Smart buildings lecture for Aalto Pro

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Transcript of Smart buildings lecture for Aalto Pro

  • 1. Smart Buildings:lykkt rakennukset tulossa(Smart buildings are coming) Aalto Pro 11.6.2012

2. Smart Grid:For Energy Generators 3. Electricity Generation Traditional Electricity Grid Customers consume electricity and electricity companies generate electricity to match the demand Fortum 4. Electricity GenerationSmart Grid Electricity companies shall try to influence WHEN and HOW MUCH consumers use electricity Fortum 5. Electricity Generation 3 Important Elements Electricity generators willoperate more efficiently Energy consumers will have anew method of pricing Private energy generators cansell back to the grid moreeasily Fortum 6. DefinitionsSmart grid: Energy supply network that shall charge consumers at a variable energy price per hour Prices shall be varied with demand First project in Finland January 2013 (Fortum) Kalasatamankeskus first smart grid neighbourhood (Helsingin Energia)Smart meters: Electronic energy meters that record detailed customer data the amount of energy consumed and when this energy is consumed Information can be viewed in real-time 7. Electricity Generation: Inefficient Load American example of electricty generation for 1 day Data from NIST1,2 1Normalized electric system load0,80,60,40,2 01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour of day 8. Electricity Generation: Inefficient Load Finnish example of electricty generation for 1 year (2011)Energiateollisuus 9. Finland: Peak electricitydemand in winter 10. Electricity Generation Finnish peak day energy generation: February 2011403530 % of peak load2520 18%1510 5 0 Nuclear Power Hydro Power WindCHPCondensing Nett imports Energy generation method 11. Electricity Generation Cost of generation (approximate costs, operation only)System / MWhWind5Nuclear Power15Hydro Power20Condensing Coal25CHP38Nett imports 49Conventional gas turbine 125 12. Energy GenerationPrices: Electricity is important Electricity District Heating 201184,4 /MWh201163,9 /MWh 2020110,7 /MWh1202065,8 /MWh Change31,2 %Change2.9%1The Finnish electricity price for 2020 has assumed to be equal to the Germanelectricity price for 2011. The German 2011 price has been taken from a Eurostatreport that showed German energy prices for mid-size industrial companies (5002000 MWh) 13. Smart Grid:For Energy Consumers 14. Smart Grid: How to reduce consumption Energy ReductionLoad shifting Peak ShavingEnergyEnergyEnergy TimeTime TimeOptions:Options: Options: Renewable energy Smart appliances React to energy prices byturning systems on or off Energy reduction Task schedulingmeasures Reduce internal conditions Advanced presencedetection 15. ZumawireSmart GridLoad shifting Electric car charging at night Smart appliances: dishwashing machine, clothes washing machinePeak shaving Winter peak: turn off night-time lighting or to dim advertisementlighting when prices are particularly high Summer peak: less cooling, target temperature rises from 21oC to24oCHigh supply Plenty of wind, take advantage of low energy prices: industrial processes that require large amounts of electricity maybe automatically performed cheaper to use expensive home systems such as sauna 16. the wind is blowing in Denmark so maybe we will have a sauna 17. Smart Buildings:Case Studies 18. Smart Buildings VTT VTT VTT test apartment in Oulu Opened 2012 Electric car Electricity storage VTT 5.5 kW wind power plant 20 m2 of solar cells generating 4 kW Graphical displays to monitor the electricityconsumption 19. Smart Buildings Airut, Jtksaari, Helsinki To open 2015 Solar power, geothermal heating Dashboard: Sitra smart appliances showing energy consumption comparing energy consumption with the building average booking system for shared cars booking system for community sauna public transport timetables Sitra 20. Sitra 21. Airut, Jtksaari Sitra 22. Airut, Jtksaari Sitra 23. Airut, Jtksaari Sitra 24. Sitra Airut, JtksaariHeating system:Locking system:- Radiators with remote controlers- Turns energy systems off- Pay the heating you use not per m2- Heating reduced- Non-essential circuit off- Lighting off- Kitchen stove off- Sauna off- Ventilation offAdditional metering: Information and control dashboard - Electrical (per circuit) - Laptop / ipad / phone - Heating (space / water)- Link to smart software- Feedback from meters- Control heating and ventilation Showers:- Link to community information- Water meter per apartment- Pay the heating you use not per m2Low2No Smart Systems Selections 25. Smart BuildingsSan Francisco Public Utility Commission (SFPUC) Opened 2011 26 000 m2 450 dashboards providing all building users with: energy consumption water consumption carbon footprint SFPUCSmart Buildings, LLC 26. Smart Buildings NASA Ames Research Center Opened 2012 4 750 m2 5 000 wireless sensors: temperature io9.com carbon dioxide levels natural lighting air