Smart Cities that don't go "bump" in the night: delivering interoperable smart city...

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I gave this presentation at the launch of the British Standards Institute's development of standards for interoperability between Smart Cities systems. It draws on my experience delivering large-scale, standards-based technology architectures. Whilst Open Standards will be absolutely crucial to the delivery and operation of interoperable, open Smart Cities systems, they are not a panacea, and it's vital that we're aware of their limitations as well as their value.

Transcript of Smart Cities that don't go "bump" in the night: delivering interoperable smart city...

Energy Audits - Transport

Cities that dont go bump in the nightRick Robinson, Executive Architect, Smarter Cities, IBM

rick_robinson@uk.ibm.comtwitter.com/dr_rick theurbantechnologist.com02/07/2014Copyright 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.Copyright 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.#

Copyright 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.#Barack Obama used his twitter account to great effect in winning his first Presidential Election. However at one point during the campaign, a Twitter administrators account with a weak password was hacked using a dictionary attack. Barack Obamas account was one of those that the hacker gained access to, resulting in a series of inappropriate tweets reaching his 155,000 followers.

When technology is used to influence or control real-world systems, technology failures can have significant real-world impacts.2What do we want?02/07/2014

Copyright 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.#There are thousands of examples of IT projects that run into difficulty, or that deliver unsatisfactory systems, because of failures of communication between the very many stakeholders involved; from misinterpretations of business requirements to mis-communication between project teams. Any experienced IT deliver person will recognise all of the problems illustrated by this cartoon.3What is a Smart City?A Smart City is one that is fully exploiting developments in science and technology to enable a successful future of equitably distributed, sustainable growth.Copyright 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.#First, we need to agree what a Smart City is. This is the most succinct and open definition I use.Hard InfrastructuresSpaces and buildingsTransport and Utilities networkInformation and Communication TechnologySoft InfrastructuresNetworks and Community organisationsInnovation forumsLeadership and governanceCity SystemsTransport ServicesHealthCultureEconomyCity AdminUtilitiesSocial CarePublic SafetyEducationOthers ... ?Public SectorCommunityPrivate SectorOthers ... ?SchoolsEmergency ServicesCouncil3rd SectorOthers ... ?Social EnterprisesNot-for-profitsCharitiesOthers ... ?SMEs RetailersEmployersOthers ... ?Neighbourhoods

Cultural & ReligiousIndependenceChoiceSustainabilityOthers ... ?WealthOpportunitySafetyHealthGoalsCitizens, Employees, Innovators, Visitors ...PeopleEcosystemFamily & Social

http://theurbantechnologist.com/2012/09/26/the-new-architecture-of-smart-cities/Secondly, well need common understanding across all of the very many areas of concern involved in Smart Cities, from environment to technology infrastructures to systems such as healthcare and water supply, through communities and cultural ecosystems to governance and politics.

This diagram is taken from my article, The New Architecture of Smart Cities: http://theurbantechnologist.com/2012/09/26/the-new-architecture-of-smart-cities/5Smarter Return on Investment02/07/2014

Positioning the organization for future success and competitive advantage.Strategic valueBrand valueOperation valueSocietal valueStrengtheningperception, reputation and influence.Improving existing operations and creating new capabilities.Creating social,cultural andenvironmentalbenefits.http://www.ibm.com/smartercities/Copyright 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.#The objective of Smart Cities isnt to create a financial profit though they must demonstrate some form of financial value in order to attract investment. The real objectives are usually social, environmental and economic. There are strong resonances with the concept of the triple bottom line and social capital. But brand value is also important, as cities seek to attract residents and businesses in a globally competitive market.

6Will it work?02/07/2014

Copyright 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.#When IT projects fail, they usually fail at the interfaces between systems. As technology becomes embedded in more and more physical and social systems, we are creating new interfaces that we have never built before. The risk of failure is therefore high, and we need to design those interfaces carefully to avoid failure as far as possible; and to mitigate its effects. One way to do that is to create new standards that professionals in technology, construction, social care and politics can all use, along with citizens, communities and businesses, to at least build a common understanding of how those interfaces should behave.7Delivery cultures02/07/2014

Copyright 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.#This spreadsheet illustrates the difference in culture between the IT industry and the engineering and construction industries. In IT, the prevailing culture is to assume that a project is proceeding successfully unless it can be demonstrated to be failing, or to be exposed to unacceptable risk. In the engineering and construction industries, projects are not assumed to be successful until it is proved they are deliverable on time.

