Solar Hot Air Collectors

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Rob Taisey Assured Solar Energy. Solar Hot Air Collectors. Program Outline. Solar Basics overview: Passive; Active-PV, Solar Thermal Solar Air Heaters (SAH) Types (Glazed, Unglazed) ‏ Applications:Space heat, Ventilation Air Preheat, Water Heating Efficiency, performance w/in SAH Group - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Solar Hot Air Collectors

  • Solar Hot Air CollectorsRob TaiseyAssured Solar Energy

  • Program OutlineSolar Basics overview: Passive; Active-PV, Solar ThermalSolar Air Heaters (SAH) Types (Glazed, Unglazed)Applications:Space heat, Ventilation Air Preheat, Water HeatingEfficiency, performance w/in SAH GroupComparison to other solar technologies with respect to economics, GHG reduction, solar efficiencyTesting data, analytical software. SRCC, TRNSYSGovernment IncentivesProduct specific discussionPhotos

  • Active Solar SystemsPhotovoltaicSolar thermal Liquid- Flat Plate, Evacuated Tube, Pool HeatersAir-Transpired wall, Glazed Collectors

  • Solar Photovoltaic-(PV)Converts Sunlight directly to electricitySeveral technologies availableRapidly growing, improving technologyMost activity where government incentives are attractiveApprox. 10% efficiencyAverage Cost $9,000/KW

  • Solar Thermal-Converts Sunlight to heatLiquid systemsFlat plateEvacuated Tube

  • Schuco-PV + Flat plate DHW-N YarmouthMost common usage worldwideProven, long lasting, reliable technology

  • Apricus Evacuated Tubes DHW- Freeport

  • Solar Thermal-AirUnglazed-transpired wall=SolarwallGlazed collectors-Manufacturers & Brands include:Sunsiary (Northern Comfort Collector)Environmental Solar Systems (Sunmate)Your Solar Home (SolarSheat)Cansolair

  • Solarwall- Large Commercial

  • Transpired Wall / SolarwallIndustrial scaleBuilding integratedBest use is preheating ventilation air$ millions in testingEfficiency curve is instructive

  • Solarwall performance chartShows the trade off between Temp rise & airflow rate (CFM/Ft2)

  • Glazed Hot Air Solar Collectors

  • Solarsheat- Cumberland

  • SunMate- Cumberland Maine

    Installed over unused doorwayHeats living room in 1800s Farmhouse

  • Sunmate at Back Country Excursions

  • Northern Comfort-Small Commercial

  • Northern Comfort-Larger Commercial

  • What are the applications?Space HeatingDual Mode-Space & Hot waterVentilation Preheat

  • What are the design Guidelines?Think about 7% to 10% ratio between collector area to floor areaExample 24x34=816 ft2 x 7%=57 ft2NC Collector =29 ft2 57/29=1.9 say 2 collectors29x2=58/816=7.1%29X3=87/816=10.6%Should do ~15%-35% of space heat load

  • Other ConsiderationsOrientation- Ideally within 20-30degerrs of true south Check out your house on Google Earth And or Virtual Earth Tilt- vertical Wall mount to ~55 degrees for space heat- catch the sun when it is low in the sky & you need the heatShading- Trees other structuresWall & roof space availableArchitectural- can you fit it in- accept it

  • Whats the Payback?Tell me what price fossil fuel will be in 5 yearsEnergy gets delivered free to your house4 billion year record of free delivery, no shortages and no price increasesSatisfaction of not sending money overseasSatisfaction of doing something to reduce carbon footprintSecurity of controlling part of your energy costs for next 25+ years

  • Payback Comparisons (compliments of RREAL in MN)

  • How long will these system last?Components are glass, copper &/or aluminum & foam insulationDesigned to last for decadesFans may need to be serviced after 20 years or so.Filters are optional- can improve indoor air quality-need annual inspection

  • TRNSYS Data

    Results

    MonthSolar Thermal Total Energy ProductionSolar Thermal Energy Production per Unit AreaSolar Electric Total Energy ProductionSolar Electric Energy Production per Unit Area

    [kWh/month][kWh/m2.month][kWh/ft2.month][kWh/month][kWh/m2.month][kWh/ft2.month]

    SunmateSunsiarySunmateSunsiarySunmateSunsiary

    January52.8976.2233.0027.623.072.5794.6012.131.13

    February62.0190.0438.6932.643.603.03108.6513.931.29

    March64.5495.8240.2634.733.743.23125.7916.131.50

    April38.1760.4823.8121.922.212.04115.1614.761.37

    May25.0343.4515.6115.751.451.46120.9515.511.44

    June0.570.960.360.350.030.03113.6914.581.35

    July0.000.000.000.000.000.00122.7515.741.46

    August0.000.000.000.000.000.00120.2915.421.43

    September64.57101.0640.2836.633.743.40110.9814.231.32

    October64.1095.9839.9934.793.723.23101.2312.981.21

    November43.4863.7127.1223.092.522.1573.119.370.87

    December35.1751.6921.9418.732.041.7473.679.440.88

    Annual450.54679.42281.06246.2626.1222.891,280.87164.2115.26

    number of panels in series:2

    Vertical orientationpress "Ctrl" + "t" to update resultsnumber of panels in parallel:3

