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Keynote at Sloan-C conference in Orlando

Transcript of Sloan 2008

  • 1.OERs & A good educational system Terry Anderson, PhD Professor and Canada Research Chair in Distance Education

2. Canada is a greatcountry, much toocold for commonsense, inhabited bycompassionate andintelligent people withbad haircuts. Yann Martel, Life of Pi, 2002. 3. Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada Fastest growing university in Canada34,000 students, 700 courses100% distance educationGraduate and * Athabasca University Undergraduate programsAthabasca UniversityMaster & Doctorate Distance EducationOnly USA Regionally Accredited University in Canada 4. Presentation Overview 1. Traditional Opening Joke 2. Components of a Good Educational System 3. A way to conceptualize Net Tools Taxonomy of the Many 4. Interaction Theory revisited 5. Your Comments and questions 5. Why is E-learning so Popular? Online Nation: Five Years of Growth in Online Learning Allen and Seaman 2007 6. E-Learning is Better Than Sex ! You can finish early without feeling guilty. You can get rid of any viruses you catch with a $50 program from McAfee If you get tired, you can stop, bookmark your place and pick up where you left off. With a little coffee you can do it all night. You dont usually get divorced if your spouse interrupts you in the middle of it. And If you're not sure what you are doing, you can always ask your teacher. 7. A good educational system should have threepurposes: it should provide all who want to learn withaccess to available resources at anytime intheir lives; empower all who want to share what theyknow to find those who want to learn itfrom them; furnish all who want to present an issue tothe public with the opportunity to maketheir challenge known. (Illich I.,1970)Full text available: 8. 1. Access to resources at anytime Imagine a world in which every singleperson is given free access to the sumof all human knowledge. That's what we're doing. Terry Foote, Wikipedia 9. Open Education Resources (OER) Vision + Affordance At the heart of the open educational resources movement is the simple and powerful idea that; the worlds knowledge is a public good in general the World Wide Web provides an extraordinaryopportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse thatknowledge.Hewlett Foundation Smith, & Casserly. The promise of openeducational resources. Change 38(5): 817, 2006 10. OER Granularity Diagrams, photos Articles (Open access publications) Games, simulations, activities Units of learning (IMS LD) Units and courses Programs 11. OERs are Open (Mostly) Meaning they can be: Augmented Edited Customized Aggregated and Mashups Reformatted Returned But they need to be licensed not just put online See Scott Leslies 10 minute video at 12. Ownership and Licensing Familiar problems Who owns resource - educators or the institution? inflated expectations New problems OERs are not just journal articles Articles are not reworked Is attribution critical? What defines commercial exploitation? 13. 4 Ownership Models Institutional ownership Default under most work for hire law Shared institutional and Academic Often unworkable Tragedy of the anti-commons Individual (academic ownership) Rights of succession? Multiple authors? Produsage Assume that each producer does not enforce their rights, all can treat product as a private good (copyleft, public domain, no tragedy of the anti-commons) 14. A Tale of 3 books Commercial E-Learning forOpen Access publisher the 21st CenturyCommercial100,000 downloads plus 934 copies sold atPub. indiv. Chapters$52.001200 sold @ $135.00500 hardcopies sold @ Buy at Amazon!!2,000 copies in$50.00 15. A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement Achievements, Challenges, and New DE Atkins, JS Brown, AL Hammond, William and Flora 16. Major Problems with OER Little take up by conventional teachers Too little reward and recognition for authors Too few learners actually engage with the content Undeveloped business case Too few teachers remix and repost content Too difficult to upload, tag and shareSolution?? Vibrant communities of Produsers?? 