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Transcript of Sound of Music - olli. Spring Courses/Sound of Music/SoundOfMusic_1... 1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 55 0

  • Sound of Music How It Works

    Session 1 Building Blocks

    OLLI at Illinois

    Spring 2020 D. H. Tracy

    DavidHTracy@gmail.com

    This pdf handout does not contain the

    animations or sounds of the original presentation.

  • Course Outline

    1. Building Blocks: Some basic concepts

    2. Resonance: Building Sounds

    3. Hearing and the Ear

    4. Musical Scales

    5. Musical Instruments

    6. Singing and Musical Notation

    7. Harmony and Dissonance; Chords

    8. Combining the Elements of Music

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 4

  • Session 1 Outline: Building Blocks

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 5

  • Jargon

    • We’ll try to avoid Jargon (as much as possible)

    • Music has a very long history

    – Vocabulary, concepts, notation, even instruments have deep roots

    – Lots of baggage…Legacy terminology

    – Potential for obscuration or confusion!

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 6

  • Building Blocks

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 7

    Demo

  • Books

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 8

    2010

    Both Authors are Scientists

    and Musicians

  • More Books

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 9

    2008

  • SmartPhone Apps

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 10

    Advanced Spectrum Analyzer Pro

  • SmartPhone Apps

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 11

    Advanced Spectrum Analyzer Pro

    Toon (iOS)

  • Building Blocks

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 12

  • Elements of Music

    • Rhythm

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 13

    Thommy Puch plays Rumba Clave on djembe drum

  • Elements of Music

    • Rhythm

    • Melody

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 14

    Tchaikovsky Swan Lake Easy Notes Sheet Music for Violin Flute Oboe

    Tchaikovsky Opus 20 Swan Theme A minor

  • Beethoven Pathetique – Piano Sonata #8

    Elements of Music

    • Rhythm

    • Melody

    • Harmony

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 15

    Harmony refers to notes played simultaneously

  • Vince Guaraldi -- Linus and Lucy

    Beethoven Pathetique – Piano Sonata #8

    ABBA Waterloo

    Elements of Music

    • Rhythm

    • Melody

    • Harmony

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 21

  • Elements of Music

    • Rhythm

    • Melody

    • Harmony

    • Tonality

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 23

    Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake Theme (A minor)

    A

    Phrase starts at pitch A, then

    eventually returns “home” to A

  • Building Blocks

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 24

  • 1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 25

    Sound Waves in Air

    Institute of Sound & Vibration Research, Southampton Univ.

    Velocity:

    1000 ft/sec (300 m/s)

  • 1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 26

    Velocity:

    1000 ft/sec (300 m/s)

    Sound Waves in Air

    Institute of Sound & Vibration Research, Southampton Univ.

    Longitudinal Wave Air molecules move

    back and forth along direction of wave

    propagation

    Air Pressure bobs up and down as waves pass by

    any point

  • Sound Wave Reflection

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 27

    Hard Wall

  • Sound Wave Diffraction

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 28

    When hole is small compared to wavelength, more diffraction

  • Building Blocks

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 29

  • Types of Sound Waves

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 30

    Non-periodic

    Periodic

    ~ 1/20 sec

    3.8 ms

    Sine

  • 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

    100 Hz

    200 Hz

    300 Hz

    303 Hz

    400 Hz

    500 Hz

    600 Hz

    800 Hz

    1000 Hz

    2000 Hz

    4000 Hz

    Sine Waves Characterized by Frequency

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 31

    Frequency:

    Vibrations per Second or

    Cycles Per Second

    1857-1894

    As of 1960, officially changed to

    Hertz

  • 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

    100 Hz

    200 Hz

    300 Hz

    303 Hz

    400 Hz

    500 Hz

    600 Hz

    800 Hz

    1000 Hz

    2000 Hz

    4000 Hz

    Sine Waves Characterized by Frequency

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 32

    100 Hz

    200 Hz 300 Hz

    303 Hz

    400 Hz

    500 Hz

    600 Hz

    800 Hz

    1000 Hz

    2000 Hz

    4000 Hz

  • 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

    100 Hz

    200 Hz

    300 Hz

    303 Hz

    400 Hz

    500 Hz

    600 Hz

    800 Hz

    1000 Hz

    2000 Hz

    4000 Hz

    Sine Waves Characterized by Frequency

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 33

    Your perception of Pitch Correlates with Frequency

    Sinusoidal Sound Waves are also known as

    Simple Tones or Pure Tones

  • 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

    100 Hz

    200 Hz

    300 Hz

    303 Hz

    400 Hz

    500 Hz

    600 Hz

    800 Hz

    1000 Hz

    2000 Hz

    4000 Hz

    Sine Waves Characterized by Frequency

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 34

    Your perception of Pitch Correlates with Frequency

    Sinusoidal Sound Waves are also known as

    Simple Tones or Pure Tones

    These Pure Tones are rare in music and nature Mostly Electronic

  • 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

    100 Hz

    200 Hz

    300 Hz

    303 Hz

    400 Hz

    500 Hz

    600 Hz

    800 Hz

    1000 Hz

    2000 Hz

    4000 Hz

    Sine Waves Characterized by Wavelength

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 35 Institute for Vibration & Sound Research, Southampton

    f 

  • 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

    100 Hz

    200 Hz

    300 Hz

    303 Hz

    400 Hz

    500 Hz

    600 Hz

    800 Hz

    1000 Hz

    2000 Hz

    4000 Hz

    Sine Waves Characterized by Wavelength

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 36 Institute for Vibration & Sound Research, Southampton

    f 

    Examples:

    f = 27.5 Hz   40 ft

    f = 262 Hz   4 ft

    f = 4186 Hz   3 in

  • 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

    100 Hz

    200 Hz

    300 Hz

    303 Hz

    400 Hz

    500 Hz

    600 Hz

    800 Hz

    1000 Hz

    2000 Hz

    4000 Hz

    Sine Waves Characterized by Wavelength

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 37

    Examples:

    f = 27.5 Hz   40 ft

    f = 262 Hz   4 ft

    f = 4186 Hz   3 in

  • Building Blocks

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 38

  • Real Musical Notes are not Pure Sine Waves

    • Complex tones

    – Fundamental frequency f0

    – Several (or many) higher frequencies (Overtones or Partials)

    • Usually multiples of f0 called

    Harmonics

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 39

    Complex Tone

  • Real Musical Notes are not Pure Sine Waves

    • Complex tones

    – Fundamental frequency f0

    – Several (or many) higher frequencies (Overtones or Partials)

    • Usually multiples of f0 called

    Harmonics

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 40

    Complex Tone

    Fundamental Tone

    2nd Harmonic

    3rd Harmonic

    4th Harmonic

    5th Harmonic

    6th Harmonic

    7th Harmonic

  • Musical Instruments and Nature Rarely Make Sine Waves

    2/2/2017 Hear All About It 41

  • Building Blocks

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 42

  • Visualization of Sound

    Two main approaches:

    • Waveform Display

    • Spectrum Display

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 43

    0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03

    So u

    n d

    P re

    ss u

    re →

    Time (seconds)

  • Visualization of Sound: Spectrum

    0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03

    Sum

    200 Hz

    400 Hz

    600 Hz

    800 Hz

    1000 Hz

    1200 Hz

    1400 Hz

    • Remember how our complex waveform was built of sinusoidal harmonics?

    • We could just list the constituent Partials:

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 44

    Partial #

    Frequency (Hz)

    Amplitude

    1 200 100%

    2 400 71%

    3 600 40%

    4 800 35%

    5 1000 16%

    6 1200 18%

    7 1400 6%

  • Visualization of Sound: Spectrum

    0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03

    Sum

    200 Hz

    400 Hz

    600 Hz

    800 Hz

    1000 Hz

    1200 Hz

    1400 Hz

    • Remember how our complex waveform was built of sinusoidal harmonics?

    • We could just list the constituent Partials:

    1/27/20 Sound of Music 1 45

    Partial #

    Frequency (Hz)

    Amplitude

    1 200 100%

    2 400 71%

    3 600 40%

    4 800 35%

    5 1000 16%

    6 1200 18%

    7 1400 6%

    0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    1.2

    0 200 4