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General Histology Power Point

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  • 1. Histology Slide list Thank You Sanjar!from the 0nizzy

2. The Cell -- Begins

  • Nuclear Membraneandnuclear pore note the heterochromatin and the euchromatin within the cell

3. Nucleolus

  • The nucleolus is rich in proteins and rRNA it consists of thenucleolar organizing region(coding for rRNA),Pars Fibrosaregion (containing the rRNA transcripts), and thePars Granulosaregion (which contains maturing ribosomes)
  • Note that the nucleolus is shown at point C

4.

  • Chromatin heterochromatin and euchromatinnote how the heterochromatin lies against the nuclear envelope and is more condensed

5. Mitochondria cell organelle

  • Its function is to create cellular energy

6. Rough ER

  • Function protein synthesis via carrying ribosomesnote the bottom picture where it seems that protein granules have accumulated within the cisternae of the RER
  • You can see small mitochondria on the top of the left picture and to the left of right picture
  • Note the difference b/w the rough ER and smooth ER on the right

7. Smooth ER

  • Functions in detoxification, lipid synthesis, etc
  • Note the mitochondria

8. Golgi Complex

  • Functions in the modification and packaging of proteins
  • Notice the large secretory granules in the picture to the right

9. Microvilli

  • The microvilli + glycocalyx = the brush border
  • Seen mainly in absorptive cells and many epithelial cells
  • The microvilli on the right picture is seen at (a)

10. Centrioles and the centrosome

  • Important during mitotic division
  • Note that the picture in the middle is a longitudinal cut of the centrosome
  • Also note the perpendicular arrangement of the centrioles (90 degrees)

11. Desmosomes

  • Aka Macula Adherans
  • Has converging tonofilaments and plaques containing desmin, and vimentin
  • Binds cells together
  • Desmosomes seen on middle picture at #3

12. Secretory granules, condensing granules, zymogen granules (not 2) 13. Blood -- begins

  • Erythrocytes or RBCscarry O2 throughout the body via hemoglobinbiconcave and no nucleus
  • Note the RBCs and the lone neutrophil in the center on the picture on the left

14. Eosinophils

  • Eosiniphils are leukocytes seen in the blood that modulate inflammation and increase when there are aromatic poisonings, allergic reactions, and parasitic infections
  • The middle picture has a nice picture of a eosinophil on the bottom right and a neutriphil on the top left

15. Basophils

  • The basophilic granules in this cell are large, staindeep blue to purple , and are often so numerous they mask the nucleus
  • Granules contain histamine-heparin complexes
  • On the right, a nice picture of an eosinophil on the left, and a basophil on the right

16. PMN Neutrophils

  • Have a segmented nucleus cells may show a barr body
  • Are phagocytic and are transients in the blood
  • They contain specific, azurophilic (lysosome), and tertiary granules
  • On the left picture, note the neutrophil on the right, and the lymphocyte on the left

17. Monocytes

  • Migrate to tissues and become macrophages
  • Have a massive bilobed nucleus

18. Bone Marrow smear

  • Where most blood cell development occurs (hematopoiesis)note that a picture of a megakaryocyte within a blood smear shows that it is bone marrow because megakaryocytes never leave the marrow
  • Note that the white area is composed of fat cells

19. Epithelial Cells -- begins

  • Simple Squamous epithelia
    • It is found in the blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and lungsareas of rapid diffusion

20. Simple Cuboidal Epithelia

  • Cells are found in the glands and the kidney tubules
  • In areas where increased processing is required

21. Simple Columnar Epithelia

  • The cells are involved in absorptioncontain microvilli that along with the glycocalyx, helps for the Brush Border
    • Found in cells lining the small and large intestines
    • The clear areas within the epithelia of the right two pictures are goblet cells that secrete mucus to the epithelial surface

22. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia

  • Looks to be stratified but the cells are all connected to the basement membrane
    • Found in the respiratory tract and typically has goblet cells associated with it (called respiratory epithelium)
    • These epithelia typically have cilia on their surfaces

23. Stratified Squamous Epithelia

  • Cells on the surface are flattened or squamous.
    • On this slide we will talk about stratified squamouskeratinized epithelia
    • Resistance to abrasion ismajor function
    • No nuclei on the surface cell layers
    • Found on the skin

THIN SKIN Thick Skin 24. Stratified Squamous non-keratinized epithelium

  • No distinct surface layer, nuclei found in surface cells
    • Found in the oral and buccal mucosa

25. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

  • Two cell layers with the luminal layer cuboidal.
    • Found in the ducts ofEccrine Sweat Glands

Note the eccrine sweat gland at (a) 26. Transitional Epithelium

  • Epithelium changes thickness with functional changes
    • Found in the Urinary tract and bladder
    • Has surface cells called dome cells that are convexcells arebinucleate

Relaxed State 27. Zonula Occludens

  • AKA tight junctions
    • Seal around the cell

Left picture -- #2 Right Picture - #1 Tight junction at #3 28. Connective tissue -- Begin

  • Dense Regular connective Tissue
    • Linear fibers and few cells
    • Found in the tendon and arteries

29. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

  • Has large irregular collagen fibers and few cells
    • Found in the dermis of the skin

Seen at (d) Note the stratified squamous epithelia at (A) (a) And (b) showing different fiber orientation 30. Dense Irregular 31. Areolar (loose) Connective Tissue

  • Lots of ground substance and few cells
    • Found in the mesentery around organs

Esophagus Small Intestine 32. Some cells found in the connective tissue

  • Some common cells that are found are plasma cells and adipocytes

Note the clock-face nucleus of the plasma cells 33. Glands -- begins

  • Mucous Glands secretes a mucous-rich secretion for lubrication

Mucous gland seen at (a) 34. Serous Gland

  • Has an enzyme rich secretion
    • Seen in Pancreas secretions

35. Mixed Gland

  • This gland contains both mucous and serous secretions

36. Serous Acinus

  • Composed of spherical units that secrete serous (enzymatic) secretions

37. Mucous Acinus

  • Spherical units comprising a gland secreting mucus products

38. Serous Demilunes

  • These are composed of aMucous cell(red arrow) capped on top with aSerous cell(blue arrow). The serous cell looks like a half moon against the mucous cell, hence the name serous demilune.

39. Intralobular Duct

  • The ducts that drain the acini, or defined as all the ducts found within a lobule (contains the acini or secretory units)

The red arrow is pointing to the intralobular duct 40. Intercalated Duct

  • Section of the intralobular duct that arise from each acinus

Intercalated duct seen at (c) and a striated duct at (d) 41. Interlobular Duct

  • Duct that drains the intralobular duct and are surrounded by connective tissueinitially the gland is cuboidal, but becomes columnar

42. Integumentary System -- begin

  • Thin Skin
    • The epidermis is thin and the dermis is thickContains numerous sweat glands and contains hair follicles

Note the hair follicle at (c) into the hypodermis and a sebaceous gland at (d) 43. Thick Skin

  • No hair follicles and a relatively thick epidermis

Arrow pointing to stratum Lucidum 44. Epidermal Layers

  • From deep to superficial:
    • Basale, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum (only detected in thick skin), Corneum
  • Keratohyalin granules found in the Stratum Granulosum layer of the epidermis (this layer is where keratin begins to form)

Corneum (A), Basale (B) Corneum (A), Lucidum (B clear