Socialization and Development Chapter 4. Learning Objectives Describe socialization. Explain...

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Socialization and Socialization and Development Development Chapter 4 Chapter 4
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Transcript of Socialization and Development Chapter 4. Learning Objectives Describe socialization. Explain...

  • Slide 1
  • Socialization and Development Chapter 4
  • Slide 2
  • Learning Objectives Describe socialization. Explain primary socialization. Discuss how biology and socialization contribute to the formation of the individual. Describe how people develop a social identity. Know what sociobiology is. Explain how extreme social deprivation affects early childhood development.
  • Slide 3
  • Explain the views of Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead. Describe Erik Eriksons model of lifelong socialization. Explain how family, schools, peer groups, and the mass media contribute to childhood socialization. Know how adult socialization differs from primary socialization. Identify where resocialization takes place.
  • Slide 4
  • Nature Versus Nurture: A False Debate Nature Inherited characteristics Inherited characteristics Nurture Socialization experiences Socialization experiences
  • Slide 5
  • Socialization Learned The process of social interaction that teaches the child the intellectual, physical, and social skills needed to function as a member of society Begins at birth Begins at birth Provides connection to culture Provides connection to culture Contributes to acquisition of personality Contributes to acquisition of personality
  • Slide 6
  • Genetics Inherited Biological transmissions from mother and father that influence: Chemical processes Chemical processes Blood type Blood type Physiological response and perception Physiological response and perception Taste, colorTaste, color Physical traits Physical traits Height, weight, hair color, musculatureHeight, weight, hair color, musculature
  • Slide 7
  • Sociobiology - Synthesis Behavioral Ecology Acknowledges biological basis for some human behavior Acknowledges biological basis for some human behavior Recognizes socialization and free willRecognizes socialization and free will Links some behavior to survivalLinks some behavior to survival Part of natural selectionPart of natural selection
  • Slide 8
  • Social Issues Deprivation and Development Concept of Self Dimensions of Development
  • Slide 9
  • Deprivation and Development Extreme Childhood Deprivation Inhibits: Inhibits: Social attachmentsSocial attachments Meaningful interactions and affectionate bonds with othersMeaningful interactions and affectionate bonds with others Emerges in: Emerges in: InstitutionsInstitutions Impersonal careImpersonal care Potential attachment disorderPotential attachment disorder
  • Slide 10
  • Attachment Disorder An inability to trust people and form relationships with others An inability to trust people and form relationships with others Inhibits socialization, cultural learning, and attachment Inhibits socialization, cultural learning, and attachment
  • Slide 11
  • The Concept of Self Social identity based on status Socially defined positions are acquired through socialization Socially defined positions are acquired through socialization The self is this changing yet enduring personal identity
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  • Dimensions of Human Development CognitiveMoralGender
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  • Cognitive Development Stages Sensorimotor Stage Sensorimotor Stage Touch and feelTouch and feel Cause and effectCause and effect Operational Stage Operational Stage Understanding of relationshipsUnderstanding of relationships Recognition of consequences of acts and decisionsRecognition of consequences of acts and decisions
  • Slide 14
  • Moral Development Progression leading to shared view of right and wrong Orientation toward punishmentOrientation toward punishment Orientation toward rewardOrientation toward reward Orientation toward possible disapprovalOrientation toward possible disapproval Orientation towards laws and dishonorOrientation towards laws and dishonor Orientation toward peer values and democracyOrientation toward peer values and democracy Orientation toward personal valuesOrientation toward personal values
  • Slide 15
  • Gender Identity Biological Grounding Male/female difference in size, strength, endurance Male/female difference in size, strength, endurance Reproductive roles Reproductive roles Cultural Definition Gender stratification in social performance roles Gender stratification in social performance roles
  • Slide 16
  • Impediments to Development Deprivation Extreme childhood deprivation Extreme childhood deprivation Impediment to social attachmentImpediment to social attachment Infants in institutions Infants in institutions Attachment disorderAttachment disorder
  • Slide 17
  • Theories of Development Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929) The looking-glass self The looking-glass self Imagine how our actions appear to othersImagine how our actions appear to others Imagine how other people judge these actionsImagine how other people judge these actions Make some sort of self-judgment based on the presumed judgments of othersMake some sort of self-judgment based on the presumed judgments of others
  • Slide 18
  • Theories of Development George Herbert Mead (18631931) The I and the me The I and the me I is free, active, and spontaneous.I is free, active, and spontaneous. Me is grounded in socialization process from family, peers, school, etc.Me is grounded in socialization process from family, peers, school, etc.
