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SECTION I PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS AND SPECIFICATION SECTION II PRODUCT APPLICATIONS SECTION III INDIAN MANUFACTURERS SECTION IV IMPORT/EXPORT LEVEL SECTION V PRICE SECTION VI INDIAN DEMAND SECTION VII BROAD OUTLINE OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS SECTION VIII RAW MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS, UTILITY
AND AVAILABILITY SECTION IX GLOBAL SCENARIO SECTION X DISCUSSIONS ON ECONOMIC CAPACITY, PROJECT COST AND PROFITABILITY PROJECTIONS SECTION XI SWOT ANALYSIS
SECTION XII FACTORS INFLUENCING THE POSITION FOR
A NEW INDUSTRY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1. Forms of silica Appearance
Form of lustrous powder or granules
Approx molecular formula H2SiO3 Although the various forms of silica (silicon dioxide) have been represented classically as SiO2, recent physical and chemical studies have demonstrated that most forms of silica, especially the synthetic types of high surface area, contain varying quantities of adsorbed or free water (lost by drying below 150 deg.C) as well as fixed or bound water that is lost by ignition at temperatures up to 1200 deg.C. 1.2. Key Characteristics of Silica gel • Has a strong affinity for water vapour • Capable of adsorbing water vapour from air, gases and liquids • Dry in form and character even when saturated • Granular material combining high physical strength with abrasion resistance and creating
very little dust in use • Chemically inert and non-toxic 1.3. Classifications Types: Regular Intermediate Low density gel
Regular density Low density
Surface area Large internal surface and a high adsorption capacity for water vapour and other condensable vapour
Lower surface area with markedly lower adsorption capacities
Bulk density (apparent), g/cm3 0.65 to 0.75 0.37 to 0.43 Surface area sq.m/g 770 to 830 330 to 350 Pre volume cc/g 0.39 to 0.45 0.80 to 1.00 Pre diameter mean 22 to 26 100 to 150 Water adsorption capacity at 77 deg.F, 80% R.H, %
Silica as SiO2 99.6% 99.6%
1.4. Typical properties Silica content at 1000 deg.C % 99.5 Silica, activated gel, % 94 Iron, % 0.01 Cobalt chloride, % 0.5 BET-surface area, m2/g 800 Pore volume, ml/g 0.4 Average pore diameter, 20 Bulk density, g/cm3 0.7 True density, g/cm3 2.2 Typical water vapour adsorption capacity, at 50% RH and 25 deg.C 30% Heat of adsorption, kcal/kg water adsorbed 712 Reactivation temp, deg.C 100 to 180 max pH (10% aqueous suspension) 3.8 Loss at 140 deg.C, % 1.5 1.5. Chemical requirements for Silica Gel desiccant
Chloride (as NaCl) for non indicating type, % by wt.max. 0.05 Chloride (as NaCl) for indicating type, % by wt. 0.95 to 1.35 Cobalt (as CoCl2 for indication type % by wt. 1 to 1.5 Ammonium compounds, (as NH3)% by wt. max. 0.001 Sulphates (as Na2SO4), % by wt. max. 0.25
SECTION - II
2.1. General Details As Silica Gel possesses selective surface properties, it finds wide application in adsorption of gases, water vapour and in chromatography. It is also used as a catalyst, particularly in water forming or water consuming reaction and as a catalyst support. Micronised Silica gels are used as functional additives in coatings, plastics food and pharmaceuticals. 2.2. Major application sector 2.3. Application sector – Overall • Drying of compressed air and other gases, liquids such as refrigerants and oils
containing water in suspension • As dehumidifying and dehydrating agent • As catalysts and catalyst carriers in chromotography • As anticaking agents in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals • In air-conditioning • Recovery of natural gasoline from natural gas • Bleaching of Petroleum Oils • In formulating separators for batteries • As dietary supplements • To prevent slipping in waxes • Used as a microporous separator. The gel particles when blended into rubber
formulation swell during curing, to provide numerous passages for transfer of electrolytes
��Protective packaging of goods ��Drying of air and gas streams ��Scavenging of residual moisture from organic
SECTION - III
INDIAN MANUFACTURERS There are number of organisations involved in the production of Silica gel mostly in the small scale and unorganised sector. The Indian producers of Silica Gel include the following : * Acme Synthetic Chemicals/Acme Soap Works, 308, Veer Savarkar Marg, Dadar, Mumbai 400 028 * Akshar products
Plot No: 94/95, G.I.D.C. Industrial Estate, Phase -1,Vithal Udyog Nagar Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 121, Gujarat,
* Adul Chemicals 63/B, Princess St., Bldg. No,.2,Devkaran Mansion Mumbai 400 002 * Bhawna Chemical Industries Zone B/4, Plot No.51/52 Vithal Udyognagar Gujarat 388 121 * Bhavna Chemical Industries Zone:B/4, Plot No.51/52, Vitthal, Udyog Nagar, Vallabhvidhyanagar, Gujarat-388 121 * Chemicals (India) Company
33,Brabourne Road,(2nd Floor), Calcutta West Bengal 700 001 Chennai Office : 16,Jones Street,(1st Floor) Chennai-600 001
* Durga Chemical Industries Plot No. 6801, GIDC.,Ankleshwar, Bharuch-393 002
* Darshan Chemicals C-1/563, GIDC,Pandesara, Surat-394 221 * Kunal Chemical Co.
