Significance of Tests for Petroleum Products

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Significance of Tests for Petroleum ProductsSeventh EditionSalvatore J. Rand, EditorASTM Manual Series: MNL 1 Seventh Edition ASTM Stock Number: MNL1-7TH

ASTM International /tniWi 100 Barr Harbor Drive (^flMMp POBoxC700 ^{|fl West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 Printed in the U.S.A.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Significance of tests for petroleum products.7th ed. / Salvatore J. Rand, editor. p. cm. (ASTM manual series ; MNL 1) "ASTM stock number: MNL1-7TH." Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8031-2097-4 1. PetroleumTesting. 2. Petroleum productsTesting. I. Rand, Salvatore J., 1933- II. Series. TP691.M36 2003 335.5'38dc212003048021

Copyright 2003 ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced or copied, in whole or in part, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other distribution and storage media, without the written consent of the publisher. ISBN: 0-8031-2097-4

Photocopy Rights Authorization to photocopy items for internal, personal, or educational classroom use, or the internal, personal, or educational classroom use of specific clients, is granted by ASTM International provided that the appropriate fee is paid to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923; Tel: 978-750-8400; online: http://www. copyright.com/. NOTE: The Society is not responsible, as a body, for the statements and opinions advanced in this publication. Printed in Bridgeport, NJ, 2003

ContentsChapter 1Introduction by Sahatore J. Rand Chapter 2^Aviation Fuels by Kurt H. Strauss Chapter 3Automotive Gasoline by L. M. Gibbs, B. R. Bonazza, and R. L Furey Chapter 4Fuel Oxygenates by Marilyn J. Herman Chapter 5Crude Oils by Harry N. Giles Chapter 6Fuels for Land and Marine Diesel Engines and for Non-Aviation Gas Turbines by Steven R. Westbrook Chapter 7Burner, Heating, and Lighting Fuels by Regina Gray and C. J. Martin Chapter 8Properties of Petroleum Coke, Pitch, and Manufactured Carbon and Graphite by C. O. Mills and F. A. lannuzzi Chapter 9Methods for Assessing Stabihty and Cleanliness of Liquid Fuels by Harry N. Giles Chapter 10Lubricant Base Fluids by Arthur J. Stipanovic Chapter 11Lubricating Oils by Dave Wilk Chapter 12^Automotive Engine Oil and Performance Testing by Shirley E. Schwartz and Brent Calcut Chapter 13Lubricating Greases by Raj Shah Chapter 14Methods for the Environmental Testing of Petroleum Products by Mark L Hinman Chapter 15Quality Assurance of Test Method Performance by Alex T. C. Lau 1

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CONTENTS Chapter 16Gaseous Fuels and Light Hydrocarbons by Ron Brunner Chapter 17Sampling Techniques by Peter W. Kosewicz Chapter 18White Mineral Oils by C. Monroe Copeland Chapter 19Petroleum Solvents by R. G. Montemayor Chapter 20Petroleum Oils for Rubber by John M. Long and Alexander D. Recchuite Chapter 21Petroleum Waxes Including Petrolatums by Alan R. Case Index 193

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MNL1-EB/Jan. 2003

Introduction

MANUAL 1 HAS A LONG AND ILLUSTRIOUS HISTORY. This is the sev-

enth edition in a series initially published by ASTM in 1928, with the first edition having the designation STP 7. The second edition was published as STP 7A in 1934, and the manual has been periodically revised over the last seventy-five years to reflect new approaches in the analysis and testing of petroleum and petroleum products. It is now designated as Manual 1, but has retained its title. Significance of Tests for Petroleum Products. Committee D02 of ASTM International, Petroleum Products a n d Lubricants, h a s assumed t h e responsibility of revising this manual, although other national and international standards organizations contribute significantly t o t h e development of standard test methods for petroleum products. These include the Institute of Petroleum (IP) in the U.K., DIN in Germany, AFNOR in France, JIS in Japan, and ISO. Selected test methods from these organizations have been crossed referenced with ASTM standards in some chapters in this publication. There a r e discussions presently in progress t o harmonize many worldwide standard test methods, so that they are technically equivalent to each other. The chapters in this manual are not intended t o be research papers or exhaustive treatises of a particular field. The purpose of the discussions herein is to answer two questions: what a r e t h e relevant tests that a r e done on various petroleum products, and why do we do these particular tests? All tests are designed to measure properties of a product such that the "quality" of that product may be described. I consider a workable definition of a quality product to be "That which meets agreed upon specifications." It is not necessary that the quality of a product be judged by its high purity, although it may very well be, but only that it meets specifications previously agreed upon among buyers, sellers, regulators, transferors, etc. The various chapters in this manual discuss individual or classes of petroleum products, and describe the standards testing that must be done on those products to assure all parties involved that they are dealing with quality products. The sixth edition of Manual 1 was published in November of 1993. In the interim, not only has the number available but also t h e tjrpe of some petroleum products undergone dramatic changes, with the result that most products have had changes incorporated in their methods of test, and new test methods standardized and accepted as required. The generic petroleum products discussed in this seventh edition of Manual 1 are similar to those products described in the chapters of the previous edition. All chapters have been updated to reflect new specification and testing standards, where applica-

ble. In the discussion of some of the various products, selected sections of chapters have been retained and carried over from the sixth edition for the sake of completeness and to give background information more fully. The authors of the chapters in the sixth edition have been credited in the footnotes of the appropriate chapters where necessary. This edition has been enlarged by t h e inclusion of eight new chapters not present in the sixth edition, and the original twelve chapters from the sixth edition have been retained and updated. The new chapters are discussed as follows. Since proper sampling of product is so basic and important in an analysis, it being the first step and part of the analysis, a chapter on sampling techniques has been added. The Clean Air Act mandates the addition of oxygenates to gasoline; therefore, a stand-alone chapter on fuel oxygenates is included, although oxygenate blends with gasoline continue to be discussed and updated in the chapter on automotive gasoline. Similarly, a chapter on automotive engine oils has been added to reflect new challenges in test method development of oils specifically for automotive use. The chapter on lubricating oils deals with the lubrication of other engine types, although automotive oils are also mentioned. Due to the recognition in recent years of the importance of the composition of base oils and the effect of that composition on proper lubrication by the finished blend with additives, a chapter on lubricant base fluids has been added. A new chapter on environmental characteristics of petroleum products is included, which discusses the standard test methods for measuring toxicity and biodegradation of lubricants. Another new chapter is entitled, "Properties of Petroleum Coke, Pitch, and Manufactured Carbon and Graphite." In recent years, a considerable number of standard test methods have been developed to define t h e characteristics of these type materials. The importance of fuel stability and cleanliness has long been recognized, and the testing involved to measure these properties is described in a new chapter on methods for assessing stability and cleanliness of liquid fuels. Finally, no test method may stand alone without a discussion of the expected precision of its results. Programs and protocols must also be developed to insure that test methods and measuring tools maintain consistency and accuracy in their results. These methods are described in the new chapter on test method performance and quality assurance. This chapter is applicable to all testing performed on the petroleum products discussed in this book. The importance of quality control in the characterization of chemical and physical properties cannot be understated. The way of the future in testing is to develop correlative methods due to their simplicity, objectiv-

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2 PETROLEUM

PRODUCTS this manusJ. They have devoted considerable time, energy, and resources to support this endeavor. I am also grateful to the reviewers of the various chapters, who through their perusal of the chapters and their suggestions permitted good manuscripts to be made better. Finally, I would like to thank the industry and government employers of all involved in this publication, who ultimately make it possible for us to produce manuals such as this for the benefit of those who use petroleum standards worldwide.

ity, economy, and in many instances, portability. Quality assurance methods must be integrated into analytical procedures and protocols, so that we can demonstrate that these methods give accuracy and precision equal to or better than the referee methods they supercede.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThis manual was brought to fruition by the efforts of many individuals. I would like to thank edl of them, beginning with the publication staff of ASTM Int