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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the study English is an international language used in many countries troughout the world including in Indonesia. In Indonesia based in “Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi” (KBK), English is not study considered to be the first foreign language but it is taught in elementary school until senior high school. By seeing this fact, people usually blame the teachers as the people who should be responsible for it. They are assumed as the primary source of the unsatisfactory result of English teaching processes. Our community often question about the teachers’ work and even consider them as unqualified resources. However, as members of the scientific community, teachers should be able to find out elements from which the cause of the failure comes. 1

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1.1. Background of the study English is an international language used in many countries troughout the world including in Indonesia. In Indonesia based in Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi (KBK), English is not study considered to be the first foreign language but it is taught in elementary school until senior high school. By seeing this fact, people usually blame the teachers as the people who should be responsible for it. They are assumed as the primary source of the unsatisfactory result of English teaching processes. Our community often question about the teachers work and even consider them as unqualified resources. However, as members of the scientific community, teachers should be able to find out elements from which the cause of the failure comes. As Sudjana (198:6) states that learning processes are influenced by two factors, internal and external factor. The first factor comes from the learners themselves, such as the ability, interest, habit, aptitude, motivation, attitude, and intelligence. While the latter factors come from outside as the learners, such as situation and condition of the environment. They are family, school, and society surroundings.



Ramelan (1986:85) has proven that motivation is an important factor which determines the success of a foreign language learning. A learner will be successful in learning if he/she has a strong motivation to learn it. Strong motivation will encourage the students do their efforts to reach the goal of the study. Tim MKMD IKIP Semarang (1996:67) states that strong motivation is needed in language learning. The students who have strong motivation to learn and master the language especially English, in Indonesia as a compulsory subject, will likely succeed, and on the other hand they who have low motivation will fail. In the thesis, the writer try to investigate The speaking ability in the first year of SMP N 1 Karimunjawa in the academic year of 2005/2006. When the teachers find the goals of learning and teaching can be achieved. However, when the teachers see the students, ability is low toward English, they have to try to find out the most appropriate way or method of teaching to encourage the student to study more seriously.

1.2. Reason for Choosing the Topic The writer chooses students speaking ability towards English to investigate in this thesis, because ability, as a part of internal factors, is very important in determining ones success of failure in language training, especially English. If the students ability strong toward language learning especially English, he/she may get success. Thus, the students ability toward English is necessary to be uncovered. The writer also thinks that ability is one of the


important factors which effects the success or failure a student have a positive ability. It means that he or she accepts English. By accepting English, he or she likes to study it. So, they will get success in learning English.

1.3. Statements of the Problem In order to get a systematic point of view of the objective of the study, the writer limits the problem into the following. 1. How is the students ability toward English based on cognitive, affective and behavioral? 2. To what extent is Speaking Ability of The First Year Students of SMP N 1 Karimunjawa in The Academic Year of 2005/2006?

1.4. Objectives of the Study In writing this paper, the writer has the following objectives: 1. To find out the students ability based in the three components, namely cognitive, affective, and behavioral, which influence the students language learning English. 2. To find out the speaking ability of the first student of SMP N 1 Karimunjawa?


1.5. Significances of the study The writer hopes that this study will be significant for people, such as: a. The Writer The writer will have experience and capability in conducting a research on students ability and the students competence in learning English as the first foreign language that they learn in this country. b. The Students By realizing the important of English, the students will try to get success in learning language especially English. The result of study may help the students in improving their positive ability in learning English. c. The English Teacher The teacher could be more careful in their teaching management, so that the failure of their English teaching can be anticipated. Based on the result of the study, the teachers are able to increase their students awareness of the importance of English for their future needs. It may be able as feedback on their teaching activities, improve the methods or techniques in teaching so that the students are more motivated in learning English. d. The Readers The readers can learn from this thesis about students ability toward English. They can also take the good ones and make the lack being better.


1.6. Definition of Key Terms a. Speaking As Horn by explains the word speaking as: make use of word in ordinary voice (oxford dictionary) Drs. Peter Salim, MA explains it as: A Person Pride of Speaking Voice (The Contemporary, English Indonesia dictionary). b. Ability According to horn by, Ability is the mental of physical capacity, power or skill required to do something. c. Speaking Ability Competence in speaking practiced d. The First Year Students The phrase the first year students refer to the student who have been studying in SMP N 1 Karimunjawa for a year. e. Student Taken from Oxford Learners Dictionary, student is person who is studying at a college or university or any person who studies. Students here are just limited into the students of SMP N 1 Karimunjawa. f. SMP N 1 Karimunjawa It is one of the Junior High School in Jepara. This school is placed at Karimunjawa Islands.


