Smith-Root Barrier Book

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Guide to Smith-Root fish barrier technology.

Transcript of Smith-Root Barrier Book

  • WWW.SMITH-ROOT.COM

    SMITH-ROOT, INC.14014 NE Salmon Creek Ave.Vancouver, WA 98686 USA

    360.573.0202 Voice360.573.2064 FAX

    info@smith-root.com

    Since 1964, the leader in effective, safe and reliable products for fisheries conservation. Knowledgeable biologists depend upon Smith-Root equipment.

    www.smith-root.com Products for Fisheries ConservationSMITH-ROOT

    WWW.SMITH-ROOT.COM

    SMITH-ROOT, INC.14014 NE Salmon Creek Ave.Vancouver, WA 98686 USA

    360.573.0202 Voice360.573.2064 FAX

    info@smith-root.com

    Since 1964, the leader in effective, safe and reliable products for fisheries conservation. Knowledgeable biologists depend upon Smith-Root equipment.

    www.smith-root.com Products for Fisheries ConservationSMITH-ROOT

    SMITH-ROOT, INC.FISH BARRIERS & GUIDANCE

    09446.005

  • 09446.05 Smith-Root Electrical Fish Barriers and Guidance, Revision 5 - Spring 2012

    This document is the Intellectual Property of Smith-Root, Inc., and may not be used, sold, transferred, copied, or reproduced in whole or in part in any manner or form or in or on any media to any person without the prior written consent of Smith-Root, Inc.

    2012 Smith-Root, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright in the whole and every part of this document belongs to Smith-Root, Inc. and may not be used, sold, transferred, copied or reproduced in whole or in part in any manner or form or in or on any media to any person without the prior written consent of Smith-Root, Inc.

    COMPANY PROFILE

    "The electrical fish barrier was therefore highly successful in preventing fish passage into the San Joaquin River."

    Dale Gates California Department of Fish & Game

    "Barrier systems and remote monitoring capabilities have been refined and upgraded over the dozen-plus years of technological advancements."

    Robert W. Clarkson - U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

    For over 40 years Smith-Root

    has been committed to the

    conservation and sustainability

    of fisheries resources.

    We stop invasive

    fish species from

    migrating into

    delicate natural

    ecosystems.

    We analyze the effect

    of waveforms on

    fish to provide our

    clients with cutting

    edge technology.

    We produce the

    most effective

    behavioral barriers &

    guidance systems.

    We are the

    world leader in

    Fish Guidance

    Technologies.

    1 www.SMITH-ROOT.COM

  • www.SMITH-ROOT.COM CONTENTS

    Fish Barriers & Guidance

    1 Company proFile 1

    2 summary 4

    3 introduCtion 5

    4 Graduated Fields 7

    5 Barrier parameters 8

    6 desCription oF systems 10

    6.1.2.2 plastiC Culvert Barrier 1 1

    6.1.3 tailraCe Barrier 1 1

    6.1.4 Canal Barrier 12

    6.1.5 intake Barrier 12

    6.1.6 louvered intake Barrier 12

    6.2 doWnstream Barrier 1 3

    ; 6.3 statiC or loW-FloW Barriers 1 3

    6.4 temporary or seasonal Barriers 14

    6.5 marine mammal deterrenCe 15

    6.6 eXperimental Barriers 16

    7 equipment and monitorinG 17

    8 saFety 19

    9 appliCations and researCh 20

    10 availaBle serviCes 21

    ii Barrier sites 23

    1 1 literature and reports 27

    CONTENTS

  • 4 2012

    Fish Barriers & Guidance

    2 Summary

    Our technology has allowed greater efficiency, more options, and safer parameters that exceed todays stringent environmental demands and regulatory requirements.Our experienced

    engineers, scientists and project managers have worked together to create distinctive solutions for various fish guidance needs.This booklet provides the

    reader with information on Smith-Roots fish guidance systems. Because of their technological complexity, it is important to provide a thorough explanation of how the systems work and how they can apply to particular situations.What types of systems are

    available? Where can a system be

    best located? What parameters need to

    be known? These questions are

    answered first by identifying the species of concern. All species respond differently to

    electrical current. Smith- Roots long experience with electrofishing and electrical barriers allows our staff to determine the optimal configuration and settings for a successful project.Next, why do the fish or

    marine species need to be deterred? To achieve maximum deterrence efficiency, Smith-Root must fully understand the final goal to be achieved. The third factor to consider

    is power. What is the available power? Is there an opportunity to use the local grid or is on-site generation such as fossil fuels or renewable energy required? After determining the

    species to be targeted, the reason for the guidance system, and the power availability, the physical characteristics of the waterway and associated hydraulics need to be considered. Understanding the velocity, flow and sediment transportation of a waterway is fundamental for a successful design and implementation. This

