Skeleton Frameworks for geography

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Transcript of Skeleton Frameworks for geography

  • 1. Skeleton Frameworks for Writing

2. Discussion Text 3. Discussion text * presents arguments and information from different viewpoints * for and against * * * * * * 4. Discussion organisation 1 Introduction Statement of issueto be discussed Conclusion Summary + (perhaps) recommendation for against * point + elaboration * * * point + elaboration * * 5. Discussion organisation 2 Introduction Arguments for: * * * etc Arguments against: * * * etc Conclusion When you have made your grid skeleton, write the introduction. Then write one paragraph for (or one paragraph per point for) and one paragraph against (or one paragraph per point against). Then write the conclusion 6. Introduction Point 1: for against Conclusion Discussion organisation 3 Point 2: for against Point 3: for against (including outline of points to be discussed) etc., etc When you have made your grid skeleton, write the introduction. Then write a paragraph about point one, a paragraph about point two, etc. Then write your conclusion 7. Discussion language features * present tense * abstract nouns * third person * logical connectives * discussionconventions(see page 9) * complex sentences Things that you cannot see or touch e.g truth answer possibility trust welfare belief justice concern hope reason despair 8. Discussion conventions * Dont take sides say what people think * Keep it balanced, e.g On the one hand On the other hand * Dont be too definite use conditionalsSome peoplesay Othersargue Smokerswould claim that Non-smokersreply Itcouldbe claimed Thismightmean possibly perhaps 9. Discussion text * * * * * * * * 10. For/against speech bubbles 11. Text Against zoos For zoos * * * * * Dont need anymore originally for people to see animals now have TV, video Cruel catch, transport, cage zoochosis just for entertainment TV not as good as real life Conservation Not cruel zoos educational increase peoples interest in animals endangered species breed in zoos scientists can research in zoos well planned enclosures 12. Explanation Text 13. Explanation text * explains how or why something happens * cause and effect * often in time order (sequential) 14. Explanation organisation 1 Simple explanation: a series of logical steps Probablylabelleddiagram(s) This happens leading to thisleading to leading to thisthispossibly---other causes or effects at each stage When you have made your flow-chart skeleton, each section of the flow chart can become one paragraph or section of writing. 15. Explanation language features * present tense (except historical explanations) * cau s al language * sequentialconnectives * impersonal language(see page 8) * technical vocabulary when because The reason that so Ifthen This results in This causes Therefore 16. impersonal language * third person * passive voice * usually formal vocabulary * formal connectives The motor is operated by This is known as The stick was placed in The sides are covered in (e.g placed as opp put, known as as opp. called) (e.g Furthermore, However, Therefore, Consequently) 17. Explanation text 18. Cycle Back to original 19. Newborn 3 months 6 months 1 year 3 kg 6 kg 53 cm 60 cm 8 kg 68 cm 72 cm 9 kg All different sizes suck milk no teeth cant chew tummy stronger milk + mushy food sits up, plays some teeth some hard food + mush + milk stands teeth cut up food 20. Text Breathein air Breatheout CO O capillaries Air sacs LUNGS capillaries Air sacs CO HEART capillaries capillaries cells cells BODY O CO Vein Vein Artery Artery Contains oxygen (O ) AIR 21. Instruction Text 22. Instruction text tells how to do or make something in time order (sequential/chronological) 23. Instruction organisation Title: whats tobe achieved Maybe labelled diagrams

  • What you need
  • ------------------
  • ------------------
  • ------------------
  • ------------------

What to do, one step at a time 24. Instruction language features Mixthe flour.. Pressbutton A.. Cutalong the line.. Alwaysusethe correct equipment Feedandexercise your dog..