562, Sector 16A, Faridabad 121 002
* Maharashtra Chemical Products, A-1, Dattaguru Co-operative Hsg. Soc. Ltd., Deonar, Mumbai-400 088. * Noble Catalysts 9, Uttam Chambers, 3rd Floor, 39, Syed Mukri Street Masjid Bunder (West), Mumbai-400 009 * Omega Laboratories Chemicals Gautam Villa Co-op. Hsg. Society Ltd., Opp.Ghantali Mandir, Naupada Thane 400 602 * Prabha Chemicals & Allied Products P 9/2, IDA, Nacharam,
Hyderabad-500 076. Office:1-2-365/5/1,Gagan Mahal Road, Hyderabad-500 029. * Ricasil Industries Plot No. 703/1, G.I.D.C., Vithal Udyog Nagar (Via) Anand, Gujarat * Swambe Chemicals (Now known as Sorbead India) 1-A, Jay Complex, 1st Floor, Near Ghelani Petrol Pump Nizampura Main Road, Baroda-390 002 * Ruman's Industrial Chemical Corporation National High School Road, Bhandup, Mumbai-400 078. Indian installed capacity Around 6000 tonnes per annum
SECTION - IV
4.1. Imports of Precipitated silica and Silica gel 4.1.1 Import Level: 1770 tonnes 4.1.2. Countrywise Imports of Precipitated silica and Silica gel Period April 2001 to March 2002 Total quantity 1765858 KGS
Country Quantity in Kg
Australia 71940 China P Rep 313020 Egypt A RP 180000 German F Rep 86102 Japan 35220 Korea RP 1290 Norway 908933 Russia 30 Singapore 3000 South Africa 10200 Spain 35000 Thailand 16000 UK 3192 USA 101931
4.1.3. Sample of Individual Import Details of Silica gel Period 2002 Name of the importer
Country Quantity in tonnes
Value in Rs.
Drier Chemicals China 1 32306 1.1.2002 to 8.1.2002 Mumbai Drier Chemicals China 1 48338 1.1.2002 to 8.1.2002 Mumbai Gas Authority of India Ltd.
UK 30 2191498 24.1.2002 to 31.1.2002 Mumbai
Gas Authority of India Ltd.
US 11.22 1138785 1.3.2002 to 08.3.2002 Mumbai
Gas Authority of India Ltd.
US 3.474 352597 1.3.2002 to 08.3.2002 Mumbai
Drier Chemicals China 4.975 241777 09.3.2002 to 16.3.2002 Mumbai Drier Chemicals China 4.975 160776 09.3.2002 to 16.3.2002 Mumbai Anshul Agencies Germany 0.5 59284 22.4.2002 to 30.4.2002 Mumbai Anshul Agencies Germany 0.237 22632 22.4.2002 to 30.4.2002 Mumbai Anshul Agencies Germany 4.763 453960 22.4.2002 to 30.4.2002 Mumbai Gas Authority of India Ltd.
UK 0.01 749302 23.5.2002 to 31.5.2002 Mumbai
Gas Authority of India Ltd.
UK 0.2 1498604 23.5.2002 to 31.5.2002 Mumbai
Tini Pharma Ltd. US 0.023 16885 21.5.2002 to 29.5.2002 Chennai Visteon Automotive Systems Inds.
