SOCI 221 Basic Concepts in Sociology of Education School of Continuing and Distance Education...
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Transcript of SOCI 221 Basic Concepts in Sociology of Education School of Continuing and Distance Education...
College of Education
School of Continuing and Distance Education 2014/2015 2016/2017
Basic Concepts in Sociology
Session 2 Origin and Emergence of Sociology
Lecturer: Dr. Samson Obed Appiah, Dept. of Sociology Contact Information: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sociology as a scientific study did not originate out of a vacuum. There were historical and social forces or factors which influenced the emergence and development of sociology. This section seeks to introduce students to the social and/or historical context in which sociology developed within Europe particularly France, Germany and Britain.
Objective of Session: At the end of the session, the student will
Understand the social conditions in Europe before the 18th and 19th century
Identify the historical and social factors which influenced the origin of sociology
Understand how the social forces particularly influenced the development of sociology
The key topics to be covered in the session are as follows:
Topic One : Social conditions in Europe before the 18th and 19th century
Topic Two : The Political or French Revolution
Topic Three: The Industrial Revolution
Topic Four: The Enlightenment or Age of Reason
Topic Three: Sociological Imagination
Topic One: Europe before the 18th and
19th Century Sociology as an academic discipline developed within
Europe particularly France, Germany and Britain.
As a result, the political, economic and religious conditions within these European societies influences the origins of sociology
Politically, European societies were monarchies ruled by kings who were considered divine and could not be challenged
Economically, they were agricultural people with little or no division of labour
Europe before the 18th and 19th Century Cont.
Religiously, they were conservative, illiterate and superstitious living in traditional communities.
However, by the beginning of the 19th century, Europeans begun to develop new ideas-
This is beginning of the period of Renaissance about their societies and social life and begun questioning the political, economic and religious structures of society
This lead to the social factors of the French and Industrial revolutions and the Enlightenment as social and intellectual factors influencing the origin of sociology
Topic Two: The Political or French Revolution
Before the revolution, France like other European societies were monarchies ruled by kings and a class-based society
As a result of new ideas, some people questioned the divine right of the monarchy and there was a revolution in France.
The revolution was positive as it brought about the end to the monarchy and class system leading to democracy
The Political or French Revolution Cont.
The negative effects of the revolution were that it created disrespect for authority, social anarchy, disorder and disintegration of society
It was these negative effects that influenced the emergence of sociology as some social philosophers were concerned about the chaos and anarchy in society.
Their desire and interest in re-creating orderly and well-integrated societies led to the development of societies (Founding fathers like Auguste Comte).
Topic Three: The Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution (1750-1850) resulted in the transformation of western world from a largely agricultural to an industrial system.
As a result, the labour force that had hitherto worked on the farms left for industrial factories.
The industrial revolution influenced the lives of people in many ways: migration to search for factory work
The revolution brought about a new capitalist system with few individuals owned the means of production
The Industrial Revolution Cont.
This brought about industrialization and urbanization and many social problems;
Problems such as unemployment, overcrowding, lack of accommodation, social isolation, creation of slumps among others
Social thinkers and early sociologist were concerned about these problems
Their attempts to find solutions to these problems by studying them led to the emergence of sociology
Topic Four: Enlightenment Period
In France, the Enlightenment is often termed the Age of Reason because this was when the hold of religion, tradition and superstition were finally broken
During this period, a number of long-standing ideas and beliefs about social life were overthrown and replaced with rational and empirical observation
Social philosophers believed in using knowledge and reasoning to create a good society.
The Enlightenment Cont.
It was these enlightenment ideas that brought about the changes in the political, economic and religious lives of European societies.
In an attempt to understand the political, economic and religious changes in Europe at the time, and provide solutions to them;
The French social philosopher Auguste Comte proposed that society should be studied scientifically through a new discipline called sociology.
In what ways did the following influenced the emergence of sociology as a scientific study of society?
1. The French or Political Revolution
2.The Industrial Revolution
Refer to students to relevant text/chapter or reading materials you will make available on Sakai
Hughes, M., Kroehler, C.J. (2005). Sociology: The Core (7th Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Chapter 1, Pages 8-10)
Henslin, J.M. (2007). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing. (Chapter one, Pages 5-6)
Robertson, Ian (1987). Sociology. New York: Worth Publications (Chapter one Pages)
Hughes, M., Kroehler, C.J. (2005). Sociology: The Core (7th Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Chapter 1, Pages 6-7)