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  • AciAr Proceedings 132

    spiny lobster aquaculture in the AsiaPacific region

  • Spiny lobster aquaculture in the AsiaPacific region

    Proceedings of an international symposium held at Nha Trang, Vietnam,

    910 December 2008


    Kevin C. Williams



    ACIAR_PR132.book Page 1 Tuesday, October 13, 2009 9:29 AM

  • The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) was established inJune 1982 by an Act of the Australian Parliament. Its mandate is to help identifyagricultural problems in developing countries and to commission collaborative researchbetween Australian and developing country researchers in fields where Australia has aspecial research competence.

    Where trade names are used this constitutes neither endorsement of nor discriminationagainst any product by the Centre.


    This series of publications includes the full proceedings of researchworkshops or symposia organised or supported by ACIAR. Numbers inthis series are distributed internationally to selected individuals andscientific institutions, and are also available from ACIARs website at.

    Commonwealth of Australia 2009This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the

    Copyright Act1968

    , no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permissionfrom the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction andrights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration,Attorney-Generals Department, Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit, BartonACT 2600 or posted at .

    Published by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR),GPO Box 1571, Canberra ACT 2601, AustraliaTelephone: 61 2 6217 0500; email:

    Williams K.C. (ed.) 2009. Spiny lobster aquaculture in the AsiaPacific region. Proceedings ofan international symposium held at Nha Trang, Vietnam, 910 December 2008.ACIAR Proceedings No. 132. Australian Centre for International AgriculturalResearch: Canberra. 162 pp.

    ISBN 978 1 921615 51 1 (print)ISBN 978 1 921615 52 8 (online)

    Technical editing by Mary Webb, CanberraDesign by Clarus DesignPrinting by Paragon Printers AustralasiaCover photo: Harvesting of seed lobsters from a seine net placed at Xuen Del Bay, Song Cau,

    Phu Yen province, Vietnam. (Photo credit: Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Research Institute forAquaculture No. 3, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa, Vietnam)

    ACIAR_PR132.book Page 2 Tuesday, October 13, 2009 9:29 AM

  • 3


    In July 2004, the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)sponsored a workshop at Nha Trang, Vietnam, as a forum to gather information on theuse of lobsters in the South China Sea and the measures that should be taken forsustainable exploitation of lobster stocks in the region. At that time, the lobsteraquaculture industry in Vietnam was rapidly expanding, with an annual production ofmarketed lobsters in excess of 2,000 tonnes and a farm-gate value of around US$60million. There was concern that the uninhibited capture of settling wild lobster seedfor aquaculture grow-out could reduce natural recruitment processes and lead to acollapse of the lobster resource. A further concern was the impact that uncontrolledexpansion of lobster aquaculture in Vietnam was having on the demand for low-valuefish used to feed lobsters and the downstream pollution arising from this feedingpractice.

    To address some of these issues, a collaborative ACIAR project involvingCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Marineand Atmospheric Research, the Queensland Department of Primary Industries andFisheries, Nha Trang University, Institute of Oceanography, Nha Trang, and theResearch Institute of Aquaculture No. 3 commenced in 2005. The project team wasexpanded in 2008 to include the Marine Aquaculture Development Centre atLombok, Indonesia, so that lobster aquaculture development in eastern Indonesiacould be fast-tracked.

    The primary focus of the project was to enhance the sustainable production oftropical spiny lobster in Vietnam (and subsequently in Indonesia) and to develop thetechnology that would facilitate commercial establishment of spiny lobsteraquaculture in Australia. This was achieved by documenting the level of exploitationof lobster seed for aquaculture use in Vietnam, reducing immediate postcapturelosses of lobster seed, and developing husbandry best practices for lobster grow-outin Vietnam and Australia. The development of land-based lobster culture systemsand pelleted feeds, and the transfer of this technology to Indonesia, were key projectactivities.

    In order to rapidly and widely disseminate the research findings arising from theACIAR lobster project, an international symposium on spiny lobster aquaculturewas held at Nha Trang, Vietnam, on 910 December 2008. Twenty papers, 16reporting ACIAR project research, were presented in four theme sessions:sustainable lobster aquaculture; improving lobster nursery culture; lobster grow-outculture systems; and lobster grow-out feeds and feeding practices. A broad range ofpeople attended the symposium, with participants coming from Australia, India,

    ACIAR_PR132.book Page 3 Tuesday, October 13, 2009 9:29 AM

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    Indonesia, Malaysia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, the Philippines and Vietnam.The proceedings detail the rapid advances that are being made in the pursuit of bestpractices for sustainable lobster aquaculture development.