    Portland Maine

    Results

    52.894573768676.2160010005

    62.012904261790.0432043568

    64.539102653595.8243046622

    38.169809701660.4760902782

    25.030047730443.4522984273

    0.57274645660.9624171463

    00

    00

    64.5658812546101.0631184363

    64.102672061395.9846391286

    43.480765769363.7075908648

    35.174297930751.6882378371

    Proposed Collector

    Comparison Collector

    Energy [kWh/month]

    Thermal Energy Production

    Chart1

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    Proposed Collector

    Comparison Collector

    Energy [kWh/ft2.month]

    Thermal Energy Production per Unit Area

    Sheet1

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    Energy [kWh/month]

    Electrical Energy Production

    RawData

    3.06665787942.5673328991.1272154365

    3.59530946053.03310168271.2945237582

    3.74177034773.22783781171.4987403102

    2.21296324632.03713464551.3721453896

    1.45116195531.46368890821.4411528296

    0.03320600410.03241898251.3546536309

    001.4625661095

    001.4332311606

    3.74332288523.4043070411.3223125787

    3.71646750063.23323867171.2060954013

    2.52087545942.14598761150.8710803239

    2.03929307331.74111619280.8777860269

    Sunmate

    Northern Comfort

    Photovoltaic

    Month

    KWH/ Ft2/Month

    Square Foot Output Comps 90 Deg Portland ME

    SunmateSunsiaryPhotovoltaics

    MonthkWh/ft2.monthkWh/ft2.monthkWh/ft2.month

    January3.0672.5671.127

    February3.5953.0331.295

    March3.7423.2281.499

    April2.2132.0371.372

    May1.4511.4641.441

    June0.0330.0321.355

    July0.0000.0001.463

    August0.0000.0001.433

    September3.7433.4041.322

    October3.7163.2331.206

    November2.5212.1460.871

    December2.0391.7410.878

    SunmateSunsiarySunmateSunsiarySunmateSunsiaryPhotovoltaicsPhotovoltaicsPhotovoltaicsSeriesParallel

    MonthkWh/monthkWh/monthkWh/m2.monthkWh/m2.monthkWh/ft2.monthkWh/ft2.monthkWh/monthkWh/m2.monthkWh/ft2.month[-][-]

    January52.89576.21632.99727.6253.0672.56794.60512.1291.1272.0003.000

    February62.01390.04338.68632.6363.5953.033108.64713.9291.2952.0003.000

    March64.53995.82440.26134.7323.7423.228125.78616.1261.4992.0003.000

    April38.17060.47623.81121.9202.2132.037115.16114.7641.3722.0003.000

    May25.03043.45215.61515.7491.4511.464120.95315.5071.4412.0003.000

    June0.5730.9620.3570.3490.0330.032113.69314.5761.3552.0003.000

    July0.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000122.75015.7371.4632.0003.000

    August0.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000120.28815.4221.4332.0003.000

    September64.566101.06340.27836.6303.7433.404110.97914.2281.3222.0003.000

    October64.10395.98539.98934.7903.7163.233101.22512.9781.2062.0003.000

    November43.48163.70827.12523.0912.5212.14673.1089.3730.8712.0003.000

    December35.17451.68821.94318.7342.0391.74173.6719.4450.8782.0003.000

  • SRCC DataSolar Rating & Certification CorporationTests solar thermal collectors-air & liquidPublishes results, available online: www.solar-rating.orgRating & testing geared toward liquid collectors & systemsAir collectors are tested

  • Collector OutputCollector output or performance is reported

  • Test conditions /definitionsCollectors are tested under various combinations of light intensity or insolation described as Clear, Mildly Cloudy and CloudyClear Day conditions are defined as 2000 BTU per square foot per day.Mildly cloudy=1500 BTU per square foot per day.Cloudy = 1000 BTU per square foot per day.

  • Operating CategoriesCategories A-D refer to operating conditions as a function of temperature at collector inlet (Ti) minus Ambient Temperature (Ta) : (Ti-Ta)When hot air collectors are used in space heating mode inlet Temp (Ti) is indoor air temperature.Ambient is outdoor air temp.

  • Categories A-DCategory A results are for the condition when (Ti-Ta)=-9This is generally not a condition found when air collectors are used for space heatingWhen it is 9 degrees warmer outside than inside, you open the windows and doors and thank God that spring has finally arrived!

  • The following slide is a compilation of SRCC Data on the some of the rated hot air collectorsIt also includes analysis of that data on an output per square foot of collector and percent efficiency.

  • Chart2

    302214

    16127

    232610

    19149

    Brand

    Thousand BTU Per day

    Insolation

    Sheet1

    Rating conditionsClearMildcloudyClearMildcloudyClearMildcloudy

    BTU/FT2/Day200015001000200015001000200015001000

    SunsiaryNC-32Net ApertureCFMCFM/FT2

    29.7Ft21786.0

    Category(Ti-Ta)Thousands BTU Per collector /dayOutput- thousand BTU per Ft2 dayPercent Efficiency

    A-93628201.210.940.6761%63%67%

    B93022141.010.740.4751%49%47%

    C36231470.770.470.2439%31%24%

    D90100.3417%0%0%

    YSH1500GNet ApertureCFMCFM/FT2

    20.41Ft2854.2

    (Ti-Ta)Output per Ft2 day

    A-92116121.030.780.5951%52%59%

    B9161270.780.590.3439%39%34%