1.7. Outline of the Thesis The study is divided into five chapters: The first chapter is introduction which includes the background of the study, reason for choosing the topic, statements of the problem, objectives of the study, significances of the study, definition of the key terms, and outline of the thesis. The second chapter is review of related literature which presents English language learning, English teaching at Junior High Schools, factors affecting foreign language learning, definition of speaking and essence of speaking,. The third chapter is method of the study which consist of population, sample, instrument, technique of collecting the data, and method of data analysis. The fourth chapter is concerned with the data analysis and discussing The five chapter is conclusions and suggestions.



2.1. English Language Learning Being an international language, English is spoken in most international events and is used as the medium of information on science, technology, and culture as well as a result. People who want to keep abreast with the cultural, scientific, and technological advances must deal with this language. Realizing the importance of the language, the Indonesian government considers English as a first foreign language and a compulsory subject to be taught in high schools and universities. As Ramelan (1992:1) stated that English is the first foreign language that has been taught in Indonesian since 1945. Even, in certain region, English is now taught st elementary schools as a local content. English is considered as the first foreign language in Indonesia. It becomes one of the subjects that the students must learn both at Junior and Senior High School. Since English is a compulsory subject and a part of the school curriculum, students have to study it. Although English is taught in both Junior and Senior High School, the result of the teaching program in our country has not been satisfactory. Students learn English because it is a compulsory subject they have to study. So, they are only learning English, but not acquiring it. Furthermore, they do not have any aims about their English learning. 7


Krashen as quoted by Harmer (1983:31), draws as distinction between learning and acquiring a language. He characterizes the former as a conscious process which result only in knowing about language, whereas acquiring a language is a subconscious process which result in the knowledge of language. Acquiring a language is more successful and longer than learning a language. Allwright as quoted by Harmer (1982:31), states that learning takes places most successful when the students are put in communicative situations in the target language. So, there is not need for formal instruction (e.g. the teaching of a grammatical point). Instead the students are simply asked to perform

communicative activities in which they have to use the foreign language. The more they do this the better they are at using the language. He also suggests that it seems true that the more a language learner uses a language to communicates, the better he becomes at communicating. Krashen, as quoted by Hammer (1983:32), however, sees successful acquisition as being very bound up with the nature of the language input the students receive. Input is a term used to mean the language that the students hear or read. This input should contain language that the students have already known as well as language that they have not seen yet: the input should be, in other words, at a slightly higher level than the student is capable of understanding. Krashen calls this rough tuning. If foreign language students constantly receive input that is roughly-tuned that is, slightly above their level, they will acquire those items of language that they did not previously know without making a conscious effort to do so.


Man is social who always needs company in his life. It can hardly be imagined that he should live all alone by himself without anyone to accompany him. He need help from the others. That is why human beings always live together in groups, cooperate and interact with one another interaction is a realization of human beings instinct to fulfill their need. One of the way to provide the necessities of live cooperate, associate, and exchange information and experiences. To express the ideas, they absolutely need a means of communication, which is called language man cap, because through communication we will understand each other. Ramelan state that with language man cap express his ideas and wishes to other people such as when he need their help so that close operation among members of the group can be carried out (1992:8). Language is a prime means to communication in human being life. By using language, man cap communication not only about things connected with his biological needs, but also about many things that he need. Human language differs from animals means of communication in the medium, the sounds produced by man are more varied that those produced by animals that always the same and remain unchanged. In addition to their varities, human speech sounds can also combined in various way in other to from and utterance. The other definition of language is stated by finocchiaro, language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbol which permits people in a given culture, or other people who have learned the system of that the culture, to communication or to interact (1973:3)


The definition above is not only a component of culture, indeed the central feature. It is also to the primary system though which all other components the culture of a society is expressed. Finally, based on the opinions above, Harmer suggest that roughly-tuned input and the use of the foreign language in communicative situation can satisfactorily exist side by side with work which concentrates on conscious learning, where new language is introduce and practiced. Conscious learning is thus seen only as one part of the methodological approach, which encourages language acquisition through a large amount of input and a significant emphasis on the use of language in communicative activities.

