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SMART WATER SINGAPORE CASE STUDYPuah Aik Num Deputy Director Technology and Water Quality Office PUB, Singapore1

What we were like in the Sixties40 years ago

34909938

Singapore River Singapore River

2

What we were like in the Sixties40 years ago

34909938

Singapore River Singapore River

3

1960s Water resources were scarce

Last water rationing in 1963

water rationing

4

1960s Public Health Concerns Proper sanitary facilities were lackingSquatters

Public Health Conditions were poor

Street hawkers

Outdoor Latrines

Night soil buckets 5

1960s Our rivers were polluted

Kallang River

Kallang River

Singapore River

6

1970s

Relocation of businesses & industries

New Industrial Estate

Dyke in Construction

Dredging & improvement works

Relocation from Street to Hawker Centres

Resettlement of squatters into proper public housing

New Housing Towns

Laying of new sewers7

80s and 90s

Clean Rivers

Singapore River

Singapore River

Singapore River 8

Pristine reservoirs

Before 1960s: Reservoirs in Protected Catchments

1970s: Estuarine Reservoirs

1980s: Reservoirs in Urbanised Catchments

9

10

SINGAPORE WATER CHALLENGES

11

Singapores Water Challenges

LandArea:~700km2 Population:5.18millionpeople WaterDemand:380MGDSingapore

Rainfall:2.4m Lack of Storage Catchmentareas:66% Competing Land Use12

Challenges AheadRising Energy PricesPrices set to increase in the long run

Rise of Megacities

Population Growth

Stringent Regulations & Public Expectations

Climate Change

No Pristine Water Sources13

2011 water demand = 1,730,000 cubic metres per day 2060 water demand = 2 x 2011 demand14

Integrated Water Resource Management

15

16

Closing the Water LoopNatural Water Cycle: New drop stormwater management NEWater: 2nd drop treatment of used water

rain

sea

Desalination: New drop collection of rainfall in drains & reservoirs desalination

reclamation of used water collection of used water in sewers

treatment of raw to potable water

supply of water to the population & industries

17

Managing The Complete Water Cycle1. Increase Water Resources 2. Water Recycling 3. Improve efficiency

stormwater management

rain

sea reclamation of reclamation used water of used water

treatment of used water

collection collection of rainfall of rainfall in drains & in drains & reservoirs reservoirs

desalination desalination

collection of used water in sewers supply of water to the population & industries

treatment of raw to potable water

4. Improve Water Quality

5. Harden the Water Loop18

Integrated Water Resource Management4 National Taps 3P Approach

Local catchment Imported water NEWater Desalinated water

Conserve Water Value Our Water Enjoy Our Waters

Water for All

Conserve, Value, Enjoy19

1st

Harvesting Every Drop

MacRitchie Reservoir

Protected Catchment Unprotected Catchment

Marina Reservoir

Punggol Urban Stormwater Collection SystemLegend Unprotected Water Catchment Protected Water Catchment Proposed Water Catchment

Punggol Serangoon Reservoir

o Two third of Singapore is already water catchment o Further increased to 90% in the future with VariableSalinity Plant

Bedok Storm Water Collection System

20

2nd

Imported Water From Johor

TwowateragreementswithJohor,Malaysia 1961to2011(expired) 1962to2061StateofJohor,Malaysia

PUBpipelines carryingwater fromJohor

21

3rd

NEWaterKranji (9 mgd/40mld, Jan 2003)

Seletar (5 mgd/22mld, 2004)

Kranji Expansion 12mgd 17mgd (54mld) (77mld)

By 2060 to triple current NEWater capacity to meet 50% of future water demandLegendNEWater pipeline NEWater Plant

Changi 5th NEWater completed in 2010

Bedok (6 mgd/27mld, Jan03)

Bedok Expansion 6mgd 18mgd (27mld) (81mld)

Ulu Pandan (32 mgd (145mld), Mar 2007)

Service Reservoir

22

4th

Desalinated Water

Infinite resource Readily available Enable water self-sufficiency in SingaporeBy 2060, desalinated water will contribute 30% of Singapores water demand, increase from 10% currently