  • Simple clear language
  • Imperative verbs
  • See alsothird person instructions
  • Second person(usually)
  • See alsothird person instructions
  • Necessary detail only
  • Number and/or time connectives

Firstly mix the flour Next press button A.. 7 .Cut along the line .. Beforeyou start choose the correct equipment Finally, feed and exercise your dog 25. Third person instructions When more than one person involved, e.g. a game third person present tense provide names orlabels Player Atakes a card Team 1tries to score points Team 2tries to stop them The batting side The fielding side * * * 26. Writing Instructions * Dothe activity ( or act it out). Make briefnotesas you go *Make* listof What you need * flow chartof what to do * diagramsif necessary *Turn flow chart intowritten instructions . 27. What to do, one step at a time 28. Persuasion Text 29. Persuasion text

  • makes a case for a particular point of view
  • one or more points, perhaps with elaboration

* * * 30. Persuasion organisation 1 point point point elaboration elaboration elaboration and so on. * * * 31. Persuasion organisation 2 What? Who? Where? When? Introduction Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Conclusion Summing up When you have planned your points, you can choose whether to write one paragraph per point or group them together * * * 32. Persuasion language features Present tense Persuasive devices Logical connectives Connectives showing the move from one point to another because consequently As a result.. however Ifthen nevertheless First of all secondly next finally then * * * * 33. Elaborating a point Make your pointclearly, in a sentence. e laborationwould it help to: point g ive your reasons for thinking that? g ive examplese.gF or example,F or instance,? a dd further detail to make it clear? * 34. Persuasive devicese motive language deliberate ambiguity e.g strong adjectives e.g probablythe best perhaps ,maybe d areyouto disagree! e.gClearly ,..Surely ,..Obviously ,..Everyone knows that.. * * * Rhetorical question Are we expected to..? How will..? Turning opinion into truth The fact is.. The real truth is.. * * FACT or OPINION? Always ask yourself is it 35. Persuasion organisation * * * 36. Point + evidence chart point evidence 37. * * * Mary is trouble she has betrayed us if plots succeed Spain takes over thrown out of Scotland religious probs, war forced to abdicate, imprisoned given home, paid for not paid back constantly plotting claims the crown. Supported by Phillip II would be Ps puppet England falls to Spain 38. Persuasion Text 39. Recount text * retells events * in time order (chronological) 40. Recount organisation events in time order when? where? who? what? why was it significant? introduction conclusion what happened in the end? neat last line When you have made your time-line skeleton, use another colour to chop it into paragraphs. 41. Recount language features * past tense * named people, places, things * first or third person * time connectives Next Meanwhile Soon afterwards Within hours Several weeks later Then After a while Finally Look out also for conjunctions like when, while, as, after. 42. Impersonal recounts * newspaper report * magazine article * non-fiction book * biography Audience general readerwith some interestin the subject Purpose to inform andentertain 43. * letter * diary or journal * write-up of a trip or activity Audience known reader or self (or posterity) Purpose to record,reflect, entertain Personal recounts 44. Lively recount writing Try using: * powerful verbs * quotations Watch out for these and other recounts in the texts you read * vary your - sentence length - sentence openings - sentence type (use occasional questions or exclamations) * try to link your last line back to the introduction. 45. Recount text 46. Recount organisation 47. Flow chart 48. Cards on a washing line 49. Recount organisation age where she was family introduction name born St Marys Hospital 1 2 3 4 5 6 Baz born started playgroup met Hannah chicken pox started school Mrs Robinson Y1 Mrs Bennett Y2 Mr Long Text 50. who when where intro what 8.00am School arrive breakfast on journey Exhibition centre lunch trip roundcooler biome Video Making of Eden Talk-cocoa, chocolatecar park see biomes trip roundtropical biome return journeyshop 2 3.30 home rubber, bamboo, spices, coconuts, pineapple oranges, lemons, grapes, olives (personal) 51. ( i mpersonal) Intro Cornwall Y5 Last FridayEden Project long busjourney arrive at Eden Project tropical biome warm temperate and outside afternoon activities journey home lunch Text 52. Report Text 53. Report text * describes what things are like (orwerelike) * not in time order (non-chronological) 54. Report organisation 1 When? What? Who? Where? More detail if necessary information organised in categories Main points in category Topic simple report 55. Report organisation 1 Introduction Who-What-Where-When etc. Paragraph Section }1 }2 Paragraph Section When you have made your spidergram skeleton, each spider leg gives you one paragraph (or subheaded section) in your writing 56. Report language features * present tense (except historical reports) * general nouns (not particular people, animals, things)* third person * factual description * technical words and phrases * often formal, impersonal language 57. Planning report text * BRAINSTORMwhat you know(and find out more if necessary). * ORGANISEit into categories. *Make theSPIDERGRAM.Write the topic in the middle, and one category on each leg. 58. Report text 59. Our School Intro field playground hall Lee Park