2.1.1. English Teaching at Junior High School Since the proclamation of Indonesian on the 17th of August 1945, Indonesian government has chosen English as a first foreign language to be taught at Junior and Senior High Schools. It is one of the subject that the students must learn. This decision is reasonable since English plays an important role in international relation between Indonesia and other countries in the world. English as a compulsory subject at Senior High Schools functions or serves as an instrument for the development of science and technology, art, and culture, with a view to enabling the students to become good, intelligent, and skillful citizens who are ready to take part in the national development. Based on the concept and function of English, the teaching aims at

developing the four language skills; reading, listening, speaking, and writing. In


teaching process the four language skills usually cannot be separated. They are taught harmoniously. While the language elements or components are taught with a view to support the development of the four language skills. In the 1994 curriculum, one of the most important concepts in teaching of English at Senior High Schools is themes. The themes in the Basic Course Outlines (GBPP) constitute the scope of the three years course program and consists of topics which are used in the teaching of English to create communicative activities in the language. These activities involve the four skills which constitute the goals of English teaching. Furthermore, it is stated in the Basic Course Outlines that the communicative Approach-specifically called the meaningful-based approach is considered the most appropriate approach for the attainment of the goals of the English teaching from the point of view of its nature and function. This approach considers language as an instrument for expressing ideas, thoughts, opinions, or feelings. Based on the curriculum of Senior High School (1994:4), the main goals are as follows: a. Reading Students are able to read texts in the form narrative, descriptive, dialogue, and other special forms, such as leaflet, brochure, and private letter which has about 1500 words length. It is expected that students are able to: 8 lines. Find certain information. Find the main idea. Students are able to report what they listen which is about


listen. b. attitudes. c. sentences. Writing Speaking

Students are able to catch the information the text they

Students are able to ask and answer questions orally. Students are able to make a short conversation. Students are able to describe things. Students are able to express, ideas, opinions, feeling, and

Students able to make short paragraph which is about ten

Students able to completed a short conversation which

vocabulary they have known, but related to the conversation. Students are able to arrange some sentences, about ten

sentences, given not an in correct order, then they have to arrange into the correct order. d. dialogue. Students are able to practice the writing. Students are able to make a short letter. Listening Students are able to find out the main ideas. Students are able to find out specific information in


From communicative activities which are manifested in reading, listening, speaking, and writing, English teachers need to select suitable themes and topics in sequential order and teach the students to use and practice a number of functional skills and necessary communicative expressions in English which are relevant to the given themes and topics. The teachers have to teach each skills based on the curriculum which has the appropriate goals in the process of teaching and learning language. Curriculum is an important thing and it has a main role before the teacher teach the lesson.

2.1.2. Factors Affecting Foreign Language Learning There are a number of factors, which affect the success or failure of second or foreign language learning. Those factors are internal factors that come from the learner himself and the external ones that derive from outside of the learner. 1. Internal factors Wijayanti (2001:12) divides internal factors affecting language learning process into: gender, intelligence, interest, motivation and attitude. The detailed explanations are given bellow. a. Gender Dewi (2001:16) in his thesis entitled A Socio Linguistic Study on the Students Language Attitude defined the sex variable is important because of the difference of social and cultural behavior between both of the gender, male and female. He conclude that female pay more attention to foreign language,


especially English, than male ones. Female are more talented in learning the language. b. Intelligence Yellon and Weinstein (1977) as quoted by Wijayanti (2001:13) say that intelligence as the overall capacity of an individual to understand and to cope with the world around him. It is perhaps the most important determinant in the development of language, since it affects both the ability to mimic verbal symbols, as well to understand their meaning. c. Interest Hornby (1974) as quoted Wijayanti (2001:13) says that interest as a condition of wanting to know or learn about something or somebody. Most children want to learn, they come to school eagerly and are willing to devote the time, effort and energy necessary to learn. If the material is interesting, their motivation will remain high. So they will be interested in learning the language. d. Motivation Katzell (1980) as quoted by Watson (1984:437) states that motivation may be seen as a function of certain traits of employees, for example; a personal interest in getting ahead or a characteristic of a particular work situation. Watson (1983:437) defined motivation is the underlying caused of peoples desire to perform particular behaviors and their willingness to explain effort of them learning a language will be more successful if the learner has certain motivation because motivation is one of some factors mentioned previously, needed in learning second or foreign language.