17. Challengesand Solutions Wrong timetabling/chunking Modularized units Cultural constraints Tools Distributed with content Not invented here Transparency and objective display Wrong technical format Dogged adherence to standards Wrong Language Produser translation Lack of Accreditation/authority Consumer and peer review Challenge for credit 18. Our own Experiment: Course development based on OERs 4 courses: Nursing, Communications (Theatre) English for Business, & Educ. Tech Vastly different results Critical variable was the attitude of the developer(s)Christiansen, J., & Anderson, T. (2004). Feasibility of course development based onlearning objects: Research analysis of three case studies. International Journal ofInstructional Technology and Distance Education, 19. What is missing? Culture of development,sharing and remix Community of PracticeSolution Social Softwareaffordances Easy to use Tools Harnessing student energyto create OERs 20. The Political Economy of Peer Production: Michael Bauwens produce use-value through the free cooperation ofproducers who have access to distributed capital a 'third mode of production' different from for-profitor public production by state-owned enterprises. Its product is not exchange value for a market, butbut use-value for a community of users 21. Prod-Users - From production to produsage - Axel Bruns (2008) Users become active participants in the production of artifacts: Examples: Open source movement Wikipedia Citizen journalism (blogs) Immersive worlds Distributed creativity - music, video, Flickr 22. Produsage Principles Community-Based the community as a whole cancontribute more than a closed team of producers. Fluid Heterarcy produsers participate as isappropriate to their personal skills, interests, andknowledge, and may form loose sub-groups to focus onspecific issues, topics, or problems Unfinished Artifacts projects are continually underdevelopment, and therefore always unfinished; Common Property, Individual Rewards contributors permit (non-commercial) community use,adaptation, and further development of their intellectualproperty, and are rewarded by the status capital theygain through this process 23. Case study: Open University UKsDevelopment of Open Rationale Opportunity: The risk of doing nothing when technology and globalization issuesneed to be addressed. A testbed for new technology and new ways of working way to work with external funders who share similar aims andideals A chance to learn how to draw on the world as a resource. Brand Promotion A route for outreach beyond our student body Demonstration of the quality of Open University materials in newregions.Social Learn: to devise means to put ourselves out of business - before our competitors do!! 24. Open Learn Example 490 units 25. Next evolution to Social Learn For 3000 years education has made the learner adapt tothe system. SocialLearn [1] aims to reverse this and makethe education system adapt to the learner. Make the formal informal, and the informal formal. Web 2.0 tools, attitudes, learning designs Weller 26. Why Dont we Use and contribute OERs?? 27. 2. A Good education system: empowers all who want to share what they know to find those who want to learn 28. Creative Literacies:The ability to experiment with technology in order to create and manipulate content that serves social goals rather than merely retrieving and absorbing informationp. 107 Burgess, J. (2006) Learning to Blog. Uses ofBlogs Bruns &Jacobs 29. Need to insure that our use of the Web actually results inincreased access and not just more expensive access forthose with existing high quality access to educationalopportunityJimFarmer,2006 30. Two-Way Use 65,000 videos uploaded to YouTube every day Facebook and Myspace over 100 millionprofiles Facebook 24 million photos uploaded daily 50 million blogs, 50% written by under 19 yearolds Scientific America 229(3) 2008 & FaceBook Home 31. Example My presentation at ECEL 2007 in Copenhagen -maybe 200 in attendance F2F On Slideshare: 2322 views | 4 comments | 6 favorites | 91 downloads | 5 embeds 32. 3. A Good Education: Furnishes all who want to present an issue to the public with the opportunity to make their challenge known. One month after a virtual protest staged in Second Life with almost 2,000 avatars demonstrating on IBM islands, a new contract with IBM Italy has been signed Labour news from UNI global union, 2007 33. Ethan Zuckerman (Global Voices) 2008 34. From a Deschooled society to a Learning Society that includes new models of formal and informal learning 35. Steven Warburton, 2007 36. Taxonomy of the Many Groups NETWORKS Collectives Dron & Anderson, 2007 37. Social Learning 2.0 3.0 3.5 Each of us participates in Groups, Networks and Collectives. Learning is enhanced by exploiting the affordances of all threesources of social learning. Issues, memes, opportunities and learning activities arise at allthree levels of granularity. Tools are optimized for each level of granularity Formalize the formal Informalize the formal (Martin Weller) 38. Choosing the right tool?OR Your Institutions LMS 2770 logos as of Oct 31, 2008 39. Formal Education andGroups: Classes and cohort Increases: completion rates, achievement satisfaction Same logistic challenges as for institutional, campus -based learning Can operate behind the garden wall to allow freedom for expression and development refuge for scholarship 40. Formal Learning and Groups Long history of research and study Need to optimize: Social