  • Slide 19
  • Mead, continued Significant others Significant others Those who are most important in our development, such as parents, friends, and teachersThose who are most important in our development, such as parents, friends, and teachers Generalized others Generalized others The viewpoints, attitudes, and expectations of society as a whole, or of a community of people whom we are aware of and who are important to usThe viewpoints, attitudes, and expectations of society as a whole, or of a community of people whom we are aware of and who are important to us
  • Slide 20
  • The Psychologists Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Self is comprised of three parts Self is comprised of three parts Id, Superego, and EgoId, Superego, and Ego Individual remains in constant conflictIndividual remains in constant conflict Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Lifelong socialization Lifelong socialization Eight stages of development and crisis Eight stages of development and crisis
  • Slide 21
  • Early Socialization in American Society The Family The School Peer Groups Mass Media
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  • The Family Primary source for early socialization Connects to particular version of culture Connects to particular version of culture Subcultural communitySubcultural community Geographic regionGeographic region Social classSocial class Ethnic groupEthnic group Religious orientationReligious orientation
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  • The School Institutional Framework Selected skills and knowledge Selected skills and knowledge Mitigates conflicting values between: Mitigates conflicting values between: FamilyFamily Local communityLocal community State, regional, and local requirementsState, regional, and local requirements
  • Slide 24
  • Peer Groups Individuals who are social equals Powerful influence over lifestyle issues Powerful influence over lifestyle issues AppearanceAppearance ActivitiesActivities Interaction and datingInteraction and dating Materialism and consumerismMaterialism and consumerism
  • Slide 25
  • Mass Media Television, Movies, & Video Games An inescapable presence Measurable time involvement Measurable time involvement 2.5 hours weekdays / 4.3 hours weekends2.5 hours weekdays / 4.3 hours weekends Cumulative totals exceed personal interaction in other areasCumulative totals exceed personal interaction in other areas Promotes aggression Promotes aggression Problem resolution via violenceProblem resolution via violence
  • Slide 26
  • Adult Socialization New statuses and roles learned Greater awareness of impact of socialization Greater awareness of impact of socialization Increased control over processes Increased control over processes Marriage and responsibilityMarriage and responsibility ParenthoodParenthood Career development / Vocation and identityCareer development / Vocation and identity Resocialization potential Total institutions Total institutions
  • Slide 27
  • Marriage and Responsibility Critical examination of traditional role expectations of marriage New definitions of relationships New definitions of relationships Reexamination of demands of society Reexamination of demands of society
  • Slide 28
  • Parenthood Reexamination of role expectations Partners of each other Partners of each other As parent and as a spouseAs parent and as a spouse Secondary opportunity for socialization missed early Secondary opportunity for socialization missed early
  • Slide 29
  • Career Development: Vocation and Identity New social context Specific statuses and roles Specific statuses and roles Socialization to specific needs of the situationSocialization to specific needs of the situation Resocialization into new social functionsResocialization into new social functions Conflict between career and other social identity Conflict between career and other social identity
  • Slide 30
  • Aging and Society Late-in-life requirement for change in social identity Potential for: Potential for: Loss of self-esteemLoss of self-esteem Decline in physical and mental healthDecline in physical and mental health Restrictions on mobility and independenceRestrictions on mobility and independence