e. Attitude Attitude is also considered as one of the important factors that determines the success or failure of foreign language learning. Since this study deals with the students attitude toward English. It is essential to discuss the general meaning of attitude and the level of attitude of students toward English. Krashen, quoted by Nurhadi and Roekhan (1990:8) states that attitude directly deal with the second language acquisition. In addition, Littlewood (1987:55-56) asserts that the learner with more favorable attitudes will wish for more intensive contact with the second language community. In situations where circumstances do not actually compel members of different language groups to have contact with each other, the learners attitudes may determines whether he perceives any communicative need at all. One pf the factors influencing how we experience the process is our attitude toward the foreign culture itself. If this attitude is negative, there may be strong internal barriers against learning, and if learning has to take place because of external compulsion, it may only to the minimum level required by these external demands. 2. External factors The external factors effecting language learning which come from the outside of the learners include both the first or second language surrounding where they are learning, and linguistic condition of both of the language. Since the writer cannot examine all of them in detail, it is useful to discuss more detail about the internal factors, especially attitude which have to be main problem of this study.


2.2. Definition of Speaking Speak is an interactive process of construct meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994: Burn F Joyce, 1997) it is from and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. However, speech is not always unpredictable. In Websters dictionary of English language, Speaking means the act ort of person who speaks and which is spoken, utterance, discourse, (1983:1741). According to Webster in Maskur (2005:26), speaking means: 1. Making a practice of speaking or conversing (with another or each

other). It means that speaking is talk with the others about anything to take and give information or knowledge by one to others. Because Conversation is an oral communicate activity like transmitting information, ideas, or felling. 2. Having a relationship or conversation, as in greeting. It means that

greeting, as opening a conversation an bringing a conversation to an end are essential part of our language. For example, to say hallo, good morning and good bye, through conversation or greeting we can build the relationship with other. Greeting in all language have the same purpose to establish contact with other person, to recognize his existence and to show friendliness.


Most of people in the world do conversation in formal greeting and farewells, informal greeting and farewells, formal introduction and so on. Based on those meaning the writer defines the term of speaking as the action of person who speak converses with another or each other in order to get a communicative relationship.

2.3. Essence of Speaking Speaking is part of integral from overall of person of personality, expressing the speaker environment, strata of social and his or her educational background. Speaking is ability to speech to express articulator sound or word, to expressing is to communicate. It is or he has evaluated its communication effect to all hearers and has to know all discuss situation. According to Tarigan (speaking has three common intentions) they are: 1. To in form, when speaking is used to convey or ideas, minds of to in form anything to the teacher. 2. To entertain, when speaking is used to make they are happy and satisfy. 3. To persuade, when speaking is used purpose the heaver in order to follow speakers ideas or minds. A speaker basically composes four matters needed in expressing mind or his/her opinion to other, that are: 1. Speaker represents willingness, intention, or meaning, which is

wishing him/her owned by other that is a mind. 2. Speaker represent the user of language, maker of feeling and mind

become words.



Speaker is something that wishes to be listened, convey intend and

words to others through voices. 4. Speaker is something that have to been, showing, and an action

that must be paid attention and read through eyes.


2.4. The Importance of teacher speaking There are many reasons why English is thought in every country in the world. English is an international language, therefore, it is used internationally among nations of the world, it is used in the field of politic, economic, science, technology and other. It is obvious that English has spread widely and had great influence in the world. Accordingly, the tremens douse development in the ability to speak and year-by-year, people try to find and appropriate way to help them learn English well. The educational system in Indonesia is determined by the national demands. It is proved by the curriculum that has been made by Indonesia are to enable they students to communicate in the target language. Particularly in senior high school, the skill of teaching is given a teaching student to road all kinds of material fluently. It is also teaching them to read comprehensively. The reason is that it will be needed in higher education that is in universities or academics and this. And this aim is shown in the curriculum objectives a stated explicitly in some of the General Instructional Objective (GIO) of the GBPP. For some reasons speaking is very important in our life. According to Sukarnos book (1971:9) by Madya in Maskur (2005:29). 1. 2. 3. To understand the content of English textbook and references. To Understand lectures delivered in English. To take notes at lectures delivered in English.


4. 5.

To Introduce Indonesia Culture to other or nations. To communicate orally with foreign lectures or students.

