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  • 1. OBHS Physical Education ANATOMY The Skeletal System

2. 5 Major Functions

  • There are five major functions of the skeleton:

Remember :S houldM othersP rotectB abiesS kins 1.S hape and support 2.M ovement 3.P rotection 4.B lood Production 5.S torage 3.

  • Shape and Support -This is our body's framework. It provides shape for our body, holds our vital organs in place and allows us to have a good posture.
  • Movement -Our muscles are attached to our bones in a way
  • which allows movement.
  • Protection -Protects our delicate organs e.g.-SKULL protects
  • the BRAIN. RIB CAGE protects the HEART and LUNGS etc.
  • Blood Production -Red and white blood cells are
  • produced in the bone marrow found in many bones.
  • RED CELLS carry oxygen to the muscles to enable them to
  • work. They are red in colour because they carryhaemoglobin.
  • WHITE CELLS fight infection in the body.
  • Storage-minerals like calcium are stored in the bones to addstrength

4. Main Bones 1. Cranium 2. Scapula 3. Clavicle 4. Humerus 5. Pelvis 6. Sternum 7. Ribs 8. Vertebrae 9. Radius 10. Ulna 11. Carpals &Metacarpals 12. Phalanges 13. Femur 14. Patella 15. Tibia 16. Fibula 17. Tarsals &Metatarsals 18. Phalanges 5. Dont be confused

  • The Foot
  • Metatarsals -foot
  • T arsals -ankle think T for toes

The Hand Carpals -wrist bones Metacarpals handThe Chest Clavicle collar bone Scapula shoulder blade The Leg Fibula -small lower Tibia -large lower Patella -knee The Arm Radius -thumb side lower Ulna -finger side lower Humerus -upper arm funny bone 6. Joints

  • Where bones meet they form JOINTS.
  • The movement of the skeleton is helped by
  • joints. There are THREE kinds of joints:
  • Fibrous(non-moving e.g.- skull)
  • Cartilagenous(limited movement e.g.-vertebrae of spine)
  • Synovial(a range of movements are available)

7. Synovial Joints

  • Most moving joints are
  • are very complex
  • structures. The Bones are
  • linked together by
  • ligaments and allow a wide
  • range of movements.

The knee is an example of a synovial joint Features of a synovial joint include: Synovial fluid Lubricates the joint Synovial Membrane Seals the joint Synovial Capsule- Surround the joint to prevent leakage 8. Connective tissue

  • Joints are moved by muscles and
  • bones. These are attached by
  • LIGAMENTS attach bone
  • to bone.
  • TENDONS attach muscle
  • to bone.

e.g.- The knee joint. Movements other than flexion/extension can cause serious ligament damage in hinge joints like the knee. In contact sports like rugby these ligaments are often strained by forces acting in other directions. 9. Joints Contd

  • Joints can be separated into FOUR categories:

Ball and Socket joint Hinge joint Gliding joint Pivot joint 10. Ball and Socket

  • Two examples of this joint in the human body are the hip
  • and shoulder joints. The rounded head of one bone fits
  • into a cup-shaped socket of another. This joint allows the
  • greatest range of movement.

Pelvis Femur 11. Hinge

  • Two examples of this type of joint include those found at the
  • knee and elbow. Try flexing (bending) and extending them.
  • You will find that the movement of the joint can only occur in
  • one direction, just like the hinge of a door.

Humerus Radius Ulna 12. Gliding

  • In this type of joint, two surfaces which are flat rub
  • against each other. These small bones can move over
  • one another to increase flexibility of the hands for
  • example. They are stopped from moving too far by
  • strong ligaments.

Carpals 13. Pivot

  • This joint is made when one bone twists against another.
  • These are found in the spine. They also allow the head to
  • turn, raise and lower.

14. Types of Movement

  • There are many types of movement that the
  • skeleton and muscles can produce. The following
  • are the most common:
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Rotation
  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Dorsiflexion
  • Plantarflexion

15. Types of Movement contd

  • FLEXION Bending the joint. E.g. Bending the
  • knee or elbow. BALL and SOCKET andHINGE are
  • the main joint types that can produce this
  • movement.

16. Types of Movement contd

  • EXTENSION of a joint is where the joint is straightened.
  • BALL and SOCKET andHINGE joints are common
  • examples of joints that can produce this movement.

Straightening the leg when striking a ball is an example of EXTENSION at the knee (HINGE JOINT) 17. Types of Movement contd

  • The ROTATION movement can occur at a BALL
  • and SOCKET and a PIVOT joint. e.g. turning the
  • head or the movement at the shoulder when
  • swimming backstroke.

18. Types of Movement contd

  • ABDUCTION and ADDUCTION movements can be
  • produced by BALL and SOCKET joints. ABDUCTION is
  • where a limb moves away from the centre of the body.

ADDUCTION is where the limb is moved TOWARDS the centre of the body. 19. Joints and Performance

  • Injuries to joints can occur from:
  • Over use (Too much training)
  • Incorrect movement injuries (e.g.-wrong techniques)
  • Impact or twisting (e.g.-twist of knee or elbow from a tackle or collision)

Such injuries should be iced immediately, given plenty rest, elevated and compressed to aid recovery and avoid permanent damage. sports injuries clip