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Transcript of Southwest Asia
Southwest AsiaHistory and GovernmentMap of Southwest Asia
The Regions CountriesTurkeySyriaCyprusIraqIranLebanonIsraelJordanKuwaitSaudi ArabiaAfghanistanQatarOmanUnited Arab EmiratesYemen
Quick History . . .Ancient History8000 BC Fertile Crescent, establishment of agriculture and civilization3000 BC Sumerians, development of writing, complex societies, etc2000 BC Judaism is founded in the regionChristianity would follow 2000 years later
600s followers of Muhammad swept over the Arabian PeninsulaThe conquered would adopt the Islamic faith and Arabic language.Other religions would be allowed to practice their faith.
900s Arabs began to lose their control of the region; the Turks (Seljuks) conquered the landsThe conquerors actually adopted the traditions of the people living in the region.
1300s the last great empire takes control - the Ottoman TurksThere were freedoms for all different peoples living in the region.
Quick History . . . (cont.)1700s rivalries built up with tensions between different ethnic and religious groupsThe Ottomans could not maintain their power, and many of these groups wanted to establish their own homelands
January 3, 1916 Sykes-Picot AgreementLimited the independent Arab state to the area that is now Saudi Arabia and YemenSyria became French-controlled; Iraq was now British-controlled, and Palestine was jointly ruled
1917 end of World War IThe fall of the Ottoman Empire
Quick History . . . (cont.)Mid-1940s the issue of Palestine and IsraelMany Jewish people were escaping the reaches of Hitler; tensions rose between the British, Palestinians and Jews.1947 Great Britain withdrew from the disputed area and handed the issue over to the United NationsLed to the creation of two states (one Arab and one Jewish)
1980s Iraq/Iran WarThe two countries fought a war over control of oil fields.
1991 Persian Gulf WarIraq invaded Kuwait . . . led to other countries intervening.The US and 32 other countries found to drive the Iraqis out of Kuwait and keep the oil fields open
2003 Operation Enduring Freedom & Operation Iraqi Freedom
The Regions GovernmentsTheocracyThe government is run by religious leaders; there is no separation between church and stateThe government claims to be guided by God, or divinely blessed
RepublicSimply Defined a government without a king or queen; people elect representatives to make decisions
Traditional MonarchyMajor feature the ruler inherits powerSo, when the ruler dies, power automatically passes to one of the monarchs children or close relatives.
Constitutional MonarchyThe power of the monarch is shared with a constitutional bodyA modern adaptation of monarchy
Important IndividualsAbdul al-Aziz Ibn SaudResponsible for the consolidation of land in the Arabian Peninsula under the name of the Saud familyBy 1920s almost all of the Arabian Peninsula was under his control1932 the whole area became known as Saudi ArabiaHis descendants still rule Saudi Arabia today
Saddam HusseinIraqi president, then dictator; ruled from 1979 until 2003He was in office during the Iraq/Iran War, Persian Gulf War, and the UN sanctions on Iraq.He was deposed from office and put on trial for crimes committed early in his political term; found guilty, and sentenced to deathImportant GroupsThe BedouinsNomadic desert dwellers that traveled along the Arabian Peninsula; very family orientedKnown for their superior fighting - - - conquered many lands across the Arabian Peninsula during the 7th centuryThey spread the Islamic faith by placing Muslim leaders in control of the newly acquired lands.
Sunni & Shiite MuslimsThe two major branches of the Islamic faith83% of Muslims are Sunni; most Iranians are Shiite.These two ethnic groups have severe tensions that split them apart despite the religious ties.Important GroupsThe PLOThe Palestinian Liberation Organization; created in the 1960sThe group was formed to regain the land for Palestinian Arabs - - - they have used both military and political means to take possession of land.
The TalibanA fundamentalist Muslim political group that imposed strict rules on the peoples behaviors (primarily in Afghanistan)
20th Century IssuesThe Israeli/Palestinian Conflict
Prior to the late 19th century, Palestine was under Arab control, but then Britain intervened in political matters.19th century the Zionist Movement beganThe movement supported the creation and support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
Post-WWI Britain takes over the region; continues to allow Jewish immigration into the region
1939 the increase of tensions between Jews and Muslims was too high, and the British halted Jewish immigration to PalestineMany Jews were attempting to relocate to the area from Europe (escaping persecution and Hitlers Nazis)
20th Century IssuesThe Israeli/Palestinian Conflict . . . (cont.)
Post-WWII many Jews were relocating to the area; Britain handed over the issue to the United Nations1947 the UN decision - - - divide Palestine into two states (one for Arabs and one for Jews)
May 14, 1948 the Jewish states, Israel, was establishedThe surrounding Arab nations invaded the newly formed nation; the Jews fought back
20th Century IssuesThe KurdsThe worlds largest stateless minority (est. 25 million)Kurdistan region where the Kurds are locatedThe region lies within the countries of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Armenia . . . Causes land disputes
The Kurds have dealt with centuries of oppression.
Recently:1988 Iraqi troops killed thousands of Kurds (& destroyed villages)Early 1990s Iraq crushed another Kurdish uprisingOne million Kurdish refugees fled (to Turkey, Iran, and northern Iraq)