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  • Socio-ecological production

    landscapes in Asia

    United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability (UNU-IAS) 5-53-70 Jingumae Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8925, Japan Email: isi@unu.edu Web: http://satoyama-initiative.org

    Socio-ecological production landscapes in A sia

  • Socio-ecological production

    landscapes in Asia

  • Published by United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability (UNU-IAS) First published March 2012 Second printing January 2018

    Edited by Kaoru Ichikawa

    Cover photo by BM Kumar

    Layout by Digital Process Works Ltd ICRAF House, United Nations Avenue P.O. Box 35045 - 00200 Nairobi - Kenya

    Printing by NOGE PRINTING Corp.

    For further information please contact: United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability (UNU-IAS) 5-53-70 Jingumae Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8925, Japan Email: isi@unu.edu Web: http://satoyama-initiative.org

    The views expressed in this volume are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University.

  • iii

    Acknowledgement

    This publication was prepared based on the report by the Japan Wildlife Research Center (JWRC) commissioned by UNU- IAS. The original manuscript was prepared by JWRC and edited by Kaoru Ichikawa. The authors would also like to express their gratitude to experts who provided useful feedback and information related to earlier versions of the manuscript: Zena Ali Ahmad (UNDP Syria), Haruo Endo, Atsuko Hayama (Kurume University), Sun-Kee Hong (Mokpo National University), Upali S. Imbulana (Institution of Engeneers, Sri Lanka), Tetsuya Inamura (Aichi Prefectural University), Masoud Bagherzadeh Karimi (Deparatment of Environment, Iran), Vafadarimehrizi Kazem (Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University ), Satoru Kobayashi (Kyoto University), B. Mohan Kumar (Keala Agricultural University), Ani Mardistuti (Bogor Agricultural University), Kei Mizuno (Kyoto University), Kojiro Mori (JICA project), Koji Nakamura (Kanazawa University), Kumiko Nakazono (Raks Thai Foundation), Hiroshi Nawata (Research Institute for Humanity and Nature), Tomoo Okayasu (The University of Tokyo), Krishna Chandra Paudel (Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal), Kunio Suzuki (Yokohama National University), Shinya Takeda (Kyoto University), Koichi Tokugawa (JICA Project), Takaki Toyota (Japan Overseas Forestry Consultants Association).

  • iv

    Tables of Contents

    Acknowledgement..................................................................................................iii

    Executive Summary ...............................................................................................vi

    Introduction..........................................................................................................viii

    1. Kyrgyz Republic: Transhumance in the Northern Mountainous Areas ...............1 1.1 Natural and Social Background ........................................................................... 1 1.2 Characteristics of Transhumance ......................................................................... 1 1.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................... 5

    2 China: Agricultural and Pastoral Landscapes in the Mountainous Districts of the Upper Watershed of the Yangtze River ...........7 2.1 Background ......................................................................................................... 7 2.2 Agricultural and grazing system in the high-elevation zones................................ 8 2.3 Challenges and Responses ................................................................................ 10

    3 China: Rural Communities in Cohabitation with the Crested Ibis in Yang County, Shaanxi Province ......................................................................12 3.1 Natural and Social Background ......................................................................... 12 3.2 Land Use in Yang County and Habitas of the Crested Ibis ................................ 13 3.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 14

    4 Japan: Satoyama focusing on rice cultivation in Noto and Kaga Regions .........17 4.1 Natural and Social Background ......................................................................... 17 4.2 Characteristics of satoyama landscapes in Ishikawa and changes in agriculture 18 4.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 20

    5 Mongolia: Nomadic Pastoralism in the Mongolian Plateau .............................23 5.1 Natural and Social Backgrounds........................................................................ 23 5.2 Pastoral System in Mongolia ............................................................................. 24 5.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 26

    6 South Korea: Traditional Rural Landscape “Maeul” .........................................29 6.1 Natural and Social Background ......................................................................... 29 6.2 Characteristics of Agricultural Landscape “Maeul” ............................................ 30 6.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 32

    7 India: Sacred Forests ...........................................................................................34 7.1 Natural and Social Background ......................................................................... 34 7.2 Characteristics of Sacred Forests ........................................................................ 34 7.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 37

    8 India: Homegardens in South India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands ...40 8.1 Natural and Social Background ......................................................................... 40 8.2 Characteristics of the Homegardens ................................................................. 40 8.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 43

    9 Iran: Agriculture Using Underground Irrigation Canals in Inland Dry and Semi-dry Zones ......................................................................45 9.1 Background ....................................................................................................... 45 9.2 Characteristics of Qanat System ........................................................................ 46 9.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 49

    10 Nepal: Agro-Pastoralism by Sherpa Communities in the North-Eastern Mountains ..........................................................................51 10.1 Background ....................................................................................................... 51 10.2 Characteristics of the Agro-Pastoralism in the Mountain Areas .......................... 52 10.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 54

  • v

    11 Sri Lanka: Tank Irrigation Farming in Dry Zones .............................................56 11.1 Background ....................................................................................................... 56 11.2 Characteristics of Tank Irrigation System ........................................................... 57 11.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 59

    12 Cambodia: Paddy rice cultivation and freshwater fishing industry in the Mekong and Tonl Sap Rivers .....................................................................61 12.1 Background ....................................................................................................... 61 12.2 Characteristics of Landscape and Agriculture in the Basins of

    Mekong and Tonle Sap River ............................................................................ 61 Rice Cultivation ......................................................................................................... 61

    13 Indonesia: Rice Terrace Landscapes and Irrigation Associations (Subak) in Bali Island ...................................................................................................65 13.1 Background ....................................................................................................... 65 13.2 The subak system Supporting the Rice Terrace Landscape ................................ 65 13.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 67

    14 Myanmar: Mangrove Forests in the Ayeyarwady Delta .....................................69 14.1 Natural and Social Background ......................................................................... 69 14.2 Use of Mangrove Forest Ecosystesm in Ayeyarwady Delta ................................ 69 14.3 Challenges and Responses................................................................................. 71

    15 Philippines: A Combination of Rice Terraces, Swidden, and Muyong (Privately Owned Forests) in the Province of Ifugao ........................................75 15.1 Background ............................................................................................