SMU 3rd sem-MU0011
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MU0011-Management and Organizational DevelopmentAssignment Set- 1Q.1) Explain the levels of Management. Ans: Levels of Management refer to the segregation between the different managerial
positions in an organization. Depending on the size of the business and the size of work force the number of levels of management increases or decreases. Levels of management decide the chain of command, the amount of authority & responsibility assigned. There are three broad categories: 1. Top level / Administrative level 2. Middle level / Executive 3. Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers We will refer to low level management as junior management.
Fig. Levels of Management 1 Top Management The top management would consist of the board of directors, CEO (Chief Executive Officer) and or the MD (Managing Director). The top management is the highest authority of the organization. The top level management sets goals and policies. As a thinking body, it devotes more time on planning and coordinating functions. Top management is responsible for: Decides the vision, mission, goals and objectives apart from policies Provides guidelines and schedules for department budget preparation. Facilitates strategic plan & policy development. Appoints leadership team members. Ensures all departments work well with each other.
Continuously keeps a check through teams on the external environment and its impact on the business. Ensures necessary corrective and preventive action is taken in time. Provides guidance and direction. Top management is responsible to all shareholders for the performance of the organization.
2 Middle Management Branch managers and departmental managers form the middle management. They report to the top management. They spend more time on organizational and directional functions. Depending on the organization size, the existence and the no. of layers of middle management are decided. Middle management is responsible for: Executing organizational plans as per the policies and directives of the top management Planning for the sub-units of the organization Employing & training of junior management Interpreting and explaining policies Coordinating the activities within the division or department. Reporting to top management Performance evaluation of junior managers Inspiring junior managers to perform better.
3 Lower Management or Junior Management Lower level is also known as junior management, supervisory / operative level of management. It consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc. According to R.C. Davis, Supervisory management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely with personal oversight and direction of operative employees. In other words, they are concerned with direction and controlling function of management. Their activities include: Assigning tasks Guiding and instructing workers for day-to-day activities Ensuring quality and quantity of production as per targets Maintaining good relations with colleagues Communicating worker issues, suggestions and recommendations to top management Communicating goals and objectives set by middle and top management Solve employee grievances, supervising & guiding team members Training colleagues and team members, motivating employees Arranging necessary resources (materials, machines, tools etc.) for getting the job done. Preparing reports about employee performance 2
Ensuring discipline amongst team and colleagues
Q.2) Discuss the genesis of Organizational Development Ans: The history of organization development will help to clarify the genesis and the
evolution of this term organization development. It would also enable to clarify some of the issues or confusions that have surrounded OD. Between 1950 and 2000 lot research work by eminent researchers has led to the development of organization development. There are 5 key inputs that have contributed to the genesis and development of OD. They are: Laboratory Training Action Research/Survey Framework Normative Approaches Quality of Work Life Strategic Change
1. The first was the growth of the National Training Laboratories (NTL) and the training groups, which were also known as sensitivity training or T-groups. 2. The second was the classic work on action research that had been conducted by the social scientists. These social scientists were interested in applying research to manage change. Kurt Lewin was the person who instrumental in the development of action research and hence OD. We all have realized that change is the only constant. The only way to move forward positively is to learn to manage change. If there is a scientific way to manage change, then it should be leveraged, hence the development of OD. 3. The third was the normative view of organization development. Essentially saying that there is only one best way to design and operate organizations. 4. The fourth input was the approach focusing on productivity and the quality of work life. 5. The fifth input was the development of strategic change and organization transformation. Let us understand each one of these a little bit more in detail.1 Laboratory Training Background
Laboratory training or the T-group is a small, unstructured group in which the participants learn from each other. They learn from their own interactions. They learn
from the evolving dynamics about issues such as interpersonal relations, personal growth, leadership and group dynamics. Essentially during the event the participants were provided feedback in private, but participants requested to be allowed to listen into the feedback being offered to others. Reluctantly the facilitators agreed. The experiment paid off with many potential benefits. 1. Feedback about group interaction was a rich learning experience 2. Process of group building had potential for learning that could be transferred to real life situations. 2 Action Research and Survey Feedback Background During the research in 1940 it was learnt that research needed to be closely linked to action if organization members were to use it to manage change. A joint effort by organization members and social scientists was undertaken to collect data, analyze it and to devise and implement solutions. The result of action research was: members of organizations were able to use research on themselves to guide action and change; and social scientists were able to study the process to derive new knowledge that could be used elsewhere. 3 Normative Background Primarily the belief here is that, there is one best way of managing organizations. Usually managements are either exploitative and authoritative; or benevolent and authoritative; or consultative; or participative group based. Organizations are such because their systems are designed in such a manner. Survey and research proved that the participative group method management is the best way of managing organizations. 4 Productivity and Quality of Work-Life (QWL) Background The first phase in this was development of work designs aimed at better integrating technology and people. Management unions got together to design work and the work designs created provided discretion, task variety and feedback about results. Perhaps the most distinguishing part of QWL programs was the discovery of self-managing work groups as a form of work design. These groups were composed of multi-skilled workers who were given the necessary autonomy and information to design and manage their own task performances. This worked well in the USA from 1950-1970 but as business evolved so did the competition. Organizations realized that the work practices in USA led to manufacturing of merchandise, but this merchandise was not able to compete with the low cost, high quality merchandise from other countries like Japan. Organizations realized that the systems used in Japan were different. 5 Strategic Change Background
Strategic change is focused on improving the alignment amongst organizations efforts. In other words the organization should think and communicate the same messages. These messages should be reinforced by appropriate actions. Here organizations chose to focus on businesses where they had core competencies. They moved out of businesses where they did not have core competencies. The business acquired was to ensure that there was a strategic fit. The latest example in India is the acquisition of a major stake in Reva Electric Car Company by the Mahindra group. The Mahindra group has been into the automotive segment for decades and wanted the electric capability to build hybrid cars. This it would get from Reva and hence the acquisition of a major stake. 6 The New Holistic Approach in Organization Development In todays dynamic business world, most organizations experience change on continuous basis and have come to a conclusion that change is a never ending process. As soon as one organizational problem is rectified, another one presents itself. The cycle therefore goes on despite the best efforts by the leaders and managers.Q.3) Write a note on techno structural interventions. Ans: These interventions focus on an organizations technology (for example, task
methods and job design) and structure (for example, division of labor and hierarchy). These change methods are receiving increasing attention in OD, especially in light of current concerns about productivity and organizational effectiveness. The following three techno-structural interventions are concerned with restructuring organizations: Structural Design This change process concerns the organizations division of labor how to specialize task performances. Interventions aimed at structural design include moving from more traditional ways of dividing the organizations overall work (such as functional, selfcontained-unit, and m