Soils erosion

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  • 1. SOILS EROSION Done By: Suneta and Sangeeta Samuel Caribbean Studies

2. What is Soil Erosion? Soil erosion is the removal of the topsoil from the land. This is due to several factors but basically the chief cause is mans misuse of the land( human mismanagement) 3. Types of Erosion Sheet erosion, which is the removal of uniform layer of soil by moving water. It is most common in sloping fields where water caused tiny-particles to move downwards 4. Gully erosion, which is the removal of soil by the action of water especially in steep areas where the water creates gullies 5. Wind erosion, which is the removal of loose soil through the process of deflation. This occurs in areas where the land is bare and dry resulting in the particles becomes loosened and therefore susceptible to force of the wind 6. Some Causes of Soil Erosion Overgrazing by livestock: animals crop the grass to a low level thus leaving soil bare and open to wind action 7. Cultivation along steep slopes: this results in gully erosion taking place 8. Over cropping as well as monocropping : this leads to soil deterioration as minerals and organic matter are depleted when a wide variety of crops is intensively cultivated for a number of years without crop rotation. 9. Deforestation : removal of vegetation from forested hill slopes for lumbering, to make way for agricultural or settlement activity. Once the vegetation are removed and no quick replacement implemented, soil erosion takes place. 10. Soil Conservation To achieve this there has to be proper management of the land, better farming techniques and a gradual return to permanent grass or forest. Terracing :flat step like structure cut on steep slopes. This reduces rate of run off. In addition earth banks, spillways and drainage channels may be employed 11. Strip cropping: crops are grown close together in strips to ensure soil cover 12. Crop rotation and diversification: prevent soil exhaustion as one crop replaces nutrients used by another: irrigation provides moisture preventing wing erosion: application of fertilizers minimizes soil deterioration Contour ploughing: crops are planted in horizontal rather than vertical. This reduces run off and helps to maintain soil moisture 13. A forestation and reforestation: planting and replacing of trees respectively which act as protection for soil from heavy downpour, roots absorb excess water, and bind soil particles together 14. Windbreaks and shelter belts: trees planted in a line along the path of the wind. This checks wind speed and force. Crop are protected from the forces of the wind with this. 15. Thank You for your time and attention! Hope this presentation was educational and helpful to you