flow Construction costs were only 6% more than a traditionalbuilding also includes solar panels and geothermal cooling 27. Smart BuildingsBridesburg Metalworks, Pennsylvania Operate 0700 1500 US electricity peak is in summer The are paid to turn off metal melting machines Melting employees move to the packaging department They are earning an extra $25 000 per year opower 28. Smart BuildingsNew Ways of Working 29. Commercial Buildings:Peak shaving Can we find items to turn off in the middle of the day Office staff on holidays, sick, external meetings, sales team UK study shows offices on average 45% occupied 22: Regus, Measuring the benefits of agility at work, May 2011Energy Turn off (where people are missing) Lighting Ventilation Computers 30. Monitoring occupancyAccess control system - measures when people are in the buildingEmployees log in/out of the building via: Electronic time clock Smart phone Personal computer Real time location tagsBuildingLocation is defined as a set of routines:OUTIN Routine 1: out of the building Routine 2: in the building 31. Advanced presence detectionUse presence knowledge to control energy consuming systemsDefine location as a set of routines: Routine 1: out of the building Routine 2: in the building Subroutine A: at workspace Subroutine B: in a meeting Subroutine C: at lunch BuildingOUTINOUTIN OUTIN 32. Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control: Shut down an individuals workspace if they leave the building Set to standby an individuals workspace if they are in a meeting / at lunch Shut down a lighting / ventilation zone if all of the occupants are out of the officeExample zone control modes: System TypePresenceDetected Desk Lighting ON Common Lighting ON Equipment ON Ventilation 100 % Heating21oC Cooling25oC 33. Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control: Shut down an individuals workspace if they leave the building Set to standby an individuals workspace if they are in a meeting / at lunch Shut down a lighting / ventilation zone if all of the occupants are out of the officeExample zone control modes: System TypePresence No presenceDetected 15 mins Desk Lighting ON OFF Common Lighting ON ON Equipment ON STAND BY Ventilation 100 %100 % Heating21oC 21oC Cooling25oC 25oC 34. Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control: Shut down an individuals workspace if they leave the building Set to standby an individuals workspace if they are in a meeting / at lunch Shut down a lighting / ventilation zone if all of the occupants are out of the officeExample zone control modes: System TypePresence No presence No presenceDetected 15 mins 1 hour Desk Lighting ON OFF OFF Common Lighting ON ONOFF Equipment ON STAND BYSTAND BY Ventilation 100 %100 %50 % Heating21oC 21oC20oC Cooling25oC 25oC27oC 35. Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control: Shut down an individuals workspace if they leave the building Set to standby an individuals workspace if they are in a meeting / at lunch Shut down a lighting / ventilation zone if all of the occupants are out of the officeExample zone control modes: System TypePresence No presence No presenceNo presence 2Detected 15 mins 1 hour hours Desk Lighting ON OFF OFF OFF Common Lighting ON ONOFF OFF Equipment ON STAND BYSTAND BYOFF Ventilation 100 %100 %50 %Night time mode Heating21oC 21oC20oCNight time mode Cooling25oC 25oC27oCNight time mode 36. Concept developmentVirtual Energy Smart GridPrices Advanced AdvancedPresence ControlsDetectionTechnology 37. Incentive schemesResidential building example: A block of similar 2 bedroom apartments Incentive scheme to reduce energy Reward given to the lowest energy consumption 38. Occupation density Energy directly related to people is not considered by area metrics Average occupation density in UK offices is 11.8m2 per workspace3 77% of workspaces between 8m2 & 13m2 per workspace Using kWh/m2, 13m2 per workspace will seem more energyefficient than 8m2 per workspace 3: Occupier Density Study Summary Report, British Council for Offices, June 2009Source: Fooducate.com 39. Case study: Occupation densitySimulated case study: office building in Helsinki Area: 4650m2 Hours of occupancy 08:00 17:00 (9 hours)Similar day lengths, different occupation densities Case ABC Population density (m2/person) 8 1012 Number of occupants 500400 332 Energy consumption (kWh/m2) 1029998 Energy consumption (kWh/person) 951 1150 1368 Energy consumption (Wh/m2h) 0.087 0.105 0.126Results kWh/m2: case C consumes the least kWh/person or Wh/m2h: case A consumes the least (C consumes 44% more than A) 40. Hours of occupationNot considered by area metrics Comparison of two similar healthcare buildings Hospital A open 24 hrs / Hospital B open 12 hrs kWh/m2 does not provide an allowance for the longer day of A Thus A has a higher energy consumption per m2 and seems less energy efficient 41. Case study: Hours of occupation Simulated case study: office building in Helsinki Are