2.5. The Process Of Teaching Speaking Learning to speak a foreign language communicatively is a lengthy process. First of all the learner should understands the vocabulary and the grammar or the knowledge of the language that they are learning. Then they must be accustomed to the certain pattern of sentence as a basic for them to use them in expressing their intentions automatically, so that the main goal of learning the language is achieved. Students fell that learning a language means learning to speak, they expect to be able to speak in the language they learn. Because of this reason, the teaching of speaking is not only directed to make them able in listing language for communication as much as possible. Rivers chance to apply what he has learned in an act of communication a roused among members of the class group. We cannot wait until students have a sure grip of all the structure of the language before giving his practice in communication (River, 1968:165). According to rivers, in the teaching of speaking, we are engaged in two process; forging an instrument and giving the students guided practice in its use. The students have learned their motivation language consciously and unconsciously since they were childhood. In this case, they got their own instrument. The instruments may be the same as the instrument of the new


language, if it is needed, they will use the instrument to which they are accustomed. Rivers stated: the forging of the instrument requires much practice in the arbitrary association of the new language: Lexical items, morphological and syntactical pattern, sentence type: (1968:162). And at the first level of activity, the students need much practice in order to make them accustomed to the knowledge of the language, so that at a more advance stage the learner can concentrate on what he want to express it acceptable in the language they learn (Rivers, 1968:163) Also in this case, rivers proposed that: phonological, Morfological, and syntactical habits of the foreign language must be practiced ang practiced to a point of over learning if they are to become a part of the students permanent repertoire so that the is able to use them at any moment without conscious effort (1968:164).



To write a scientific writing, the writer needs to mention several factors, which have real relationship with the object being studied. It means that the case has to be applied to the object with certain devices and ways in a test so that the results will be taken. Method is basically a means, which is used to solve the problems to get a certain objective. In this study, the writer presents the population, sample, variable, instrument, method of collecting data, and data analysis.

3.1. Population In doing a scientific work, there is a group of people to be studied called population. Sudjana (1992:6) says that population is the total of all possible values as the result of quantitative or qualitative measurement a certain characteristic from all members of group. While Arikunto (1998:115) states that population is all of the subject of an investigation. The population may be all of the subjects or individuals who are of interest to the investigator. Based on the statements above, the writer decides that the population of this study is all of the first year students of SMP N 1 Karimunjawa in the academic year of 2005/2006. The total number of student in the population was



80 students. They were divided into five classes; each class consisted of 40 students.

3.2. Sample Where there are too many people in the population, of course, we will have some difficulties to study them. To cope with the difficulties, it is necessary to choose representative as sample. Sample according to Sudjana (1992:6), is part from the population to be investigated. And the samples have to be able to represent the whole members of one population. Sample is a small proportion of population selected for observation and analysis ( Arikunto, 1998:117). By observing the characteristic of the sample, the researcher can make certain inferences about the characteristic of the population which it is drawn. Since the population in this study was large enough, the writer took some members of the population as the sample. According to Arikunto (1998:120), a researcher may take 10% - 15% or 20% - 25%, or more of the population used as the sample. The writer took 100% of the population or it was all students as the sample of this study.

3.3. Instrument We need apparatus to get or to collect the data. The apparatus here is called instrument. As Arikunto (1998:137) states that instrument is a sets of apparatus to collect the data.


In this study, the writer used a questionnaire and a document as the instrument to collect the data.

3.3.1. The Questionnaire A questionnaire is number of written questions which are used to gather information from the respondents about themselves or another thing to know (Arikunto, 1998:140). According to Arikunto (1998:140 141) a questionnaire can be distinguished into three kinds. They are: a. From the way how to answer the questions, there are two types of questions: 1. Opened questionnaire, the respondents can be answer the questions using their own sentences. 2. Closed questionnaire, the respondents can be directly choose the appropriate answer. b. From the given answer, there are two types of questionnaire: 1. Direct questionnaire, the respondents answer about themselves. 2. Indirect questionnaire, the respondent answer te questions about other things. c. From the form of the questionnaire, there are: 1. Multiple choice questionnaire, it is similar to a closed questionnaire. 2. An easy questionnaire is similar to opened questionnaire. 3. Check list questionnaire, respondent just put check (V) on the approprirate column.


4. Rating scale, the statement are followed by rating column for example from extremely agree to extremely disagree.

3.3.2. Practicality of Instrument Practicality is concerned with the administration of a questionnaire. Harns and David P (1969:21) states that a test is considered practicable whenever it can be well administered, usually it depend on the length of time provided for doing the test. Based on the requirement above, the instrument used in this study was practical enough, since the subjects were only required to tick the columns provided in each the questions. In addition the respondent only needed a little time to do it which was about 30 minutes. For the write, it was practical administrated becaused it did not involve many persons to administer the questionnaire.