I once saved a deeply troubled, multi-100m IT programme by adopting construction culture, not IT culture. This spreadsheet was colour-coded red for every element of every project that could not prove it had committed resources to address every issue in its project plan. Rick and Daves big red spreadsheet printed out on A2 paper and walked around the office of the company running the project drew attention to the number and severity of issues affecting the programme, resulting in a restructuring that enabled it to be successful.

Its already hard enough to deliver projects successfully in the IT, construction and engineering industries. When we bring them together; and attempt to address issues in the complex, emergent, human context of cities, well multiply the challenges. Standard approaches to expressing targets, measuring progress towards them, and characterising and quantifying risk will be needed if we are to succeed.8Delivery methods02/07/2014

Copyright 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.#This diagram describes part of the project methodology by which IBM governs the delivery of complex IT projects. Most successful organisations have similar formal methods (agile methods are structured very differently to traditional methods; but they are still methods). The most experienced project delivery expert that I know once told me if you see no method applied to project governance, be worried. If you see two or more methods, be terrified.

Smart cities projects will involved teams and companies drawn from a wide variety of disciplines and sectors. They will all have very different methods of delivering projects successfully. Unless we can at least align those Methods to each other, it will be very difficult and risky to deliver Smart Cities projects successfully.9Will things work together?02/07/2014

Copyright 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.#Smart Cities solutions involved systems in many different domains utilities, social care, education, culture integrating successfully together.

But integration, especially of such complex systems, is not easy.1002/07/2014OrganizationDefinition: A group of persons organized for a particular purposeExamples: Police department, public housing department, bus department, transportation agency, water agency, electric utilityKey attributes: Name, type of organization, description, identification, websiteKey relationships: Organizations (parent-child), assets, locationStandards assessment: National Information Exchange Model (NIEM): NIEM-Core (nc:)OrganizationType, UCore (Universal Core) organizationAlertDefinition: A warning or alarm for an imminent eventExamples: Road repair advisoryKey attributes: Sender, description, urgency, severity, certainty, onset time, location, supporting resourcesKey relationships: Sender (organization or person), location, incident, work ordersStandards assessment: The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) has extensive support for the alert concept. The UCore Event concepts are also applicable.IncidentDefinition: An occurrence or an event that may require a responseExamples: Road repair, automobile accident, water main bursting, criminal activityKey attributes: Date and time of the incident, description, IDKey relationships: Location, alerts, work orders, owner (organization or person)Standards assessment: NIEM:nc:IncidentType, CAP:alert:incidents, UCore Event, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Ontology EventPersonDefinition: A human being, an individualExamples: James, Bob, SallyKey attributes: Full name, given name, family name, gender, date of birth, place of birth, citizenship, country of birthKey relationships: Employer, location, address, organization, role (such as operator, supervisor, responder, analyst, asset manager)Standards assessment: NIEM:nc:PersonType, UCore Person, SOA Ontology Human ActorAssetDefinition: A tangible object that can be tracked over timeExamples: Road, water pipe, electric capacitor, bus, buildingKey attributes: Description, IDKey relationships: Organization, person, manufacturer, location, work order, incidentStandards assessment: NIEM:ip: AssetType, UCore Entity

Work orderDefinition: An order to do some work; to fix, repair or replaceExamples: Road repair, utility maintenance on a main valve, re-routing of busesKey attributes: Description, ID, comment, priority, status, location, start date/time, stop date/timeKey relationships: Work steps, work orders (parent-child), incident, alert, organization, maintenance history, specification, person, assetsStandards assessment: No relevant standards identified at this time.Process and procedureDefinition: A series of actions to accomplish a goalExamples: Road repair notification and coordinationKey attributes: Process documentKey relationships: Process steps, work orders, incident, alert, organization, person, assetsStandards assessment: SOA Ontology ProcessKey Performance IndicatorDefinition: A measurement or criteria to assay the condition or