    Nick AustinChief Executive OfficerACIAR

    ACIAR_PR132.book Page 4 Tuesday, October 13, 2009 9:29 AM

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    Foreword 3

    Nick Austin, Chief Executive Officer, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Australia

    Acknowledgments 7

    Session 1: Sustainable lobster aquaculture


    Lobster seacage culture in Vietnam 10

    Lai Van Hung and Le Anh Tuan

    Potential of seacage culture of

    Panulirus ornatus

    in Australia 18

    Matt Kenway, Matt Salmon, Greg Smith and Mike Hall

    Potential for co-management of lobster seacage culture: a case study in Lombok, Indonesia [Abstract] 26

    Reza Shah Pahlevi

    Spiny lobster resources and opportunity for culture in post-tsunami Aceh, Indonesia 27

    Alexander Tewfik, David Mills and Dedi Adhuri

    Contributions to the life-history study of the Palinuridae of the south-west lagoon 35of New Caledonia [Abstract]

    Emmanuel Coutures

    Lobster aquaculture industry in eastern Indonesia: present status and prospects 36

    Bayu Priyambodo and Sarifin

    The potential for harvesting seed of

    Panulirus argus

    (Caribbean spiny lobster) 46

    Andrew Jeffs and Megan Davis

    Census of lobster seed captured from the central coastal waters of Vietnam for 52aquaculture grow-out, 20052008

    Nguyen Van Long and Dao Tan Hoc

    Improving environmental quality for

    Panulirus ornatus

    lobster aquaculture in Van Phong Bay, Vietnam, by combined culture with

    Perna viridis

    mussels 59

    Le Thi Vinh and Le Lan Huong

    Session 2: Improving lobster nursery culture


    Effect of stocking density, holding and transport on subsequent growth and survival of recently caught

    Panulirus ornatus

    seed lobsters 74

    Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Bich Thuy and Nguyen Ngoc Ha

    Effect of environmental conditions during holding and transport on survival of

    Panulirus ornatus

    juveniles 79

    Nguyen Thi Bich Thuy, Nguyen Ngoc Ha and Duong Van Danh

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    Effect of different types of shelter on growth and survival of

    Panulirus ornatus

    juveniles 85

    Nguyen Minh Chau, Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc and Le Thi Nhan

    Comparison of the growth and survival of

    Panulirus ornatus

    seed lobsters held in individual or communal cages 89

    Simon J. Irvin and Kevin C. Williams

    Session 3: Lobster grow-out culture systems


    Requirements for the aquaculture of

    Panulirus ornatus

    in Australia


    Clive Jones and Scott Shanks

    Comparison of the biological, environmental and economic efficiency seacage culture of

    Panulirus ornatus

    lobsters using different practical diets 110

    Le Anh Tuan and Lai Van Hung

    Session 4: Lobster grow-out feeds and feeding practices


    Culture of

    Panulirus ornatus

    lobsters fed fish by-catch or co-cultured

    Perna virdis

    mussel in sea cages in Vietnam 118

    Do Huu Hoang, Huynh Minh Sang, Nguyen Trung Kien and Nguyen Thi Kim Bich

    Effect of trash fish species and vitamin supplementation on productivity of

    Panulirus ornatus

    juveniles fed moist diets 126

    Le Anh Tuan and Nguyen Dinh Mao

    Nutritional requirements of juvenile

    Panulirus ornatus

    lobsters 131

    Kevin C. Williams

    Panulirus ornatus

    lobster feed development: from trash fish to formulated feeds 147

    Simon J. Irvin and Kevin C. Williams

    Optimising the physical form and dimensions of feed pellets for tropical spiny lobsters 157

    David M. Smith, Simon J. Irvin and David Mann

    ACIAR_PR132.book Page 6 Tuesday, October 13, 2009 9:29 AM

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    This symposium would not have been possible without the financial support of theAustralian Centre for International Agriculture Research (ACIAR) and the assistanceof many colleagues. In particular, I would like to thank collaborators in the ACIARlobster aquaculture project: in Vietnam at Nha Trang, Dr Lai Van Hung and colleaguesat Nha Trang University, Mrs Le Lan Huong and colleagues at the Institute