3.3.3. Document The document method was used to know the students; achievement in learning English. The writer obtained the students total scores in English subject in the document which was available in SMP N 1 Karimunjawa. He got the document with the permission from the English teacher in that school.

3.4. Technique of Collecting the Data The technique of collecting the data of this study is questionnaire method. The procedures of collecting the data in this study involved several steps. The first


step was constructing the questionnaire. The second step was trying out the questionnaire to example to examine whether or not it needed improvement. The next step was collecting the questionnaire and analyzing them to know the validity and the reliability and the practicapability of the instrument. Then, the writer distributed the questionnaire to the subject and collected them. After that, he analyzed the result of the questionnaire. The last step was obtaining the students; total scores of English subject from the document which was available in SMP N 1 Karimunjawa. Finally, the writer computed the data. After obtaining the scores of the students attitude in learning and the scrores of their English achievement. Then, the writer tried to know whether every student who have high attitude also have good achievement in learning English. To get the answer of this problem, the writer correlated both of the data. The scores of the strength of the students; attitude and the scores of their English achievement is necessary to prove the correlation of the study.

3.5. Method of Data Analysis The data obtained from the respondents were analyzed using the Likert Scale. The analysis was started by providing a series of statements, each of which express an attitude which is either clearly favorable or clearly unfavorable. The Likert Scale for a graded response. As mentioned above the response was expressed in terms of the following five categories: strongly agree (SA), agree (A), undecided (U), disagree (D), strongly disagree (SD). To score the scale, the


response options were credited 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or from the favorable to the unfavorable statement. Conversely, the response options were credited 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 from the unfavorable to the favorable statement. By summing up the item credits of their answer, the writer presented the individual total scores of the students. Then, the scores were graded into five categories: 84 100 points 68 83 points 52 67 points 36 51 points 20 35 points = very high = high = fair = low = very low

(Yohanes, 1998:74 quoted by Miswadi, 2000:40) Then the writer used the percentage description analysis to measure to what level of the students attitude. The formula is as follows: The percentage of answer = total value of ideal anwerthe total value of answ er 100 %

Then, the write categorized the scores resulted from the calculation into the following criteria: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Very high High Fair Low Very Low 84% 100% 68% 83% 52% 67% 36% 51% 20% 35%

(Yohanes, 1998:74 quoted by Miswadi, 2000:54)


While the scores of the students achievement in learning English were grades into the following classification: 1. Excellent 2. Good 3. Fair 4. Poor 5. Failed 80 66 46 26 100 points 85 points 65 points 45 points

< 26 points

(Yohanes, 1998:74 quoted by Miswadi, 2000:60)



Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1998. Prosedur Penelitian, Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Yogyakarta: Rineka Cipta. Depdikbud RI. 2004. Kurikulum SMP dan GBPP Bahasa Inggris. Jakarta. Hadi, Sutrisno. 1982. Metodology Research. Jilid I, cetakan ke XII. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Penerbitan Fakultas Psikologi UGM Harmer, Jeremy. 1983. The Practice of English Language Learning. New York: Longman. Harris, David P. 1969. Testing English as a Second Language. New York: Mc. Graw-Hill Book Company. Inc. Ramelan, 1992. An Introduction to Linguistic Analysis. Semarang : IKIP Semarang Press. Echols, John. M dan Hasan Shadily. 2000. Kamus Inggris Indonesia. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Rahayu, Sri. 2001. Students Motivation in Learning English, A Case of the First year students of SLTPN 3 SMG, Semarang : FPBS IKIP Semarang ( Unpublished Thesis) Sudjana, Nana. 1989. CBSA dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar. Bandung: Sinar Baru. Watson, David L. 1984. Social Psychology, Science and Application. USA: Scott, Foresman and Company. Horn by, AS. 1995. Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary And Current English. London: Oxford University Press.


Instrument: Practice with your partner in front of the class, about: Name Class Address Hobby Friend



PROPOSAL Presented to IKIP PGRI Semarang In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement For the Degree of Sarjana in English Education

By: NASOKA NPM: 02420387




This thesis was approval by the team of advisors of Department of English Language Education, Faculty of Language and Art Education, Institute of Teaching Training and Education PGRI Semarang, on:

Day Date of Approval

: :

Advisors Advisor I Advisor II

Dra. Ratna Kusumawardhani NIP. 131285851

Dra. T. Sri Suwarti, M.Pd NPP. 906301062