US 1200 pcs. 62380 Jan 2002 Chennai
Visteon Automotive Systems Inds.
US 2400 pcs. 120192 Jan 2002 Chennai
Hi Tech Drilling Service India
US 5 nos. 8046 Jan 2002 Chennai
Roshan Commercial Traders Pvt. Ltd.
Malaysia 19 tin 17061 Mar 2002 Chennai
Roshan Commercial Traders Pvt. Ltd.
Malaysia 0.352 480456 Apr 2002 Chennai
DXN Herbal Manufacturing India.
MY 31 Tin 27836 Apr 2002 Chennai
DXN Herbal Manufacturing India
MY 46 Pcs. 41348 Apr 2002 Chennai
Medox Agencies GB 1 Nos. 6007 May 2002 Chennai DXN Herbal Manufacturing India.
MY 40 Nos. 37945 June 2002 Chennai
Reliance Industries ltd.
SG 1 Pcs. 187 July 2002 Chennai
DXN Herbal Manufacturing India.
MY 50 Tin. 47432 July 2002 Chennai
Roshan Commercial Trades Pvt.Ltd.
MY 44 tin 39752 July 2002 Chennai
DXN Herbal Manufacturing India.
MY 36 Tin. 34116 July 2002 Chennai
Tini Pharma Ltd. U.S. 0.023 16885 21.05.2002 to 29.05.2002
DXN Herbal Mfg. (I)
Malaysia 0.068 64442 16.07.2002 to 22.07.2002
4.2 Exports of Precipitated silica and Silica gel 4.2.1 Present export level Around 700 tonnes per annum 4.2.2 Countrywise exports of Precipitated silica and Silica gel Period April 2001 to March 2002 Total quantity 707493 KGS
Country Quantity in kg
Australia 47 Baharain IS 13000 Chines Taipei 2000 Egypt A RP 148400 Italy 15000 Japan 20000 Jordan 3570 Kenya 112549 Korea RP 3900 Malaysia 16000 Mayanmar 5000 Nepal 63280 Oman 1290 Phillipines 14000 Saudi Arab 13950 Senegal 12875 South Africa 10000 Sri Lanka 189475 Switzerland 6000 Syria 1250 Tanzania Rep 11005 Turkey 16612 United Arab Emirates 18530 UK 9200 USA 560
4.2.3. Sample of individual Export Details Silica gel only Period 2002 Name of the exporters
Country Quantity in tonnes
Value in Rs.
Merck Ltd. Yangoon 0.005 2647 01.4.2002 to 30.4.2002 Mumbai Sanghi Motors(Bom)
Doha 0.04 4485 1.5.2002 to 31.5.2002 Mumbai
Dubai 0.1 9249 01.6.2002 to 15.6.2002 Mumbai
Dhan Associates Colombo 20000 Pcs. 4547 Jan 2002 Chennai Dhan Associates Colombo 100000 Pcs. 89886 Feb 2002 Chennai Dhan Associates Colombo 15000 Pcs. 13222 Mar 2002 Chennai H.Chandanmal and Co.
Sharjah 200 Nos. 18449 Apr 2002 Chennai
Dhan Associates Colombo 50000 Pcs. 54792 May 2002 Chennai Dhan Associates Colombo 82000 Pcs. 74536 June 2002 Chennai Kalaiwala Enterprises
Dubai 0.100 8249 01.06.2002 to 15.06.2002
Greenstar Impex P.Ltd.