    Complete information, including details of existing installations, is always available online at: www.smith-root.com/ barriersFor more information regarding your specific need, please contact us directly at 360-573-0202 or pm@smith-root.com

    smith-root has been designing and installing fish barrier systems for over 20 years. advancements in electrical components have allowed smith-root to develop product enhancements resulting in the most advanced fish deterrence and guidance systems available.

    information is required to develop a concept for an installation. It often can be found from local monitoring stations. Water conductivity is a

    measure of the resistance of water to the flow of electric current. This characteristic influences the amount of electricity needed to power a barrier. Usually also available through local monitoring stations, conductivity can be measured using a basic conductivity meter. Once the discovery

    process has been completed Smith-Root can design, construct, and monitor a fish guidance system to meet your specific needs.

  • www.SMITH-ROOT.COM 5

    Fish Barriers & Guidance

    fish physiologists. Direct current (DC) has an effect; so does alternating current (AC), and pulsed DC. AC has been found to be injurious to fish. It was used in early barriers throughout the world, but has been replaced in the Smith-Root systems with controlled pulsed DC in which the voltage, frequency, pulse shape and pulse width can be set for optimal behavioral response.

    What is the eleCtrode ConFiGuration and eleCtriCal Field pattern? To construct a barrier in a

    stream, electrodes are placed across the stream so that the electric current is parallel to the stream flow and aligned with the movement paths of fish. Electrodes can be vertical, suspended from a cable or a structure or attached to piling, or they can be horizontal, suspended at mid-depth or lying at the bottom. Electrodes on a stream bottom lying flush with the stream bed offer no impediment to debris or boat traffic, and therefore they are most commonly deployed. The shape of the electrical field is determined by the electrode configuration and the water

    INTrODuCTION 3

    Fish are uniquely sensitive to electrical currents because their muscle control is based on electrical impulses through their nervous system, and they inhabit a conductive environment. Electrical barriers and guidance structures make use of this sensitivity. Through many years of

    experience and research with electrofishing and barrier projects, we have found configurations and settings that can produce the desired responses without causing injury or trauma to the target species.

    What are eleCtriCal Fish Barrier and GuidanCe systems? An electrical fish barrier can

    be thought of as an impassable barricade, and a fish guidance system as a repelling zone. Both use electrical current passing through water. The electrical circuit has two or more metal electrodes submersed in water with a voltage applied between them. Electric current passing between the electrodes, via the water medium, produces an electric field. When fish are within the field, they become part of the electrical circuit with some of the current flowing through their bodies. This can evoke reactions ranging from a slight twitch to a change in swimming behavior to full paralysis, depending on the current level and pulse duration they receive.A barrier or guidance system

    exploits these reactions to influence fish behavior.

    What are the eleCtriCal Current types? Since the water acts as a resistor

    in the circuit, there is a voltage drop over a given length parallel to the electrical current, and a fish of the same length feels the same voltage drop. The amount of current that passes through the fish depends on relative conductivities. The response in a fish to the current passing through it is readily apparent, although the internal mechanisms are not entirely understood by

    Figure 3.1: Electric field in the water

    Figure 3.2: Electric field lines which run head-to-tail along the fish transfer the maximum power from water to fish.

    depth. The field is not affected by water flow, turbidity, debris, and modest sediment (although thick layers of sediment that are less conductive than the water can reduce the field in the water above bottom-mounted electrodes). The shape of the field is not affected by conductivity, but the amount of power needed to sustain a given field increases with the conductivity. Power requirements in brackish water can become large, and may necessitate a change of strategy. To produce the most efficient

    electric field pattern for blocking or guiding fish, it is desirable to produce a field wit