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FI NALDRAFTRELEASEPACKET|JULY2010i nsi de:LETTERFROMMAYORGAVI NNEWSOM|EXECUTI VESUMMARY s a n f r a n c i s c oBETTEr sTrEETs PLanPoLiciEs and GuidELinEs for ThE PEdEsTrian rEaLmSAN FRANCISCOPLANNINGDEPARTMENTMayors Offce on DisabilityFOR MORE INFORMATION ON ThE BETTER STREES PLAN, CONTACT:Adam Varat, Project ManagerSan Francisco Planning [email protected] OUR WEB SITE AT:www.sfbetterstreets.orgThe Better Streets Plan was made possible in part by the San Francisco County Transportation Authority through a grant of Proposition K local transportation sales tax funds. E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R YD R A F T B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N I n t r o d u c t I o nTe Better Streets Plan provides a blueprint for the future of San Franciscos pedestrian environ-ment. It describes a vision, creates design guidelines, and identifes next steps to create a truly great pedes-trian realm.Te Plan seeks to balance the needs of all street users, and refects the understanding that the pedestrian envi-ronment is about much more than just transportation that streets serve a multitude of social, recreational and ecological needs that must be considered when deciding on the most appropriate design. Te Plan follows from the Better Streets Policy, adopted by the Board of Supervisors and the Mayor in February 2006, which describes the varied roles that the Citys streets should play.Te Better Streets Plan provides guidelines for the pedestrian environment, defned as the areas of the street where people walk, shop, sit, play, or interact outside of moving vehicles. Generally speaking, this refers to sidewalks and crosswalks; however, in some B E T T E R S T R E E TS P L A N| DR A F T F OR P UB L I CR E VI E WJ ULY 2 0 1 0Executive Summarycases, this may be expanded to include certain areas of the roadway. Te Plan does not generally focus on roadway or vehicle travel characteristics.If fully realized, the Better Streets Plan will bring a number of benefts to San Francisco. It will help retain families in San Francisco, support Muni and a transit-frst city, help promote public safety, help to minimize sewer/stormwater overfows into the Bay, decrease the likelihood of pedestrian injuries and fatalities, increase accessibility for all street users, and enhance the every-day quality of life for San Franciscos residents.Tis plan follows from a long public and techni-cal process. As of this draft, City staf have attended nearly 100 community meetings relating to the Better Streets Plan, held monthly meetings with a Community Advisory Committee, and received over 1,000 responses to the two Better Streets Plan surveys. As well, the Better Streets team has met with technical agency staf to gather comments regarding technical feasibility of initial concepts and proposals.SAN FRANCISCO PLANNING DEPARTMENT Mayors Offce on DisabilityFI NALDRAFT|JULY2010BETTERSTREETS PLANSAN FRANCISCOPoLiciESANd GuidELiNES foRThE PEdESTRiAN REALm E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R YD R A F T B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N P l a n H I g H l I g H t sTe Better Streets Plan contains a wide range of guide-lines relating to streetscape and pedestrian facilities. Major themes and ideas include:Distinctive, unified streetscape design: Street trees as defning the streetscape rhythm; integrated site furnishings; regular pedestrian-oriented lighting; minimizing cluttering elements.Space for public life: Safe, useable public seating for neighborhood gathering; generous curb exten-sions for seating and landscaping; reclaiming of excess street space for public use; space for outdoor caf and restaurant seating and merchant displays.Enhanced pedestrian safety: Safe, convenient pedestrian crossings; curb radii and curb exten-sions that slow trafc, shorten crossing distance, and enhance visibility; pedestrian countdown signals and other pedestrian priority signals (head-start, pedestrian scramble).Improved street ecology: On-site stormwater management to reduce combined sewer overfows; resource-efcient elements and materials; streets as green corridors and habitat connectors.Universal design and accessibility: Generous, unobstructed sidewalks, curb ramps for all users, accessible pedestrian signals.Integrating pedestrians with transit: Transit rider amenities at key stops; safe, convenient pedestrian routes to transit; mutual features that beneft pedestrian safety and comfort and transit opera-tions, such as bus bulb-outs and boarding islands.Creative use of parking lanes: Permanent curb extensions with seating and landscaping; landscape planters in the parking lane; fexible, temporary use of the parking lane for restaurant seating or other uses.Traffic calming to reduce speeding and enhance pedestrian safety: Raised crossings and speed tables; landscaped trafc circles; chicanes.Pedestrian-priority designs: Shared public ways; temporary or permanent street closures to vehicles; sidewalk and median pocket parks.Extensive greening: Healthy, well-maintained urban forest; expanded sidewalk plantings; ef-cient utility location to provide more potential planting locations.Rendering by Allan B. Jacobs E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R YD R A F T B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N n e x t s t e P sTe Better Streets Plan is a vision for the future of the Citys pedestrian environment. Tese suggested improvements are not extravagant or uncommonthey are in use in many cities across the state and nation. However, even typical street improvements cost money to build and maintain. To build out the Plans recommendations on the Citys streets, the City must have capital and maintenance funding in placefunding the City does not currently have. Te City must continue to seek funding to realize the vision of the Better Streets Plan.Better streets rely on successful implementationongoing capital funding, efcient maintenance, and efective education and enforcement. Tis plan describes a vision for ideal streets, and recognizes the need to have detailed implementation strategies. Te plan identifes high-level implementation measures. Other recommendations have been developed in an accompanying report by the Controllers Ofce.Te Better Streets Plan is merely the frst step to real-izing an improved pedestrian environment and public realm in San Francisco. It sets high-level guidelines that should be used in the Citys on-going streetscape and pedestrian design. It does not seek to prioritize or create a project list of Better Streets projects. Nor does it give specifc engineering guidance on a number of technical topicsthose standards may be found in other existing or planned documents.In order to implement the vision of the plan, the City must take a variety of next steps, including the following:Improve the coordination and delivery of street improvements.Create an easy to use Better Streets guide and website.Develop a framework for implementation and pri-oritization of street improvement projects.Develop additional technical guidance on a number of topics, including: urban forest, stormwater, street and pedestrian lighting, street furnishing, and roadway design guidelines.THE BETTER STREETS PLAN CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS:1.IntroductIon2.context3.goals and PolIcIes: tHe PatH to Better streets4.aPProacH: desIgnIng great streetscaPes5.guIde: street desIgns6.guIde: streetscaPe eleMents7.IMPleMentatIoncHaPtersStreets are almost always public: owned by the public, and when we speak of the public realm we are speaking in large measure of streets. What is more, streets change. Tey are tinkered with constantly: curbs are changed to make sidewalks narrower or (in fewer cases) wider, they are repaved, lights are changed, the streets are torn up to replace water and sewer lines or cables and again repaved. Te