Djibouti 0.008 3345 17.09.2002 to 31.09.2002
Kasturi Impex Bahrain 0.010 397 02.09.2002 to 16.09.2002
Kasturi Impex Bahrain 3.520 139842 02.09.2002 to 16.09.2002
Shiv Dial Sud & Sons
Djibouti 0.002 1006 02.09.2002 to 16.09.2002
Basic price Rs.50 per kg of Silica gel blue Rs.110 per kg of Silical gel bags (for size 1 gm) Rs.100 per kg of Silical gel bags (for size 2 gm) Rs.90 per kg of Silical gel bags (for size 5 gm) Taxes and duties Extra at actuals
6.1. General details The porous structure of Silica gel confers on it a very high specific area, which is the measure of the surface within the sponge-like structure. With a surface of this magnitude, the product has a high capacity to adsorb water vapour. Silica gel gives rapid protection. Silica gel blue cannot be used as moisture indicator in the drying of gases containing ammonia, as the cobalt salt forms a stable deep blue compound with ammonia. Silica gel blue is also not recommended for use in automatic air driers. Normally air contains about 90% humidity and the moisture level has to be brought down to the percentage below 60% at which level fungus formation is impossible. Therefore, Silica Gel is the most widely used moisture absorbent component in the export field. Silica gel is an amorphous form of silicon dioxide, which is synthetically produced in the form of hard irregular granules (having the appearance of crystals) or hard irregular beads. A microporous structure of interlocking cavities gives a very high surface area (800 square meters per gram). It is this structure that makes silica gel a high capacity desiccant. Water molecules adhere to the gels surface because it exhibits a lower vapour pressure than the surrounding air. When an equilibrium of equal pressure is reached, no more adsorption occurs. Thus the higher the humidity of the surrounding air, the greater the amount of water that is adsorbed before equilibrium is reached. It is in these higher humidity conditions (above 50% Relative Humidity) that stored or in-transit items are susceptible to damage. The beauty of silica gel is the physical adsorption of water vapour into its internal pores. There is no chemical reaction, no by products or side effects. Even when saturated with water vapour, silica gel still has the appearance of a dry product, its shape unchanged. It will adsorb up to one third of its own weight in water vapour. This adsorption efficiency is approximately 35% greater that typical desiccant clays, making silica gel the preferred choice where weight or efficiency are important factors. Silica gel has many other properties that recommend it as a desiccant.
6.2. Special advantages of Silica gel It has an almost indefinite shelf life if stored in airtight conditions. It can be regenerated and reused if required. Gently heating silica gel will drive off the adsorbed moisture and leave it ready for reuse. It is a very inert material, it will not normally attack or corrode other materials and with the exception of strong alkalis and hydrofluoric acid, it is resistant to attack. It is non-toxic and non-flammable. It is most frequently and conveniently used and packed in a breathable sachet or bag. These are available in a wide range of sizes suitable for use with a wide range of applications. Standard white silica gel is referred to as being non-indicating. As it adsorbs moisture, it remains physically unchanged. Non-indicating silica gel is both cheap and effective, available loose in bulk packs or packed in sachets. Self-indicating silica gels are coloured gels whose colour changes as they adsorb 6.3. Major user sector Health care products Thixotropic agents in cosmetics(qv) and dentrifices(qv); Selective absorbents to maintain clarity during the brewing of beer: Desicants: Thixotrope and Fllatting agents in coatings and supports for polymerisation catalysts. Specialised Silica gels that have uniform pore structure and which are often surface-treated are used in the production of chromatography (qv) columns for gas- and liquid phase separations. Amorphous silica gels and aerogels are also used as insulating materials and sol-gel coatings for optical applications.
• Adsorption of gases and water vapour. • Drying air and gases • Drying of organic compounds in the liquid phase. • Selective adsorption of materials as in
6.4. Substitution product Silica gel and Activated alumina can be considered as substitution products to some extent 6.6. Estimated Indian demand - Period 2002 Silica gel is used by most of the industrial units for drying purposes. Use level is often in the region of a few kg only on an average for the individual units. Estimated all India demand; Around 3000 tonnes per annum 6.7. Estimated growth in demand : 7 to 8% per annum
BROAD OUTLINE OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS
7.1. General details Silica gels can be prepared by several methods Most commonly, a sodium silicate solution is acidified to pH value less than 10 to 11. The gelling time varies. Syntheses include the bulk set, slurry and hydrolysis processes. Bulk set process The bulk set process consists of preparing a silica hydrosol (gel) by mixing sodium silicate and a strong mineral acid, followed by mechanically breaking, washing the hydrogel particles free of electrolytes, drying and activating. Slurry process In the slurry process, sodium silicate solution and acid are mixed, either in batch or semi continuously, to produce a gelatinous precipitate which is washed and dried, often by spray drying. These gels usually have a small particle size and the salts must be washed away before use. Gels can also be made directly from salt-free colloidal silica, which provides larger ultimate particle sizes and hence greater stability, along with low salt contents. Such gels may also have lower specific surface areas and larger pore diameters. Hydrolysis process Hydrolysis of pure silicon compounds such as ethyl silicate, silicon tetrachloride and other volatile hydrolysable silica esters is another method of preparing gels. Although more expensive, this process produces dense gels of high purity and very small pore size.
7.2. Factors determining the properties The properties of a finished gel are determined by the size of the primary particles at the moment they aggregate into the gel network, called the gelation point (or gelation time.). It is usually defined as the point at which aggregation in the sol forms a three dimensional network that can support a stress elastically. The sol-to-gel transformation is not well defined because it occurs as a continuous increase in viscosity. The concentration of the primary particles in solution affects the physical properties of the gel, including the compactness of the gel network, the pH, salt concentration, temperature and time during which the gel is aged while wet and the mechanical pressure or shear forces applied to the gel before or during drying. Additionally, the physical properties are influenced by the temperature, pressure, pH, salt content and surface tension of the liquid medium as it is being evaporated from the pores of the gel and the temperature time and type of atmosphere in which the gel is heated after being dried. The type of catalyst used in gelation can have significant effects on the kinetics of the process and the structure of the silica gel formed. For some applications, silica gel is converted to pelletised or granular form by extruding pulverised gel with a binder or by shaping the hydrogel during drying. Silica gel can be gelled in spherical form by spray-drying or by spraying droplets into an immiscible liquid (emulsion polymerisation). Freezing of a silica sol produces silica-gel particles of nonspherical shapes. 7.3. Factors determining the functional application: When Silica gel is used as an adsorbent, the pore structure determines the gel adsorption capacity. Pores are characterised by specific surface area, specific pore volume (total volume of pores per gram of solid) average pore diameter, pore size distribution and the degree to which entrance to large pores is restricted by smaller pores. These parameters are derived from measuring vapour adsorption isotherms, mercury intrusion, low angle- x-ray scattering, electron microscopy, gas permeability, ion or molecule exclusion or the volume of imbibed liquid.
Surfaces can be categorised as fully hydroxylated, in which the surface consists solely of Silanol-Si-O-H, groups, a Siloxane, - SI-O-SI, or an organic surface. Silanol surfaces are formed by drying silica gels or precipitates from water at temperatures below 150 deg.C. These surfaces are readily wetted by water. Hydroxylated surfaces heated from 300 to 1000 deg.C progressively develop a siloxane surface by dehydration such as that found on pyrogenic silica surfaces. The behaviour of particles having organic surfaces depends on the coating material. The particles may become dispersible in water, oil or other organic solvents. If fluorocarbons are the surface group, the silica becomes both hydrophobic and oleophobic. The nature of the surface can be determined by measuring the heat of nitrogen adsorption, dye adsorption, infrared adsorption or chemical analysis. 7.4. Modification of Silica gel Once a gel is formed, it can be modified in the wet state to strengthen the structure or enlarge the pore size and reduce surface area, through a process called aging Silica gel reinforcement can be carried out in several ways. 1. Active Silica i.e. low molecular weight polysilicic on the gel can be added to a
broken up gel in order to deposit it at a uniform rate on the gel 2. Active Silica can be added to a sol as the gel is growing, causing strong gel
bridges to form between particles 3. Wet gel can be heat-aged to increase coalescence of the particles. In this aging process, silica is dissolved from smaller particles and deposited at the points of contact between larger particles. Condensation reactions in the gels continue to occur because of the pressure of the silanol, -Si-O-H, groups. Because of the formation of new siloxane bonds that bridge the particles, the continued polymerisation reactions strengthen and stiffen the network. Washing can also be an aging step because aging a wet gel can increase interparticle bonding, which leads to less shrinkage of the gel during drying. Sintering, or heating to convert a powder into a continuous mass, a dried silica surface in air or in a vacuum causes shrinkage that decreases the surface area, whereas sintering in steam in increased pore size. For example, micropores are obtained by heating a hydrated gel at 1000 deg.C for ten hours. The presence of impurities such as aluminium tends to minimise changes caused by heating.
At temperatures >1000 deg,C, however and in the presence of impurities, silica gel is converted to cristobalite or nonporous silica glass. Gels having extremely small pores can be made. Such gels include impervious silica, porous glass, and adsorbents for which the applications are tailored to surface properties and pore size. 7.5. Conventional process The process envisages the mixing of Na2SiO3 solution with mineral acid it such as Sulphuric acid or Hydrochloride acid at a regulated rate to the desired pH level resulting in silica mixed up with electrolyte. The mixture is then transferred to ageing chamber. The aged material then dehydrated, washed, dried and ground in a ball mill. The ratio of acid to silicate and the manner of drying govern the characteristics of the final product. By varying these conditions, any designed modifications of the product can be obtained. Types: Regular Intermediate
Low density gels * Regular Regular density Silica gel is made in an acid medium, which gives high (eg.750m2 per g) surface area, small ultimate (or primary) particles having aver age pore diameters of 2.2 to 2.6 nm and a pore volume of 0.37 to 0.40 ml per g. This regular density silica gel contains approximately 6 wt% water as surface hydroxyl groups, which imparts a high capacity for adsorption of water and other polar molecules. The gel exhibits a high selectivity for polar molecules and has a large percentage of small pores. * Intermediate Intermediates density silica gel consists of larger ultimate particles having a lower (300 to 359 m2 per g) surface area, larger (0.9 to 1.1ml per g) pore volumes and larger (12 to 16 nm) average pore diameters. Because of the large pore size, intermediate density silica gel has a high capacity for water adsorption at high humidities. It is often used as a fine power because aggregate (or secondary) particle size and porosity can be controlled.
* Low density silica gel Low density silica gel is usually prepared as a very fine powder of extremely low density, Shrinkage of the gel during drying is minimised. Low density silica gels are made by minimising shrinkage during drying by reinforcing the gel by aging, or by replacing the water with a liquid of lower surface tension, for example an alcohol. The gel is then heated to a temperature above the critical point of the liquid, thereby releasing the liquid as vapour. Supercritical drying is often used in aerogel processing. Low density silica gel has lower (100 to 200 m2 per gram) surface areas, larger (18 to 22 nm) average pore diameters and larger (1.4 to 2.0 ml/gram) pore volumes. 7.6. Process developed by Cross Field Silica gel is produced by reacting Sodium Silicate and Sulphuric acid in carefully controlled conditions. When first brought together, the Silicate and acid form a hydrosol which slowly contracts to form a consolidated Silica gel structure known as hydrogel The hydrogel is washed to remove the by-product sodium sulphate The hydrogel is then milled to produce free flowing powder or dried to a xerogel having a surface area of 750 m2 per gram. With a surface of this magnitude, the product has a substantial capacity to adsorb water vapour. Finally, a drying process gives gel in a fully activated state. At this stage, the product consists of hard translucent granules in a range of sizes and it must therefore be carefully graded into specific particle size formulations. In order to ensure optimum performance, all stages of production are closely controlled. Subtle changes of certain parameters, in particular washing conditions, produce different types of gel namely macro or micro porous gel Microporous gel is characterised by a range number of narrow pores (typically 20Ao in dia).which give a high internal surface area. Macroporous gel is characterised by a broader pore structure(100 + A o) which give comparatively a lower surface area.
7.7. Process offered by National Research Development Corporation In this process, clear stable solution of sodium silicate after proper dilution with deionised water is filtered. The filtered solution is then percolated from top through an ion-exchange column. The operation is so synchronised that when the percolation is going on in one exchange column, regeneration of the other columns is simultaneously carried out. The percolated silica sol is treated with ammonium hydroxide and dried under sun where it becomes gelified. The hardened gel in the trays is conveyed into a compartmental tray drier and finally dried to 5 to 10 percent moisture content in an electric oven at 120 deg,. C and packed in air tight plastic containers for despatch. The above process for NRDC has been developed by Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat, Assam. This new process developed by the Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat, eliminates some of the defects of the conventional process. In the new process, the electrolytes present after treatment of diluted sodium silicate solution with sulphuric acid is removed by passing the treated solution through a bed of cation and anion exchange resin successively. The Silica Gel thus obtained is substantially free from cations and anions. This is gelified and after initial drying at 50 to 60 deg.C, is finally dried at 120 deg.C. The product so obtained has a purity of over 99% and adsorption capacity of 42 to 44% at 90 to 95% relative humidity. 7.8. Preparation of Reinforced and esterified Silica Gel: Reinforced Silica Gel is prepared by heating Silica Gel in water at a PH of 3 to 10.7 at 80 to 2500 deg C. The water is then displaced by an organic liquid and the product is dried.
For example, Silica Gel is prepared from the silicate solution with amberlite IRC - 50 resin to contain 7% silica and to have a surface area of 720 sq.m./gm .Silica Gel is reinforced by heating for four hours at 90 deg C. and then dehydrated by azeotropic distillation with propyl alcohol. The resulting slurry is mixed with butyl alcohol and propyl alcohol distilled off. The anhydride butyl alcohol slurry is heated to 285 deg C from half an hour, and then cooled, the excess butyl alcohol is evaporated in a vacuum oven at 100 deg C. and the dried powder is micro pulverized. The product has a specific surface of 642 sq. m. per gm as measured by N adsorption, no hydroxylated surface area as measured by dye adsorption, a pore diameter of 7.2 milli micron and a bulk density of 0.38 g/ml. It can be milled with oil to give a thin grease.
7.9. Flow sheet
Sodium Silicate Hydrochloric acid
7.10 Source of technology * Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Gijubhai Badeka Marg, Bhavnagar -364 002 * Chempro Services, First Floor,, 1431,17th Main road, Anna Nagar Chennai, * Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal. * Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Bombay-400 076. * National Research Development Corporation
20-22, Zamroodhpur Community Center Kailash Colony Extension New Delhi 110 048. India
* Regional Research Laboratory (RRL),
(A Constituent Establishment of CSIR) Jorhat - 785 006,Assam.
7.11. Major plant & machinery equipment and suppliers Silicate storage tank Aristo Engineers
J-3, Vikas Udyog Nagar, Behind Kasturi Tiwer Phatak-Goddeo Road, Bhayander (E), Thane-401 105 Abhinav Polymers A/2, 3909, GIDC Estate, Phase - IV, Vatva Ahmedabad-382 445 Gujarat
Dilute silicate batch tank Chemitherm Plants & Systems P. Ltd., 30, Anandha Street Alwarpet, Chennai-600 018 Texel Fabricators Pvt. Ltd., 335, Sidco Industrial Estate, Ambattur, Chennai-600 098, Tamil Nadu
Upflow filter Air Filter Industries Mercantile Building 2nd Floor, G.P.O. Box 886 9A, Lal Bazar Street Calcutta-700 001 Divya International 23A, Netaji Subhas Road, 8th Floor, Room No.28, Calcutta-700 001
Cation Exchange column Iron Exchange India Ltd.,Maharashtra
RAW MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS, UTILITY AND AVAILABILITY
Raw material Basis : One tonne of Silica Gel Sodium silicate 4 per tonne Hydrochloric acid 2 per tonne Ion Exchange Resin Ammonium hydroxide Utility Basis : One tonne of Silica Gel Power 90 unit Water 4 Kilo litre Raw material availability Sodium silicate There are reported to be number of manufacturers of Sodium silicate in the country largely in SSI and unorganised sector. Names of a few producers are given below. ��Aditya Silicates (P) Ltd.Tamil Nadu ��Bee-Cee Labs. Pvt. Ltd.Calcutta ��Coastal Silicate, Pondicherry
SECTION - IX
9.1.Global Silica Gel Market : 400 million US$ 9.2.Global Growth rate in demand : 2 to 3% per annum 9.3.Global capacity utilisation : 75% 9.4.Global production share : North America, Europe and Asia each accounts for about one third of global production. 9.5. Global consumption pattern
Ink jet printers20%
9.6. Major Global Players USA Crosfield, Grace, PQ SCM France CECA Germany Chemische Fabriken Oker und Braunschweig, Grace Solvay Japan Dohkai, Mizusawa Tokai Address details of a few units are given below. * Brown Chemicals Inc.,
Industrial and Fine Chemicals 302 West Oakland Ave, P. O Box 440, Oakland, NJ 07436-0440 * Chemische Fabriken Oker U. Braunschweig AG Post Box 1328, D-3380 Golsar 1 Germany * Crosfield Chemicals P.O. Box No. 26, Warrington, Cheshire WA5 1AB Millennium Inorganic Chemicals 200, International Circle, Suite 5000, Hunt Valley, MD 21030,USA.
Colors and Silica (Formerly SCM Chemicals) 2701 Broening Highway, Baltimore, MD 21222, USA * Multilorb Technologies, Inc. 325, Harlem Road, Buffalo NY 14223-1893 USA * NOAH Technologies Corporation
NOAH Chemical Division, 1 Noah Park, San Antonio, * PQ Corporation, P.O.Box 840, Valley Forge, PA 19482,USA. 9.7 Growth trend Construction, health care and paper manufacturing will drive a 4.8% per year growth rate for silica gel adsorbents, making them among the fastest growing segments of the $1.8 billion inorganic microporous adsorbent materials industry, says a Business Communications Co., Activated alumina is expected to grow at the same pace as silica gel, but zeolites, the largest part of the adsorbents marker, will grow at only a 2.5% per year pace through 2006. 9.8. Thrust area for market The Silica Gel market for ink jet printers is growing at 10% per year. About 3 million lbs of ink jet printers was produced in the US in 1996 and production volume has been doubled by 2000. The desiccant market is very competitive. Prices are going down in Asia. Demand for packaging desiccants is growing in part of Asia but is slipping in the major Asian markets.
DISCUSSIONS ON ECONOMIC CAPACITY , PROJECT COST AND
PROFITABILITY PROJECTIONS Economic capacity : 300 tonnes per annum Project cost : Rs.120 lakhs Assessment of project cost 1. Land S.No. Description Cost
Rs.in lakhs 1.1 Cost of land of 1acre at Rs.5.5 lakh per acre 5.5 1.2 Cost of levelling, laying internal roads/fencing and
Subtotal 6.05 2. Building S.No. Description Cost
Rs.in lakhs 2.1 Factory building of area 300 sq.m. at Rs.3200/sq.m. 9.60 2.2 Non-factory building of area 100 sq.m.at Rs.4500/sq.m. 4.50 Subtotal 14.10 3. Cost of Plant & Machinery S.No. Description Cost
Rs.in lakhs 3.1 Cost of basic plant and machinery 40.00 3.2 Instrumentation and control 3.00 3.3 Pipelines and valves 4.00 3.4 Structurals for erection 2.00 Subtotal 49.00 3.5 Octroi, excise duty, sales tax, etc.at 12%� 5.88 3.6 Packaging and insurance charges (2%) 0.98 3.7 Transportation charges (2%) 0.98 3.8 Machinery stores and spares (2%) 0.98 3.9 Foundation charges (2%) 0.98 3.10 Installation charges (2%) 0.98 Total cost of plant and Machinery 59.78 4. Technical know-how fees Rs.2 lakhs
5. Miscellaneous fixed assets S.No. Description Cost
Rs.in lakhs 5.1. Electrification 1.00 5.2. Steam boiler and auxillaries 3.00 5.3. Water storage tank, borewell etc. 0.80 5.4. Fuel storage tank 0.80 5.5. Laboratory equipment 1.20 5.6. Office machinery & equipment 0.80 5.7. Material handling equipment, packaging machinery,
weigh balance, etc. 0.80
5.8. Diesel generator 4.00 5.9. Effluent treatment 1.50 Total 13.90 6. Preliminary & Pre-operative expenses: S.No. Description Cost
Rs.in lakhs 6.1. Preliminary expenses 0.80 6.2. Pre-operative expenses:- 6.2.1 Establishment 0.80 6.2.2 Rent rates and taxes 1.00 6.2.3 Travelling expenses 1.20 6.2.4 Interest and commitment charges on borrowings 2.50 6.2.5 Insurance during construction period 1.50 6.2.6 Other preoperative expenses and deposits - 6.2.7 Interest on deferred payment - Total 7.80 7. Provision for contingency Rs. 6.26 lakhs 8. Working capital margin Rs.10.55 lakhs 9. Total project cost Rs.120 lakhs 10. Means of Finance Promoter's contribution Rs.48 lakhs Term loan from financing institutions Rs.72 lakhs Total project cost Rs.120 lakhs 11. Financial statements
A Variable cost
Rs. in lakhs
Raw material and utilities 56.19 Spares and maintenance 3.59 Selling expenses 7.50 Total variable cost (A)
B Fixed cost
Salaries and wages 12.00 Interest on term loan and working capital loan 18.70 Depreciation 7.95 Administrative expenses 4.50 Total fixed cost (B)
C. Total cost of production (A+B)
D. Selling price per kg. (in Rupees)
E. Annual sales turnover
F. Net profit before tax (E-C)
G. Breakeven point in %
Weakness Competitive industry
Opportunity Export potentials
Threat Lack of R&D efforts to introduce grades for specific application
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF A NEW INDUSTRY
AND RECOMMENDATIONS Silica Gel represents an excellent investment opportunity. There is strong case for setting up project of global competitive standards in terms of specifications and cost for operating both in the Indian and Global market. Since there is no particular entry barrier for setting up facilities for Silica gel project, additional capacity is likely to be created from time to time in tune with the growth in demand in the country.