SOCIALIZING THE INDIVIDUAL Personality Development The Social Self Agents of Socialization.

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SOCIALIZING THE INDIVIDUAL Personality Development The Social Self Agents of Socialization

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  • SOCIALIZING THE INDIVIDUALPersonality DevelopmentThe Social SelfAgents of Socialization

  • Read the following statements. Do you think they are true or false?It has been proven that peoples personalities are not shaped by their environment.As long a childs basic needs such as food and clothing are met, he or she has no need for human contact to develop basic skills.Peoples personalities are rarely shaped by their families.

  • PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTPersonality- the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristic of an individualOur personality traits determine how we adjust to our environment and how we react to situationsPeoples personalities continue to develop throughout their lifetimes.

  • NATURE VS NURTUREHeredity- the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to childrenInstinct- an unchanging, biologically inherited behavior patternSociobiology- the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior

  • Nature NurtureWhat is it?In the "nature vs. nurture" debate, nature refers to an individual's innate qualities (nativism).In the "nature vs. nurture" debate, nurture refers to personal experiences (i.e. empiricism or behaviorism).ExampleNature is your genes. The physical and personality traits determined by your genes stay the same irrespective of where you were born and raised.Nurture refers to your childhood, or how you were brought up. Someone could be born with genes to give them a normal height, but be malnourished in childhood, resulting in stunted growth and a failure to develop as expected.FactorsBiological and family factorsSocial and environmental factors

  • HEREDITYEveryone has certain characteristics that are present at birth.Ex: body build, hair type, eye color, skin colorAptitude- a capacity to learn a particular skill or acquire a particular body of knowledgeEx: a natural talent for music or art would be considered an aptitudeEven though identical twins share the same genetic makeup, environmental factors contribute a great deal to their personalities and social behavior

  • BIRTH ORDERThe order in which we are born into our families influences our personalities.First-born children are more likely to be achievement oriented and responsibleLater-born children tend to be better in social relationships and be more affectionate and friendly

  • PARENTAL CHARACTERISTICSPersonality development in children is also influenced by the characteristics of their parents.Characteristics include:Parents AgeLevel of EducationReligious OrientationEconomic StatusCultural HeritageOccupational Background

  • CULTURAL ENVIRONMENTCulture has a strong influence on personality development.Each society has model personalities that are typical of members of that society.Ex: In the United States competitiveness, assertiveness, and individualism are common

  • ISOLATION IN CHILDHOODRemarkably, several recorded instances exist in which children have been raised without the influence of a cultural environment.Feral Children- wild or untamed childrenAnna and Isabelle pg 102Genie pg 103

  • THE SOCIAL SELFAt birth, humans cannot talk, walk, feed themselves, or protect themselves from harm.Through interaction with their social and cultural environments, people are transformed into participating members of their society.Socialization- the interactive process through which people learn basic skills, values, beliefs, and behavior patterns of a society.Self- your conscious awareness of possessing a distinct identity that separates you and your environment from other members of society

  • LOCKE: TABULA RASAJohn Locke, a philosopher from the 1600s insisted that each newly born human being is a tabula rasa, or clean slate.He claimed that each of us is born without a personality.Today few people have such an extreme view.

  • COOLEY: THE LOOKING GLASS SELFKnown for developing the idea of the primary group for his theory of explaining how individuals develop a sense of selfLooking Glass Self- the interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we imagine we appear to others.

    According to Cooley, our understanding of how others see us influences how we view ourselves and forms part of our identity

  • MEAD: ROLE-TAKINGAccording to Mead, seeing ourselves as others see us is only the beginning. Eventually we take on or pretend to take the roles of others.Role Taking- allows us to anticipate what others expect of us

    School-age children participate in organized games to help further the socialization process. During these games children play specific roles and anticipate others actions

  • AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATIONAgents of Socialization- the specific individuals, groups, and institutions that enable socialization to take placeIn the United States, the primary agents of socialization include family, the peer group, the school, and the mass media.

  • AOS: THE FAMILYThe family is the most important agent of socialization in almost every society.Its primary importance is its role in socializing young children.Children first interact with others and first learn the values, norms, and beliefs of society through their families.An example may be a mother teaching her children about the importance of telling the truth

  • AOS: THE PEER GROUPPeer Group- a primary group composed of individuals of roughly equal age and similar social characteristicsPeer groups are particularly influential during the pre-teenage and early teenage years.Parents become alarmed if they believe that the norms and values of the peer group are more important to their children than the family

  • AOS: THE SCHOOLFor most young people, school occupies large amounts of time and attention, thus school plays a major role in socializing individualsClass activities are planned for teaching various subjectsExtracurricular activities are intended to prepare students for life in the larger society.Between the ages of 5 and 18, students spend some 30 weeks a year in school. Teachers may become role models that influence students through regular academics as well as extra curricular activities

  • AOS: THE MASS MEDIAMass Media- instruments of communication that reach large audiences with no personal contact between those sending the information and those receiving itEx: books, films, internet, magazines, newspapers, radio, and TV98% of homes in the US have at least one TVChildren 6-17 average 28 hours of TV a weekSociologists who study mass media have raised concerns about the influence of violent programming on the behavior of children

  • AOS: RESOCIALIZATIONTotal Institution- setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and are subject to tight controlEx: prisons, military boot camps, monasteries, and psychiatric hospitalsResocialization- involves a break with past experiences and the learning of new values and normsOnce the persons sense of self has been weakened, it is easier for those in power to convince that person to conform to new patterns of behaviorPrison attempts to resocialize individuals by removing all semblance of personal identity. Prisoners wear the same uniform and have to give up many freedoms