buildings along them change and in doing so change the streets. Every change brings with it the opportunity for improvement. If we can develop and design streets so that they are wonderful, fulflling places to be, community-building places, attractive public places for all people of cities and neighborhoods, then we will have successfully designed about one-third of the city directly and will have had an immense impact on the rest.Allan Jacobs,Great Streets, MIT Press, 1995 E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R YD R A F T B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N 1 I n t r o d u c t I o nChapter 1 gives background on the plan, describes the plan development, and identifes next steps, and is summarized above.2 c o n t e x tChapter 2 describes existing conditions and policies relating to streets and the pedestrian environment in San Francisco today.2.1 Existing conditionsWalking accounts for 20% of all trips made in San Francisco1. Major activity generators include transit hubs, schools, hospitals and shopping centers. Pedestrian volumes are highest in the northeast quad-rant of the city, and along major transit corridors. Pedestrian collisions and fatalities have been generally declining over time, though still remain signifcant. Many pedestrian collisions are concentrated in a few areas of the city.Streetscape and pedestrian infrastructure includes signs and signals, sidewalks, curb ramps, street trees, street lighting, site furnishings, and stormwater infrastruc-ture. San Franciscos street and sidewalk infrastructure varies greatly, as does data on the condition of these features. Te City is engaged in collecting on-going data on a number of features.2.2 Existing policiesStreet design in San Francisco is subject to federal, state, and local policies, standards, and guidelines. Key federal and state policies and standards include the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and related documents, the California Manual on Uniform Trafc Control Devices (MUTCD), the California Vehicle Code (CVC), American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials (AASHTO) standards, the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), and the Clean Water Act and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, which regulates stormwater runof into receiving waters.1 San Francisco County Transportation AuthorityLocally, San Francisco has passed the Transit-First Policy (City Charter Section 16.102) and the Better Streets Policy (Administrative Code Chapter 98), which prioritize street improvements that enhance transit trips over other transportation modes, and require the City to coordinate to create streets that are pedestrian-oriented and multi-functional, respec-tively. Additional City policies can be found in the San Francisco General Plan and its constituent elements. Te Countywide Transportation Plan also guides street improvements. City standards and guidelines relating to street design can be found in the Administrative Code, Building Code, Fire Code, Planning Code, Public Works Code, Transportation Code, and in departmental orders, design guidelines, and standard plans.2.3 Existing City effortsTe City has a number of on-going projects and pro-grams relating to street improvement. Responsibility for street planning, design, funding, regulation, main-tenance, education, and enforcement is spread over several departments. Tough there are many good projects, there is often inconsistency in the results, and the process can be expensive, time-consuming, and confusing.3 g o a l s a n d P o l I c I e s : t H e P a t H t o B e t t e r s t r e e t sChapter 3 describes an overall vision for better streets. It describes goals, objectives, policies, guidelines, and next steps to achieve a great pedestrian environment, based on the following 10 Elements of Better Streets.Streets should (be):Memorable: San Franciscos streets should be designed to give the city and its neighborhoods a recognizable image and provide a means of orien-tation and understanding of the city.Support diverse public life: San Franciscos streets should provide opportunities for diverse experiences and encourage people to spend time engaging in social and recreational activities.1.2. E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R YD R A F T B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N Vibrant places for commerce: San Franciscos streets should be designed and managed as attrac-tive and exciting destinations that encourage residents and visitors to walk to and use local shopping areas, rather than to drive to regional shopping centers.Promote human use and comfort: San Francisco streets should be designed to prioritize the everyday needs of people and to support human comfort and enjoyment.Promote healthy lifestyles: San Franciscos streets should promote healthy lifestyles by encouraging walking to daily and occasional destinations, mini-mizing pedestrian injuries and helping to decrease major chronic diseases related to air quality and pedestrian activity.Safe: San Franciscos streets should be designed to create a street environment that supports a high level of pedestrian safety and security.Create convenient connections: San Franciscos streets should be designed to facilitate safe, acces-sible, and convenient connections among major nodes, hubs, destinations, transit centers, and major land use and activity centers.Ecologically sustainable: San Franciscos streets should be designed as a green network, enhancing the Citys long-term ecological functioning.Accessible: San Francisco streets should be designed for ease of use and access to destinations for all populations, particularly those with visual or mobility impairments.Attractive, inviting, and well-cared for: San Franciscos streets should be beautiful, create an engaging visual impression, appeal to senses of sight, smell, and sound, and encourage a sense of ownership and civic pride that is refected in streets physical appearance and level of activity.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.4 a P P r o a c H : d e s I g n I n g g r e a t s t r e e t s c a P e sChapter 4 sets a framework for overall streetscape design. It is divided into two sections: 4.1 Street Types; and 4.2 Overall Streetscape Guidelines.4.1 Street TypesDiferent streets play diferent roles, so this chapter begins by categorizing streets into diferent street types for the purposes of streetscape design. Street classifca-tions are based on land use characteristics (residential, commercial, industrial, mixed-use) and transportation roles (downtown, throughway, neighborhood). Special streets (parkways, park edge streets, boulevards and cer-emonial (civic) streets), and small streets (alleys, shared public ways, and pedestrian-only streets) are called out separately. Tese classifcations are not intended to replace technical transportation classifcations, but to help make decisions about streetscape design.Section 4.1 shows a typical site plan and section for each street type, using recommended sidewalk widths, pedestrian facilities, and streetscape amenities. For each street type, the Plan lists standard improvements (such as street trees, curb ramps, marked crossings, and site furnishings) and case-by-case additions (such as mid-block crosswalks, landscaped center medians, perpendicular or angled parking with corner plazas, and extended bulb-outs with landscaping and seating). Standard additions should generally be included in any streetscape design project on a particular street type. Case-by-case additions should be considered as budgets, physical conditions, and neighborhood prefer-ences allow.4.2 Overall Streetscape GuidelinesSection 4.2 provides overall guidelines for the streetscape environment. Streetscapes should be designed to encompass a variety of features and ameni-ties, and refect a unifed design sensibility. Streetscape projects should be combined wherever possible to provide completeness in streetscape design. For example, curb ramp projects may be combined with building curb extensions, which could house seating, landscaping, and stormwater treatment measures. E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R Y 10 D R A F T B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N Section 4.2 describes appropriate elements and treat-ments for intersection design, including marked crosswalks, curb ramps, parking restrictions at corners, tight turn radii, curb extensions, pedestrian refuge islands, street trees, street and pedestrian lighting, and site furnishings. Tese elements should be combined to create a safe, convenient, inviting intersection for pedestrians.Next, Section 4.2 discusses sidewalk widths and zones. Sidewalks are divided into fve zones: frontage, throughway, furnishings, edge, and extension. Tese terms are used throughout the document. Minimum and recommended sidewalk widths are given for each street type. Sidewalks below minimum width should be considered defcient, and should be widened as oppor-tunities and funding allow. Recommended widths are wide enough to allow for desired streetscape amenities. Sidewalks on new streets should meet or exceed recom-mended widths.Finally, this section describes guidelines for overall layout of streetscape elements. Streetscapes should wisely allocate limited space, strive for wholeness, and accommodate pedestrian needs. Street trees should defne the rhythm of the streetscape, and be the primary organizing element. Conficts with ideal street tree locations should be minimized to achieve this rhythm. Street and pedestrian lighting may be placed in an of-setting rhythm. Other site furnishings should be placed in relation to these elements, per appropriate clearances, discussed in Chapter 6.This photo-simulation illustrates how the Better Streets Plan guidelines could be applied to a typical mixed-use San Francisco street to improve the pedestrian environment.Photosimulations are for visualization PurPoses only,and are not intended to show sPecific details and dimensionsThis photo-simulation illustrates how the Better Streets Plan guidelines could be applied to improve the pedestrian environment on a typical residential San Francisco street. E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R Y 11 D R A F T B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N 5 g u I d e : s t r e e t d e s I g n sChapter 5 describes guidelines for street designs such as curb geometries, crosswalks, parking lanes, and special street conditions. It is divided into eight sections: 5.1 Crosswalks and Pedestrian Signals; 5.2 Corner curb radii; 5.3 Curb extensions; 5.4 Medians and Islands; 5.5 Transit-Supportive Streetscape Design; 5.6 Parking lane treatments; 5.7 Trafc calming and roundabouts; and 5.8 Pedestrian-priority designs.5.1 Crosswalks and Pedestrian SignalsCrosswalks are an essential part of a safe, convenient pedestrian realm, and may also be an urban design treatment. Tis section describes guidelines for location and design of marked crosswalks at intersections and mid-block locations, special treatments such as raised crossings, special paving treatments, and special signals, pedestrian signals, and vehicle movements at intersec-tions, including right turns on red and multiple turn lanes.5.2 Corner curb radiiCorner curb radii (turn radii) have a major impact on pedestrian safety and quality. Tight turn radii slow turning vehicles, shorten crossing distances and enhance visibility. Turn radii should be as tight as pos-sible to enhance pedestrian comfort; however, they should be designed to accommodate turning vehicles as well per the guidelines. Tis section also presents alternative strategies for dealing with intersections with frequent large turning vehicles.5.3 Curb extensionsSimilar to curb radii, curb extensions slow turning vehicles, shorten crossing distances and enhance vis-ibility by extending the sidewalk into parking lanes. Corner curb extensions should be a standard treat-ment on most street types. Tey should be designed to maximize pedestrian space. Generous curb extensions may allow opportunities for landscaping, seating, and stormwater management. Tey may also be placed at mid-block locations to create a small plaza.5.4 Medians and islandsMedians are continuous raised areas within the roadway that control trafc, and may have a trafc calming, greening, and ecological beneft. Tey may also provide pedestrian refuges at crossings. Medians should include trees and other landscaping as appropri-ate. Islands are smaller raised areas within the roadway. Tey may provide a pedestrian refuge, trafc calming, or design feature.5.5 Transit-Supportive Streetscape DesignMost transit rides begin or end on foot. People waiting at transit stops are some of the most frequent users of the pedestrian realm. Transit waiting areas should be designed with amenities for waiting riders. Tey must also be accessible to all users and provide clear paths to and from the transit shelter and vehicle. Bus bulbs and transit boarding islands may be used to improve transit operations and also provide greater sidewalk space.5.6 Parking lane treatmentsIn many cases, the pedestrian environment may be extended into the parking lane, either permanently or temporarily. Curb extensions are one way of achieving this. Providing perpendicular or angled parking where roadway width allows can also allow for the creation of signifcant corner plazas. Alternative uses for the parking lane are also considered, including landscaped planters, bicycle parking, and fexible (temporary) use of the parking lane for outdoor seating.5.7 Traffic calming and roundaboutsTrafc calming enhances pedestrian safety and neigh-borhood character by slowing trafc. Trafc calming measures discussed in this plan include trafc circles and chicanes. Tese should be designed to slow trafc by visually narrowing the street and forcing cars to shift laterally. Tey may also present opportunities for landscaping, stormwater treatment, and community stewardship. Roundabouts are trafc control devices with limited applicability in San Francisco. Where they are used, consideration should be given to pedestrian safety, accessibility, and wayfnding. E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R Y 12 D R A F T B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N 5.8 Pedestrian-priority designsPedestrian-priority designs are special cases that provide more than the standard sidewalk space for pedestrians. Tese include: sidewalk and median pocket parks, shared public ways, local lanes and medians on multi-way boulevards, pedestrian-only streets, and public stairs. In all cases, the pedestrian area or shared pedes-trian/vehicle area should be designed to slow trafc and indicate areas of pedestrian priority. Tey may also be opportunities to create signifcant public spaces.6 g u I d e : s t r e e t s c a P e e l e M e n t sChapter 6 describes guidelines for streetscape elements typically found in sidewalks or curb extensions, includ-ing: street trees and plantings, stormwater control measures, street and pedestrian lighting, paving, site furnishings, utilities, and driveways.6.1 Urban forestTe urban forest consists of street trees, understory plantings (ground landscaping), and above-ground plantings (planter boxes or hanging planters). Urban forest elements should be appropriate to soil and microclimate zones. Drought-tolerant and climate-adapted species should be used. Native plantings should be used when it is possible to maintain healthy plantings.Street trees should be the primary organizing element of the streetscape; restrictions and conficts with other elements should be minimized to ensure consistent plantings. Tree basins should be optimized to ensure tree health and minimize root interference with side-walks. Tree furnishings such as grates, guards or railings may be used for a design treatment; however, they may be difcult to maintain or inhibit tree health.Understory plantings should be used in furnishings zones on most street types, with sufcient area for healthy plantings. Tey may have a formal or more naturalistic treatment, depending on the context. Sidewalk landscaping may be present and still allow access to parked cars and utilities if designed properly. Above-ground landscaping is appropriate in limited circumstances such as in special design areas, or where in-ground landscaping is not possible due to utilities or other constraints.6.2 Stormwater control measuresStormwater control measures are on-street stormwater facilities that capture stormwater before it enters the Citys combined or separate stormwater systems. Tis treatment can result in fewer combined sewer overfows into the bay or ocean. Stormwater control measures can be designed to infltrate, retain, detain, convey, and treat stormwater. Infltration may not be possible in all locations. For more technical details, refer to the San Francisco Stormwater Design Guidelines.Stormwater management tools include permeable paving, bioretention facilities, swales, channels and runnels, infltration trenches, infltration boardwalks, vegetated gutters, and vegetated bufer strips. All of these features may be designed to be integral, aesthetic parts of the streetscape in addition to their stormwater management role.6.3 LightingStreet lighting is a key organizing element that defnes the daytime and nighttime environment and enhances personal safety and security. Street lights should light the entire right-of-way; specifc pedestrian-oriented lighting is appropriate in downtown, civic, and com-mercial areas with high numbers of pedestrians. Lighting should be spaced to optimize light distribu-tion and not interfere with other streetscape elements, particularly street trees. Street lights should use energy efcient technologies, and minimize light loss to the night sky. Lighting guidelines should be further devel-oped through a street lighting master plan. E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R Y 13 D R A F T B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N 6.4 PavingPaving materials in the pedestrian realm can be either standard concrete or non-standard materials, such as brick, stone, or unit pavers. Paving should be func-tionalstable, frm, slip-resistant, and relatively easy to maintain. It may also provide a unique design treatment, particularly on special streets or in areas of the street environment meant for pausing rather than walking through. Special paving may be considered at transit stops, crosswalks, pedestrian refuges, shared public ways, local lanes of boulevards, transit malls, pedestrian-only streets, fexibly used parking lanes, curb extensions, or in the furnishings zone of the sidewalk.6.5 Site furnshingsSite furnishings consist of all streetscape amenities in the sidewalk, including: benches and seating, bicycle racks, bollards, fowerstands, kiosks, newsracks, parking meters, public art, sidewalk restrooms, trafc and parking signs, trash receptacles, and signage and gate-ways. Generally, site furnishings should be located in the furnishings zone. Site furnishings should be con-sidered design elements, and use consistent, aesthetic design along a particular street or corridor. Tey should meet basic clearances and requirements for accessibility, maintenance, and safety.6.6 Utilities and drivewaysUtilities and driveways are functional elements that provide necessary access and facilities. Utilities may be poles, overhead wires, surface-mounted boxes, under-ground vaults, mains and laterals. Tey are a necessary and ubiquitous element of streetscape environments; however, they often confict with other streetscape ele-ments, and vice versa.Utilities should be efciently located to minimize impacts on other existing or potential streetscape elements, maintain basic access and maintenance requirements, and be consolidated into shared vaults, boxes, or trenches wherever possible. Likewise, drive-ways should be minimized and located to avoid impacts to existing or potential streetscape elements.7 I M P l e M e n t a t I o nChapter 7 describes implementation measures neces-sary to carry out the vision of the Better Streets Plan, including funding, maintenance, and enforcement strategies. Te Controllers Ofce report: Better Streets Plan: Recommendations for Improved Streetscape Project Planning, Design, Review and Approval con-tains additional implementation recommentations. E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R Y 14 D R A F T B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N DISTINCTIVE, UNIFIED OVERALL DESIGNIntegrated site furnishings [ Section 6.5 ]Pedestrian-oriented lighting [ 6.3 ]Minimize site cluttering [ 6.5 ] SPACE FOR PUBLIC LIFEVisible crossings [ 5.1 ]Slower turning speed [ 5.2 ]Shorter crossing distances [ 5.3 ] PEDESTRIAN SAFETYPEDESTRIAN PRIORITYUNIVERSAL DESIGNRECLAIMING EXCESSSTREET SPACEINTEGRATING PEDSAND TRANSITEXTENSIVE GREENING ECOLOGYGenerous, unobstructed sidewalks [ 4.2 ]Curb ramps for all users [ 5.1 ]Accessible pedestrian signals [ 5.1 ] Flexible use for cafe seating [ 5.6 ]Permanent mini-plazas [ 5.3 ]Landscaping in the parking lane [ 6.1 ] Stormwater management [ 6.2 ]Permeable materials [ 6.2 ]Streets as habitats [ 6.1 ] Healthy urban forest [ 6.1 ]Expanded sidewalk plantings [ 6.1 ]Utility consolidation [ 6.6 ] Transit rider amenities [ 5.5 ]Bus bulbouts and boarding islands [ 5.5 ]Safe, convenient routes to transit [ 5.5 ] Street parks and new plazas [ 5.8 ]Traffic circles [ 5.7 ]Landscaped medians [ 5.4 ] CREATIVE USE OFPARKING LANEShared public ways [ 5.8 ]Temporary or permanent street closures [ 5.8 ]Raised crossings [ 5.1 ] Reclaim excess street space for public use [ 5.8 ]Safe public seating for neighborhood gathering [ 6.5 ]Merchant participation [ 6.5 ] PLAN HIGHLIGHTSSAN FRANCISCOPLANNINGDEPARTMENTMayors Offce on DisabilityFI NALDRAFT|JULY2010BETTER STREETS PLANSAN FRANCISCOPoLiciES ANd GuidELiNES foR ThE PEdESTRiAN REALmCover rendering by Allan B. JacobsThe Better StreetS Plan is intended to illustrate best practices and provide a guiding document for all actors wishing to make changes to the public right-of-way in San Francisco. The Better StreetS Plan is explicitly intended as guidance only, as opposed to definitive standards. The Better StreetS Plan describes and illustrates typical situations for the design of streets, sidewalks, and intersections, based on typical street types and standard street improvements. Intersection geometry, topography, transportation factors, and other existing conditions combine create many unique situations. The Better StreetS Plan provides flexibility for the professional to design to specific conditions. To the greatest extent feasible, the guidelines contained in this document should be followed to create a pedestrian environment that serves all users. ContactFor more information on the Better Strees Plan, contact:Adam Varat, Project ManagerSan Francisco Planning [email protected] our website at:www.sfbetterstreets.orgFI NALDRAFT|JULY2010SAN FRANCISCOBETTER STREETS PLANPoLiciES ANd GuidELiNES foR ThE PEdESTRiAN REALmRead this first:Navigating the Better Streets PlanTe Better Streets Plan guides the design of the pedestrianenvironment for all users. Its a long document, but most of the time users will only need to read certain portions. Tis page will help you quickly fgure out where to look in the document for particular guidance.UsersTe Better Streets Plan is intended for a variety of users, including:Decision-makers: Te Plan recommends policy direc-tions and next steps to achieve a great pedestrian environment. See Chapter 3.Street designers and managers: Te Plan sets guide-lines to guide the design and use of the pedestrian environment, whether new streets, full streetscape re-designs, or design and placement of individual streetscape elements. See Chapters 4, 5, and 6.Stakeholders: Te plan provides a resource and guide for community members, organizations, or private developers making streetscape improvements or seeking to understand the rules regarding design and use of the pedestrian environment. See Chapters 4, 5, and 6.DocUment strUctUreTe Better Streets Plan consists of the following sections:1. IntroductionBackground, overview of the plan process, and next steps.2. ContextExisting pedestrian and streestcape conditions, relevant federal, state, and local policies, and existing City planning eforts relating to street design.3. Goals and Policies: Te Path to Better StreetsPlan goals, objectives, and policy directions to achieve Better Streets.4. Approach: Designing Great StreetscapesFramework for design of the pedestrian realm by street type, and guidelines that apply to the pedestrian environ-ment as a whole, such as sidewalk zones and general layout of streetscape elements.5. Guide: Street DesignsGuidelines for curb lines and related features, such as medians, curb extensions, and crosswalks.6. Guide: Streetscape ElementsGuidelines for individual streetscape elements, such as plantings, lighting, site furnishings, and utilities.7. ImplementationRecommendations for implementing Better Streets, includ-ing maintenance, enforcement, and funding strategies.Designing a street?Follow these steps:1.Determine street type (See Section 4.1)2.Identify appropriate standard and additional ele-ments for that street type (4.1)3.See guidelines for overall design: sidewalk width, sidewalk zones, and layout of streetscape elements (4.2)4.Follow specific guidelines for individual elements as necessary (Chapters 5 and 6)Locating a specific element?Follow these steps:1.See guidelines for overall design: sidewalk width, sidewalk zones, and layout of streetscape elements (Chapter 4)2.Follow specific guidelines for the particular element (Chapters 5 and 6)ContentsExEcUTIvE SUmmARYIII1.0INTRoDUcTIoN011.1BACkgROuNd 031.2PlAN develOPmeNt111.3mOvINg FORwARd152.0coNTExT192.1exIStINg CONdItIONS212.2RegulAtORy CONtext252.3exIStINg CIty eFFORtS293.0GoALS AND PoLIcIES: ThE PATh To BETTER STREETS353.1vISION363.2PReFACe tO gOAlS ANd POlICIeS 373.3gOAlS ANd POlICIeS384.0APPRoAch: DESIGNING GREAT STREETScAPES534.1StReet tyPeS554.2OveRAll StReetSCAPe guIdelINeS605.0GUIDE: STREET DESIGNS1115.1CROSSwAlkS ANd PedeStRIAN SIgNAlS1135.2CORNeR CuRB RAdII1235.3CuRB exteNSIONS (BulB-OutS)1275.4medIANS ANd ISlANdS1335.5tRANSIt-SuPPORtIve StReetSCAPe deSIgN1395.6PARkINg lANe tReAtmeNtS1475.7tRAFFIC CAlmINg ANd ROuNdABOutS1535.8PedeStRIAN-PRIORIty deSIgNS1596.0GUIDE: STREETScAPE ELEmENTS1716.1uRBAN FOReSt1736.2StORmwAteR mANAgemeNt tOOlS1876.3lIghtINg2056.4PAvINg2116.5SIte FuRNIShINgS2176.6utIlItIeS ANd dRIvewAyS2337.0ImPLEmENTATIoN243APAPPENDIcES234ABetteR StReetS POlICy251BtRANSIt-FIRSt POlICy252CCOmPlete StReetS POlICy254dSummARy OF COmmuNIty INvOlvemeNt255eSummARy OF ACCeSSIBIlIty guIdelINeS256FglOSSARy263gSummARy OF PhySICAl elemeNtS IN the BetteR StReetS PlAN266Streets are almost always public: owned by the public, and when we speak of the public realm we are speaking in large measure of streets. What is more, streets change. Tey are tinkered with constantly: curbs are changed to make sidewalks narrower or (in fewer cases) wider, they are repaved, lights are changed, the streets are torn up to replace water and sewer lines or cables and again repaved. Te buildings along them change and in doing so change the streets. Every change brings with it the opportunity for improvement. If we can develop and design streets so that they are wonderful, fulflling places to be, community-building places, attractive public places for all people of cities and neighborhoods, then we will have successfully designed about one-third of the city directly and will have had an immense impact on the rest.Allan Jacobs,Great Streets, MIT Press, 1995Rendering by Allan B. JacobsIntroDUctIonTe Better Streets Plan provides a blueprint for the future of San Franciscos pedestrian environment. It describes a vision, creates design guidelines, and identifes next steps to create a truly great pedestrian realm.Te Plan seeks to balance the needs of all street users, and refects the understanding that the pedestrian environ-ment is about much more than just transportation that streets serve a multitude of social, recreational and ecologi-cal needs that must be considered when deciding on the most appropriate design. Te Plan follows from the Better Streets Policy, adopted by the Board of Supervisors and the Mayor in February 2006, which describes the varied roles that the Citys streets should play.Te Better Streets Plan provides guidelines for the pedes-trian environment, defned as the areas of the street where people walk, shop, sit, play, or interact outside of moving vehicles. Generally speaking, this refers to sidewalks and crosswalks; however, in some cases, this may be expanded to include certain areas of the roadway. Te Plan does not generally focus on roadway or vehicle travel characteristics.If fully realized, the Better Streets Plan will bring a number of benefts to San Francisco. It will help retain families in San Francisco, support Muni and a transit-frst city, help promote public safety, help to minimize sewer/stormwater overfows into the Bay, decrease the likelihood of pedes-trian injuries and fatalities, increase accessibility for all street users, and enhance the everyday quality of life for San Franciscos residents.Tis plan follows from a long public and technical process. As of this draft, City staf have attended nearly 100 com-munity meetings relating to the Better Streets Plan, held monthly meetings with a Community Advisory Committee, and received over 1,000 responses to the two Better Streets Plan surveys. As well, the Better Streets team has met with technical agency staf to gather com-ments regarding technical feasibility of initial concepts and proposals.Plan HIgHlIgHtsTe Better Streets Plan contains a wide range of guide-lines relating to streetscape and pedestrian facilities. Major themes and ideas include:Distinctive, unifed streetscape design: Street trees as defning the streetscape rhythm; integrated site furnish-ings; regular pedestrian-oriented lighting; minimizing cluttering elements.Space for public life: Safe, useable public seating for neighborhood gathering; generous curb extensions for seating and landscaping; reclaiming of excess street space for public use; space for outdoor caf and restaurant seating and merchant displays.Enhanced pedestrian safety: Safe, convenient pedes-trian crossings; curb radii and curb extensions that slow trafc, shorten crossing distance, and enhance visibility; pedestrian countdown signals and other pedestrian prior-ity signals (head-start, pedestrian scramble).Improved street ecology: On-site stormwater man-agement to reduce combined sewer overfows; resource-efcient elements and materials; streets as green corridors and habitat connectors.Universal design and accessibility: Generous, unob-structed sidewalks, curb ramps for all users, accessible pedestrian signals.Integrating pedestrians with transit: Transit rider amenities at key stops; safe, convenient pedestrian routes to transit; mutual features that beneft pedes-trian safety and comfort and transit operations, such as bus bulb-outs and boarding islands.Creative use of parking lanes: Permanent curb exten-sions with seating and landscaping; landscape planters in the parking lane; fexible, temporary use of the parking lane for restaurant seating or other uses.Trafc calming to reduce speeding and enhancepedestrian safety: Raised crossings and speed tables; landscaped trafc circles; chicanes.Executive SummaryB E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N |iExEcUTIvE SUmmARYPedestrian-priority designs: Shared public ways; temporary or permanent street closures to vehicles; sidewalk and median pocket parks.Extensive greening: Healthy, well-maintained urban forest; expanded sidewalk plantings; efcient utility location to provide more potential planting locations.next stePsTe Better Streets Plan is a vision for the future of the Citys pedestrian environment. Tese suggested improve-ments are not extravagant or uncommonthey are in use in many cities across the state and nation. However, even typical street improvements cost money to build and maintain. To build out the Plans recommendations on the Citys streets, the City must have capital and maintenance funding in placefunding the City does not currently have. Te City must continue to seek funding to realize the vision of the Better Streets Plan.Better streets rely on successful implementationongoing capital funding, efcient maintenance, and efective edu-cation and enforcement. Tis plan describes a vision for ideal streets, and recognizes the need to have detailed implementation strategies. Te plan identifes high-level implementation measures. Other recommendations have been developed in an accompanying report by the Controllers Ofce.Te Better Streets Plan is merely the frst step to realizing an improved pedestrian environment and public realm in San Francisco. It sets high-level guidelines that should be used in the Citys on-going streetscape and pedestrian design. It does not seek to prioritize or create a project list of Better Streets projects. Nor does it give specifc engi-neering guidance on a number of technical topicsthose standards may be found in other existing or planned documents.In order to implement the vision of the plan, the City must take a variety of next steps, including the following:Improve the coordination and delivery of streetimprovements.Create an easy to use Better Streets guide and website. Develop a framework for implementation and prioriti- zation of street improvement projects.Develop additional technical guidance on a numberof topics, including: urban forest, stormwater, street and pedestrian lighting, street furnishing, and roadway design guidelines.cHaPtersTe Better Streets Plan consists of the following chapters:Introduction 1. Context 2. Goals and Policies: Te Path to Better Streets 3. Approach: Designing Great Streetscapes 4. Guide: Street Designs 5. Guide: Streetscape Elements 6. Implementation 7. 1.0 IntroDUctIonChapter 1 gives background on the plan, describes the plan development, and identifes next steps, and is summarized above.2.0 contextChapter 2 describes existing conditions and policies relat-ing to streets and the pedestrian environment in San Francisco today.2.1 Existing conditionsWalking accounts for 20% of all trips made in San Francisco1. Major activity generators include transit hubs, schools, hospitals and shopping centers. Pedestrian volumes are highest in the northeast quadrant of the city, and along major transit corridors. Pedestrian collisions and fatalities have been generally declining over time, though still remain signifcant. Many pedestrian collisions are con-centrated in a few areas of the city.Streetscape and pedestrian infrastructure includes signs and signals, sidewalks, curb ramps, street trees, street light-ing, site furnishings, and stormwater infrastructure. San Franciscos street and sidewalk infrastructure varies greatly, as does data on the condition of these features. Te City is engaged in collecting on-going data on a number of features.2.2 Existing policiesStreet design in San Francisco is subject to federal, state, and local policies, standards, and guidelines. Key federal and state policies and standards include the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and related documents, the California Manual on Uniform Trafc Control Devices (MUTCD), the California Vehicle Code (CVC), American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials (AASHTO) standards, the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), and the Clean Water Act and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, which regulates stormwater runof into receiving waters.Locally, San Francisco has passed the Transit-First Policy (City Charter Section 16.102) and the Better Streets Policy (Administrative Code Chapter 98), which prioritize street improvements that enhance transit trips over other transportation modes, and require the City to coordinate to create streets that are pedestrian-oriented and multi-functional, respectively. Additional City policies can be found in the San Francisco General Plan and its constitu-ent elements. Te Countywide Transportation Plan also 1 San Francisco County Transportation Authority|B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N i iExEcUTIvE SUmmARYExEcUTI vESUmmARYguides street improvements. City standards and guidelines relating to street design can be found in the Administrative Code, Building Code, Fire Code, Planning Code, Public Works Code, Transportation Code, and in departmental orders, design guidelines, and standard plans.2.3 Existing City effortsTe City has a number of on-going projects and programs relating to street improvement. Responsibility for street planning, design, funding, regulation, maintenance, educa-tion, and enforcement is spread over several departments. Tough there are many good projects, there is often incon-sistency in the results, and the process can be expensive, time-consuming, and confusing.3.0 goals anD PolIcIes: tHe PatH to Better streetsChapter 3 describes an overall vision for better streets. It describes goals, objectives, policies, guidelines, and next steps to achieve a great pedestrian environment, based on the following 10 Elements of Better Streets.Streets should (be):Memorable: 1. San Franciscos streets should be designed to give the city and its neighborhoods a recognizable image and provide a means of orientation and under-standing of the city.Support diverse public life: 2. San Franciscos streets should provide opportunities for diverse experiences and encourage people to spend time engaging in social and recreational activities.Vibrant places for commerce: 3. San Franciscos streets should be designed and managed as attractive and exciting destinations that encourage residents and visi-tors to walk to and use local shopping areas, rather than to drive to regional shopping centers.Promote human use and comfort: 4. San Francisco streets should be designed to prioritize the everyday needs of people and to support human comfort and enjoyment.Promote healthy lifestyles: 5. San Franciscos streets should promote healthy lifestyles by encouraging walking to daily and occasional destinations, minimiz-ing pedestrian injuries and helping to decrease major chronic diseases related to air quality and pedestrian activity.Safe: 6. San Franciscos streets should be designed to create a street environment that supports a high level of pedestrian safety and security.Create convenient connections: 7. San Franciscos streets should be designed to facilitate safe, accessible, and convenient connections among major nodes, hubs, destinations, transit centers, and major land use and activity centers.Ecologically sustainable: 8. San Franciscos streets should be designed as a green network, enhancing the Citys long-term ecological functioning.Accessible: 9. San Francisco streets should be designed for ease of use and access to destinations for all popu-lations, particularly those with visual or mobility impairments.Attractive, inviting, and well-cared for: 10. San Franciscos streets should be beautiful, create an engaging visual impression, appeal to senses of sight, smell, and sound, and encourage a sense of ownership and civic pride that is refected in streets physical appearance and level of activity.4.0 aPProacH: DesIgnIng great streetscaPesChapter 4 sets a framework for overall streetscape design. It is divided into two sections: 4.1 Street Types; and 4.2 Overall Streetscape Guidelines.4.1 Street TypesDiferent streets play diferent roles, so this chapter begins by categorizing streets into diferent street types for the purposes of streetscape design. Street classifcations are based on land use characteristics (residential, commercial, industrial, mixed-use) and transportation roles (downtown, throughway, neighborhood). Special streets (parkways, park edge streets, boulevards and ceremonial (civic) streets), and small streets (alleys, shared public ways, and pedestrian-only streets) are called out separately. Tese classifcations are not intended to replace technical transportation clas-sifcations, but to help make decisions about streetscape design.Section 4.1 shows a typical site plan and section for each street type, using recommended sidewalk widths, pedes-trian facilities, and streetscape amenities. For each street type, the Plan lists standard improvements (such as street trees, curb ramps, marked crossings, and site furnishings) and case-by-case additions (such as mid-block crosswalks, landscaped center medians, perpendicular or angled parking with corner plazas, and extended bulb-outs with landscaping and seating). Standard additions should gen-erally be included in any streetscape design project on a particular street type. Case-by-case additions should be considered as budgets, physical conditions, and neighbor-hood preferences allow.4.2 Overall Streetscape GuidelinesSection 4.2 provides overall guidelines for the streetscape environment. Streetscapes should be designed to encom-pass a variety of features and amenities, and refect a unifed design sensibility. Streetscape projects should be combined wherever possible to provide completeness in streetscape design. For example, curb ramp projects may be combined with building curb extensions, which could house seating, landscaping, and stormwater treatment measures.Section 4.2 describes appropriate elements and treatments for intersection design, including marked crosswalks, curb ramps, parking restrictions at corners, tight turn radii, curb extensions, pedestrian refuge islands, street trees, street and pedestrian lighting, and site furnishings. Tese elements should be combined to create a safe, convenient, inviting intersection for pedestrians.B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N |i i iExEcUTIvE SUmmARYNext, Section 4.2 discusses sidewalk widths and zones. Sidewalks are divided into fve zones: frontage, through-way, furnishings, edge, and extension. Tese terms are used throughout the document. Minimum and recom-mended sidewalk widths are given for each street type. Sidewalks below minimum width should be considered defcient, and should be widened as opportunities and funding allow. Recommended widths are wide enough to allow for desired streetscape amenities. Sidewalks on new streets should meet or exceed recommended widths.Finally, this section describes guidelines for overall layout of streetscape elements. Streetscapes should wisely allocate limited space, strive for wholeness, and accom-modate pedestrian needs. Street trees should defne the rhythm of the streetscape, and be the primary organizing element. Conficts with ideal street tree locations should be minimized to achieve this rhythm. Street and pedestrian lighting may be placed in an of-setting rhythm. Other site furnishings should be placed in relation to these elements, per appropriate clearances, discussed in Chapter 6.5.0 gUIDe: street DesIgnsChapter 5 describes guidelines for street designs such as curb geometries, crosswalks, parking lanes, and special street conditions. It is divided into eight sections: 5.1 Crosswalks and Pedestrian Signals; 5.2 Corner curb radii; 5.3 Curb extensions; 5.4 Medians and Islands; 5.5 Transit-Supportive Streetscape Design; 5.6 Parking lane treatments; 5.7 Trafc calming and roundabouts; and 5.8 Pedestrian-priority designs.5.1 Crosswalks and Pedestrian SignalsCrosswalks are an essential part of a safe, convenient pedes-trian realm, and may also be an urban design treatment. Tis section describes guidelines for location and design of marked crosswalks at intersections and mid-block loca-tions, special treatments such as raised crossings, special paving treatments, and special signals, pedestrian signals, and vehicle movements at intersections, including right turns on red and multiple turn lanes.5.2 Corner curb radiiCorner curb radii (turn radii) have a major impact on pedestrian safety and quality. Tight turn radii slow turning vehicles, shorten crossing distances and enhance visibil-ity. Turn radii should be as tight as possible to enhance pedestrian comfort; however, they should be designed to accommodate turning vehicles as well per the guidelines. Tis section also presents alternative strategies for dealing with intersections with frequent large turning vehicles.5.3 Curb extensionsSimilar to curb radii, curb extensions slow turning vehicles, shorten crossing distances and enhance visibility by extend-ing the sidewalk into parking lanes. Corner curb extensions should be a standard treatment on most street types. Tey should be designed to maximize pedestrian space. Generous curb extensions may allow opportunities for landscaping, seating, and stormwater management. Tey may also be placed at mid-block locations to create a small plaza.5.4 Medians and islandsMedians are continuous raised areas within the roadway that control trafc, and may have a trafc calming, greening, and ecological beneft. Tey may also provide pedestrian refuges at crossings. Medians should include trees and other landscaping as appropriate. Islands are smaller raised areas within the roadway. Tey may provide a pedestrian refuge, trafc calming, or design feature.5.5 Transit-Supportive Streetscape DesignMost transit rides begin or end on foot. People waiting at transit stops are some of the most frequent users of the pedestrian realm. Transit waiting areas should be designed with amenities for waiting riders. Tey must also be acces-sible to all users and provide clear paths to and from the transit shelter and vehicle. Bus bulbs and transit boarding islands may be used to improve transit operations and also provide greater sidewalk space.5.6 Parking lane treatmentsIn many cases, the pedestrian environment may be extended into the parking lane, either permanently or temporarily. Curb extensions are one way of achieving this. Providing perpendicular or angled parking where roadway width allows can also allow for the creation of signifcant corner plazas. Alternative uses for the parking lane are also considered, including landscaped planters, bicycle parking, and fexible (temporary) use of the parking lane for outdoor seating.5.7 Traffic calming and roundaboutsTrafc calming enhances pedestrian safety and neighbor-hood character by slowing trafc. Trafc calming measures discussed in this plan include trafc circles and chicanes. Tese should be designed to slow trafc by visually nar-rowing the street and forcing cars to shift laterally. Tey may also present opportunities for landscaping, stormwater treatment, and community stewardship. Roundabouts are trafc control devices with limited applicability in San Francisco. Where they are used, consideration should be given to pedestrian safety, accessibility, and wayfnding.5.8 Pedestrian-priority designsPedestrian-priority designs are special cases that provide more than the standard sidewalk space for pedestrians. Tese include: sidewalk and median pocket parks, shared public ways, local lanes and medians on multi-way boule-vards, pedestrian-only streets, and public stairs. In all cases, the pedestrian area or shared pedestrian/vehicle area should be designed to slow trafc and indicate areas of pedestrian priority. Tey may also be opportunities to create signif-cant public spaces.