SNC-Lavalin F+G 16x9 Template - · PDF file cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform 9 2020...

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Transcript of SNC-Lavalin F+G 16x9 Template - · PDF file cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform 9 2020...

  • Tim Taylor

    Faithful+Gould

    ‘Climate Change Adaptation for Schools’

  • 2cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    Overview

    1. Introduce on-going work on climate change adaptation by CIBSE School

    Design Group (SDG) and the Department for Education (DfE)

    2. Modelling impacts of 2°C and 4°C global warming on overheating risk in

    schools

    3. Monitoring thermal performance of existing schools

    4. Q&A

    2

  • 3cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    Adaptation vs. Mitigation

    3

    Mitigation

    •Measures or strategies that aim to limit or prevent emissions of greenhouse gases that cause climate change

    Adaptation •Measures or strategies that aim to limit the negative impacts of climate change

  • 4cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    CIBSE Schools Climate Change Adaptation

    The CIBSE School Design Group has

    convened a Climate Change Adaptation

    working group to share knowledge and

    promote good practice in adapting

    school buildings to future climate.

    The work of the group aims to engage

    industry-wide stakeholders to develop a

    balanced and collaborative range of

    recommendations.

    4

  • 5cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    Working Group Activities

    Modelling workstream

    Testing performance of recent school

    designs to future climate scenarios

    Monitoring workstream

    Gathering data on how school buildings

    are performing under current climate

    conditions

    5

    Impacts of higher

    temperatures on school buildings

    Assess performance

    of adaptation measures

    Modelling

    Validate predictive power of thermal models

    Monitoring

  • 66

    Climate Change Adaptation Modelling

    6

    CIBSE SDG Climate Change Adaptation Working Group

  • 7cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    BB101 Overheating Risk Assessment

    • Criterion 1 of CIBSE TM52 is used as the

    minimum requirement for demonstrating

    compliance with BB101 (threshold of 40

    hours exceedance)

    • CIBSE DSY1 2020 50% weather file (high

    emissions)

    • Occupied throughout summer period,

    09:00 to 16:00, Monday-Friday

    • No internal gains in teaching spaces

    during the lunch period 12:00 to 13:00

    7

    Primary School

    Equipment: 5W/m2

    Lighting: 7.2W/m2

    People: 60W (pupil), 70W (teacher)

    Secondary School

    Equipment: 10W/m2

    Lighting: 7.2W/m2

    People: 70W/person

  • 8cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    CIBSE SDG Climate Change Adaptation Working Group

    8

    4°C global warming by the end of the century

    Note: A correction to the baseline period (1980-2000) of

    approx. 0.55°C is required in order to define the extent of

    global warming relative to the pre-industrial period.

    Image source: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/fig-10-26.jpg

    In the A1FI scenario, 4°C warming in Global Mean Surface

    Temperature (GMST) might be reached by around 2065 with the

    mean projections for mid-range carbon cycle assumptions predicting

    this degree of warming to occur by approximately 2075. For weather

    file selection, the best match is therefore given by the “high”

    emissions, 50th percentile in the current CIBSE future weather files i.e.

    with the 2080s weather file representing a “4°C world”.

    https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/fig-10-26.jpg

  • 9cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform 9

    2020

    (2010 to 2039)

    2050

    (2040 to 2069)

    2080

    (2070 to 2099)

    BB101 / CIBSE TM59 CIBSE DSY1 (50th

    percentile range) High

    Emissions

    GLA Additional testing with

    CIBSE DSY2 and DSY3

    BREEAM 2018 HEA04 –

    Design for Future Thermal

    Comfort

    CIBSE DSY2 and DSY3

    (50th percentile range)

    Medium Emissions

    CIBSE SDG 2°C warming

    scenario

    CIBSE DSY1 (50th

    percentile range) Low

    Emissions

    CIBSE SDG 4°C warming

    scenario

    CIBSE DSY1 (50th

    percentile range) High

    Emissions

  • 10cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    Future Climate Modelling Brief

    • Modelling based on BB101 overheating risk assessment methodology

    • Data collected on schools designed to the most recent standards (i.e. to

    the requirements of the Facilities Output Specification 2013 or later)

    • Spreadsheet pro-forma circulated to consultants and contractors

    engaged on DfE procurement frameworks

    • Results anonymised and checked

    • 11 schools included in dataset

    10

  • 11cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform 11

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    School A School B School C School D School E School F School G School H School I School J School K

    % Classrooms failing - CIBSE DSY1 2020 (Criterion 1)

  • 12cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform 12

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    School A School B School C School D School E School F School G School H School I School J School K

    % Classrooms failing - 2°C warming (Criterion 1)

  • 13cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform 13

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    School A School B School C School D School E School F School G School H School I School J School K

    % Classrooms failing - 4°C warming (Criterion 1)

  • 14cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    School Characteristics

    • Majority are new-build secondary schools, with one primary school and a

    SEN/special school. Generally located in urban or suburban contexts.

    • Locations represented by four different CIBSE weather files: Birmingham,

    Norwich, Leeds and London (London Weather Centre).

    • Floor area of the schools ranged from 1,370m2 to 9,480m2. Mix of

    building form typologies, from simple rectangular plan to “superblock”.

    • Glazing proportion for standard classrooms ranged from 25% to 52%.

    • Majority of schools used a hybrid, single-sided ventilation strategy. Most

    have thermal mass. All incorporated some form of night-purge strategy.

    14

  • 15cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    Results

    15

    • All consultants used IES

    Virtual Environment software

    • Window opening profiles

    • Night purge ventilation controls

    • Most schools incorporated

    internal blinds, only one had

    external shading

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    School A School B School C School D School E School F School G School H School I School J School K

    % Classrooms failing - 2°C and 4°C warming (Criterion 1)

    Sum of % Classrooms failing - 2020 Criterion 1

    Sum of % Classrooms failing - 2°C warming Criterion 1

    Sum of % Classrooms failing - 4°C warming Criterion 1

  • 16cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    Findings

    • Some incidences of classrooms failing the BB101 overheating risk

    assessment with 2°C global warming. Majority of classrooms are failing

    the BB101 overheating risk assessment with 4°C global warming.

    • Application of cooling hierarchy: some design strategies may have

    greater resilience than others e.g. cross-ventilation vs. single-sided.

    • Differences in modelling methodologies:

    • Ventilation openings and systems

    • Use of internal blinds

    • Modelling needs to reflect school user and management behaviours.

    16

  • 1717

    Climate Change Adaptation Monitoring

    17

    CIBSE SDG Climate Change Adaptation Working Group

  • 18cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    Building In-Use Surveys

    • Why – The DfE are entrusted with billions of pounds of public money. We

    must continue to ask how this money can be spent most effectively.

    • What – Functionality, Health and Safety , Standardisation, Future

    proofing, Minimum Life Expectancy & Sustainable Design

    • Where – 70 school buildings across major capital programmes

    • When – Buildings open 2-3 years on average

    • Who – Technical and Non-Technical end users

    18

  • 19cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    Performance In-Use Environmental Data

    Data Source – Data provided to iSERV (K2n Platform)

    Notes – Analysis excludes review of:

    • Operation strategy and user behaviour

    • Any maintenance carried out

    • System specification

    • The severity of overheating

    19

  • 20cibse.org/b2plive @CIBSE #Build2Perform

    BB101 Overheating Performan