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  • South-South Cooperation: How Does Gender Equality Factor in the

    Emerging Multilateralism? Presentation by Dr. Frannie Léautier

    ACBF Executive Secretary at the

    North-South Institute Conference Ottawa, Canada

    20 – 21 June, 2011

  • Introduction Global south is emerging as a large market which is attracting investors

    globally

    Better linkages amongst countries in the south also have a gender dimension in the exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge across countries

    A number of issues relating to gender need specific attention including access to education by girls and women; risks of trafficking of women and children;Gender, trade and regional integration; poverty levels among women; democracy, human rights, and gender; intellectual property rights, indigenous knowledge and the role of women etc

    Data and analysis are critical to deal with these issues and there is a role for capacity development to be targeted to these issues

    African Capacity Building Foundation can make a contribution in addressing issues of capacity gaps and the many facets of capacity challenges that the African continent is currently grappling with

    There is an opportunity to draw on the the experiences of the African Women’s Development Fund (AWDF)j – based in Ghana yet operating continentally

  • Introduction • Global south is emerging as a large market which is attracting investors

    globally

    • Better linkages amongst countries in the south also have a gender dimension in the exchange of resources, technology and knowledge across countries

    • A number of issues relating to gender need specific attention including access to education by girls and women; risks of trafficking of women and children; Gender, trade and regional integration; poverty levels among women; democracy, human rights and gender; intellectual property rights, indigenous knowledge and the role of women, etc

    • Data and analysis are critical to deal with these issues and there is a role for capacity development to be targeted to these issues

    • African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF) can make a contribution in addressing issues of capacity gaps and the many facets of capacity challenges that the African continent is currently grappling with

    • There is opportunity to draw on the experiences of the African Women’s Development Fund (AWDF) – based in Ghana yet operating continentally

  • South-South Cooperation - Perspective • South-South Cooperation conceived as an expression

    of solidarity amongst developing countries • Way to coordinate and collaborate outside of traditional approaches including north-

    south cooperation

    • Knowledge exchange between emerging and developing countries

    • Similarity of interests and challenges • Narrower gap in development

    • Shift in international balance of power • Economic • Political

    • Opportunity to leapfrog development • No need to re-invent the wheel • Share success stories

  • South-South Cooperation Developing

    Country Developing

    Country •Trade •Regional Integration •Knowledge Exchange •Sharing success stories

    Emerging Country

    Developing Country

    •Trade •Regional Integration •Transfer of knowledge and expertise •Development partnership •Capacity development

  • Forms of South-South Cooperation •Economic integration

    •Technical cooperation

    •Capacity development

    •Negotiating blocs

    •Trade

    •Humanitarian assistance

    •Military cooperation

  • The Changing Aid Environment and Effect of New Entrants in Aid

    Benefits of Aid and Level of Aid Effect of New Aid Entrants

    Aid, trade, foreign and security policy

    New players

    Benefits

    Level K^/N K*/N

    K^ = benefit maximizing level of aid K* = socially optimal level of aid

    ODA level

    1970-79 1980-89 1990-99 2000-09

    10 +8.9

    +1.1

    +4.9

    Portugal Spain

    Greece Korea

    China

    Aid levels in US$ billions OECD DAC Countries

    Data on Aid from OECD-DAC

  • Drivers for South-South Cooperation •Strengthening Economic ties

    •Technological transfers

    •Mutual benefit

    •Philosophy of non-interference

    •Mutual respect and Trust

    •Demand driven

    •Sense of shared destiny

    •Similar challenges

  • Shortcomings of South-South Cooperation • Limited mutual benefit for countries in similar situation

    • Big brother syndrome still prevalent

    • Insufficient transparency and accountability

    • International conventions can be set aside • Human rights • Gender equality • Work ethics

    • Dependency syndrome

  • Gender Inequality - Consequences

    • Human trafficking

    • Low literacy and education

    • High unemployment

    • Majority poor

  • Adult literacy improving but still distance to go on the attainment levels by women: literacy rate (%)

    Source: Calculated using data from World Bank Datafinder

  • Female employment by sector (%) Source: World Bank Datafinder

  • Gender and South-South Cooperation: Sharing experiences – what works and what does not

    • Affirmative action for Gender equality • Education • Trade • Regional Integration • Property rights including Intellectual property rights • Control of resources • Political and democratic process

    • Millennium Development Goal (MDG) No. 3

    • Inclusion in the development process • Participatory development

    • Partnerships for learning

  • Capacity: Innovation, Learning, and Gender

    Economic Prosperity, High Productivity

    Social Equality, Tolerance, Environmental Sustainability

    Polity represents will of the citizens

    High Administrative Capability

    1800

    1900

    2000

    Source: Adapted from Lant Pritchett, 2010 and Carl Dahlman, 2007

  • Capacity: Where to start? • Build capacity– for new and emerging challenges

    – Universities need to be relevant for Africa’s emerging and future problems

    • Utilize existing capacity – where it exists to deliver on key objectives

    – Higher education institutions have talented people who can be leveraged in critical areas of capacity

    • Develop new capacity – where what exists is not sufficient for enhanced performance

    – Universities can provide the space for re-skilling, retooling and continuous learning to bridge the performance gap in the public and private sector

  • Capacity is Development – Role of Education in augmenting capacity

    • Education provides the foundation for strategic thinking and development initiatives – Basic knowledge and skills for strategic thinking – Capacity to formulate policies and programs for development – Capacity to implement development programs – Skills and knowledge for follow through

    • Education provides ground for research and innovation – Generation of new ideas (research, development, piloting) – Testing of ideas (assessment, evaluation, benchmarking) – Sharing of ideas (libraries, workshops, seminars, conferences,

    publications)

  • Citizens engaged in decision-making: Progress in level of dialogue and inclusion in Africa has improved because women have been engaged in dialogue on development

    Source: ACI, 2010

    Level of dialogue and inclusion at country level (%)

  • Innovations that transform sectors employing women: From farm to fork

    • Agriculture value added as share of GDP (%) higher in countries that tap into science and technology, regional markets and use entrepreneurial skills for farming

    • Most countries still need to define agricultural policies and implement them

    Country 1980 1990 2000 Mozambique 37.1% 37.1% 24.0% South Africa 6.20% 4.6% 3.3%

    0 20 40 60

    Most countries still need to define agricultural policies and implement them (% with such capacity in 2010 according to ACI)

  • Quality of Education and Gender (repeaters, primary, female (% female enrollment)

    Source: World Bank Datafinder

    Big improvement 7%

    Small improvement 43%

    Decline 30%

    No change 20%

  • Innovations that unlock potential of women and girls and raise productivity: Case of

    Water • From head carrying to Yoke

    carrying Rolling water using the Q-Drum

  • Conclusions • Borderless global world

    • Deepening policy interdependency

    • South-South Cooperation – key tool for capacity development

    • Need for innovative strategies to enhance role of gender in south-south cooperation

    • South-south cooperation catalyzing debate around aid effectiveness

    • Meaningful participation of non-state actors crucial for accountability

    • It is critical to capture innovations and create a platform for countries to learn from each other to speed up implementation

    • Triangular Cooperation • South-South Cooperation Thank you for Listening…

    Merci de m’avoir écoutée...