BUT Energy consumption is high (about 3.5 kWh/m3 with RO)23

USED WATER RUNS DEEPEnsures long term sustainability of Singapores water resources (i.e. NEWater & catchment water)

DEEP TUNNEL

Completed in Feb 2005

Progressive phasing out of used water Progressive phasing out of used water infrastructure with DTSS infrastructure with DTSS 3 WRPs and 45 pump stations will be 3 WRPs and 45 pump stations will be phased out, freeing 161 ha of land phased out, freeing 161 ha of land

completed in 2009

24

Integrated Water Resource Management4 National Taps 3P Approach

Local catchment Imported water NEWater Desalinated water

Conserve Water Value Our Water Enjoy Our Waters

Water for All

Conserve, Value, Enjoy25

Conserving our Waters

WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENTUFW Control via Integrated Network Management Water Conservation

Pricing6 leaks per 100 KmReflect the strategic importance and scarcity value of water

155 l/per

Water 147 l/per by 2020 Conservation Strategy

Voluntary3P approach Promote ownership of water conservation

MandatoryCut down on excessive flow and wastage of water

~ 5%

26

Conserve, Value and EnjoyConserve Water Value Our Water Enjoy Our WatersNEWater Visitor Centre

Activities in Reservoirs and Canals Marina Barrage

27

Conserve, Value, Enjoy - ABC Waters ProgrammeA. B. C. ACTIVENew recreational spaces

BEAUTIFULIntegration of waters with urban landscape

CLEANImproved water quality.

Turn Singapore into a city of gardens and waterPrime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, At ABC Waters Public Exhibition Opening (Feb 07) 28

The Blue Map of Singapore29

Existing30

Kallang River at Bishan Park

Proposed31

Floating island in Sengkang (Sg Punggol)

Ready for the Future

32

Water for All - Drivers for PUBs R&DPUBsstrategyforlongtermsustainabilityofourwatersupplyistocontinue leveragingontechnologicalinnovationtoovercomethewaterchallenges. Driver: AdequateWaterSupply: Rainfall:2.4m Landarea:700km2 Largedomesticandindustrialdemand Driver: GoodWaterQuality: Waterresourcescomingfrom unconventionalsourcesls ls ica ica em em Ch sage Ch sage U U

ObjectivesofR&D: 2.Protectwaterqualityand security 3.ReduceproductioncostEn erg y

1.Increasewaterresources

Key Drivers Waste Minimisation33

Water for All - PUBs Investment in R&D InnovationPUBstarteditsR&Dprogrammein 2002. No.ofProjectstodate:294 AnnualR&DBudget: o S$5milfrom2004to2009 o IncreasedtoS$20milin2010 TotalProjectValue:S$160mil AverageannualR&Dinvestment: S$18mil34

Water for All - R&D Projects in the Water LoopRainfall Prediction Contaminants of Emerging Concerns Low Energy MBR Microbial Fuel Cells

stormwater management

rainBiomimicry

sea DOHS

Backwash Electrochemical Desalting Biomimetic Membranes

Capacitive Deionisation

treatment of Integrated used water Anaerobic &Aerobic Treatment Microbial Source Tracking

Reducing Evaporation

Membrane Distillation Forward Osmosis

reclamation of used waterMembrane Integrity Sensors

collection of rainfall in drains & reservoirsWater Quality Modelling and Prediction

desalinationVariable Salinity Process

treatment of raw to potable waterRegenerative Photocatalysts

Robust Sensors

supply of water to the population & industries

collection of used water in sewersSource Control Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis 35

Journey to Low Energy Seawater Desalination

Current

3.5 kWh/m3

SWRO Variable Salinity Process : 1.7 kWh/m3 Memstill (with waste heat): 1.0 kWh/m3 Electrochemical Desalting: 1.5 kWh/m3

Short-term

< 1.5

kWh/m3

Breakthrough R&DLong- term < 0.75 kWh/m3 Biomimetic Membranes / Biomimicry of Natural Desalination ProcessesAquaporins Mangrove

R&D Approach - Energy Self-Sufficiency for Used PUB Manages the Entire Water Loop Water TreatmentEnergy-Self Sufficiency Nett Zero Energy 20 years?

80% Energy Reduction: