and endurance do not drop significantly Slide 30 Sport Books Publisher30 Overview of fitness training methods and their effects Slide 31 Sport Books Publisher31 Circuit Training Slide 32 Sport Books Publisher32 Circuit Training An exercise training program that is designed to exercise all major muscle groups in one session An effective exercise method used in many sports, and for general fitness development purposes Allows for the combination and manipulation of specific exercises to achieve specific fitness goals Exercise intensity, volume, and rest intervals can be manipulated Slide 33 Sport Books Publisher33 Slide 34 Sport Books Publisher34 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs Major variables to be considered: Number of exercises Sequence of exercises Length of rest period between sets Length of rest period between circuits Types of exercises Resistance levels Slide 35 Sport Books Publisher35 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs The number of exercises per muscle group depends on: The training effect to be achieved The desired volume of work to be completed during a training session The desired intensity of effort The structure of the program Slide 36 Sport Books Publisher36 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs The trainee progresses from one exercise station to another in sequence A given number of repetitions are performed at each exercise station Active recovery of previously used muscles occur from station to station Slide 37 Sport Books Publisher37 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs The trainee moves quickly from one station to another, with little rest between exercise stations Slide 38 Sport Books Publisher38 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs A circuit may include running laps between stations The effect of this type of training is the development of both muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness Slide 39 Sport Books Publisher39 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs Research has shown that circuit training is an effective training method for both competitive and recreational fitness development Slide 40 Sport Books Publisher40 Cardiorespiratory Training 1. Endurance training 2. Fartlek training 3. Interval training 4. Repetition training Slide 41 Sport Books Publisher41 Endurance Training Also known as continuous training or slow long distance (SLD) training Involves training at approximately 40-60% of max. performance ability over a long distance Typically carried out without break Physiological benefits include enhanced aerobic capacity and development of staying power Psychological benefits include increased determination and self-confidence The major objective of SLD training is to develop a solid fitness base during the preparatory season Slide 42 Sport Books Publisher42 Slide 43 Sport Books Publisher43 Fartlek Training Endurance training method used by runners mainly during the preparatory season Using an extremely flexible training program Combines long slow distance training, pace/tempo training and interval training It involves easy running, fast bursts of running of varying lengths, hill running etc. Slide 44 Sport Books Publisher44 Interval Training Involves systematic alteration of exertion and recovery a. Extensive Interval b. Intensive Interval Slide 45 Sport Books Publisher45 A. Extensive Interval Requires the trainee to carry out a great number of repetitions of selected distance in one session with a recovery period equal to the work interval Keeping the work-to-rest ratio (W:R) at 1:1-2 between intervals and 1:2-4 between sets Each exercise is repeated 20-30 times The repetitions are divided into several sets The training intensity is between 60-80 percent of the trainees max. performance Slide 46 Sport Books Publisher46 Slide 47 Sport Books Publisher47 B. Intensive Interval Overall lower training volume than the extensive interval method Each interval is repeated 10-20 times Performed at 80-90 percent of the trainees max performance capacity Requires longer breaks: W:R is approximately 1:2-3 between intervals and 1:4-6 between sets Should not be implemented until a solid fitness base of aerobic training has been attained Slide 48 Sport Books Publisher48 Slide 49 Sport Books Publisher49 Repetition Training Also known as tempo training Conducted at maximal intensity levels Used in the final preparations for competition The duration of exercise is normally longer than in interval training Longer recovery periods are needed between individual bouts W:R is approximately 1:5 or longer Slide 50 Sport Books Publisher50 Slide 51 Sport Books Publisher51 Combination Training Simultaneously develop both muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness A. Combo Circuit Training B. Cross Training Slide 52 Sport Books Publisher52 Combo Circuit Training In addition to strength exercises, a circuit may include running laps between stations Distance of the running may vary between 50-400 metres depending on the available facility and specific needs of the trainee Slide 53 Sport Books Publisher53 Slide 54 Sport Books Publisher54 Cross Training Involves activities that offer aerobic fitness benefits similar to those offered by running. It can also promote total body fitness and may prevent overuse injuries Used by competitive athletes during the transition period A. Aerobic cross training (cycling, swimming) B. Muscular endurance cross training (rowing machine, StairMaster) C. Activity cross training (several different activities) Slide 55 Sport Books Publisher55 Summary Physical fitness encompasses many components that are important for health- strength, power, endurance, flexibility, body composition, and psychomotor abilities Cardiorespiratory endurance can be enhanced through endurance, Fartlek, interval training, and repetition training Flexibility can be improved by static stretching, dynamic stretching, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)