|B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N i vExEcUTIvE SUmmARYExEcUTI vESUmmARY6.0 gUIDe: streetscaPe elementsChapter 6 describes guidelines for streetscape elements typically found in sidewalks or curb extensions, including: street trees and plantings, stormwater control measures, street and pedestrian lighting, paving, site furnishings, utilities, and driveways.6.1 Urban forestTe urban forest consists of street trees, understory plant-ings (ground landscaping), and above-ground plantings (planter boxes or hanging planters). Urban forest elements should be appropriate to soil and microclimate zones. Drought-tolerant and climate-adapted species should be used. Native plantings should be used when it is possible to maintain healthy plantings.Street trees should be the primary organizing element of the streetscape; restrictions and conficts with other ele-ments should be minimized to ensure consistent plantings. Tree basins should be optimized to ensure tree health and minimize root interference with sidewalks. Tree furnishings such as grates, guards or railings may be used for a design treatment; however, they may be difcult to maintain or inhibit tree health.Understory plantings should be used in furnishings zones on most street types, with sufcient area for healthy plantings. Tey may have a formal or more naturalistic treatment, depending on the context. Sidewalk landscap-ing may be present and still allow access to parked cars and utilities if designed properly. Above-ground landscaping is appropriate in limited circumstances such as in special design areas, or where in-ground landscaping is not pos-sible due to utilities or other constraints.6.2 Stormwater control measuresStormwater control measures are on-street stormwater facilities that capture stormwater before it enters the Citys combined or separate stormwater systems. Tis treatment can result in fewer combined sewer overfows into the bay or ocean. Stormwater control measures can be designed to infltrate, retain, detain, convey, and treat stormwater. Infltration may not be possible in all locations. For more technical details, refer to the San Francisco Stormwater Design Guidelines.Stormwater management tools include permeable paving, bioretention facilities, swales, channels and runnels, infl-tration trenches, infltration boardwalks, vegetated gutters, and vegetated bufer strips. All of these features may be designed to be integral, aesthetic parts of the streetscape in addition to their stormwater management role.6.3 LightingStreet lighting is a key organizing element that defnes the daytime and nighttime environment and enhances personal safety and security. Street lights should light the entire right-of-way; specifc pedestrian-oriented lighting is appropriate in downtown, civic, and commercial areas with high numbers of pedestrians. Lighting should be spaced to optimize light distribution and not interfere with other streetscape elements, particularly street trees. Street lights should use energy efcient technologies, and minimize light loss to the night sky. Lighting guidelines should be further developed through a street lighting master plan.6.4 PavingPaving materials in the pedestrian realm can be either standard concrete or non-standard materials, such as brick, stone, or unit pavers. Paving should be functionalstable, frm, slip-resistant, and relatively easy to maintain. It may also provide a unique design treatment, particularly on special streets or in areas of the street environment meant for pausing rather than walking through. Special paving may be considered at transit stops, crosswalks, pedestrian refuges, shared public ways, local lanes of boulevards, transit malls, pedestrian-only streets, fexibly used parking lanes, curb extensions, or in the furnishings zone of the sidewalk.6.5 Site furnshingsSite furnishings consist of all streetscape amenities in the sidewalk, including: benches and seating, bicycle racks, bollards, fowerstands, kiosks, newsracks, parking meters, public art, sidewalk restrooms, trafc and parking signs, trash receptacles, and signage and gateways. Generally, site furnishings should be located in the furnishings zone. Site furnishings should be considered design elements, and use consistent, aesthetic design along a particular street or cor-ridor. Tey should meet basic clearances and requirements for accessibility, maintenance, and safety.6.6 Utilities and drivewaysUtilities and driveways are functional elements that provide necessary access and facilities. Utilities may be poles, over-head wires, surface-mounted boxes, underground vaults, mains and laterals. Tey are a necessary and ubiquitous element of streetscape environments; however, they often confict with other streetscape elements, and vice versa.Utilities should be efciently located to minimize impacts on other existing or potential streetscape elements, main-tain basic access and maintenance requirements, and be consolidated into shared vaults, boxes, or trenches wherever possible. Likewise, driveways should be minimized and located to avoid impacts to existing or potential streetscape elements.7.0 ImPlementatIonChapter 7 describes implementation measures neces-sary to carry out the vision of the Better Streets Plan, including funding, maintenance, and enforcement strate-gies. Te Controllers Ofce report: Better Streets Plan: Recommendations for Improved Streetscape Project Planning, Design, Review and Approval contains addi-tional implementation recommentations.B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N |vExEcUTIvE SUmmARYC H A P T E R1.0C H A P T E R1.0Te Better Streets Plan provides a blueprint for the future of San Franciscos pedestrian environment. It describes a vision, creates design guidelines, and identifes next steps for the City to take to create a truly great pedestrian realm.C H A P T E R1.0INTRoDUcTIoNINTRODUCTION1.1Background1.2Plan Development1.3Moving ForwardWhat is a Better Street?A Better Street is designed and built to strike a balance between all users regardless of physical abilities or mode of travel. A Better Street attends to the needs of people frst, considering pedestrians, bicyclists, transit, street trees, stormwater management, utilities, and livability as well as vehicular circulation and parking.Noe StreetBetter streets Plan PUrPoseStreets make up fully 25% of San Franciscos land area, more area even than is found in the citys parks. Te Citys streets are one of its most memorable features; the citys famous hilly terrain is made all the more scenic by the steady march of streets over its rolling topography to the waters edge. However, the scenic vistas visible from and along so many of the citys streets have made it too easy to ignore the untapped potential of the streets themselvesSan Franciscos streets are vastly underutilized resources.San Francisco is renowned for its quality of life, com-mitment to social equity and growing concern for environmental sustainability. Te Citys Charter declares that transit, bicycle, and pedestrian use of street space take precedence over private vehicle use. Te City strives to provide services, infrastructure, and lifestyle opportunities for people from all walks and stages of life: families with children, young professionals, senior citizens, and everyone inbetween. Tese goals seek to maintain and enhance San Franciscos role as one of the premier world cities.As San Francisco continues to mature and evolve it faces many challenges in supporting this vision of itself as a world-class city. Families with children are leaving the city more quickly than they are arriving. Pedestrian injuries and fatalities continue to occur on busy streets. Many neighborhoods lack open space for recreational activities or places for neighbors to gather. Te quality of streets and public spaces is slowly deteriorating amid structural budget defcits. Te need to address concerns about air and Background1.1chAPTER 1.0B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N |3Benefits of theBetter Streets PlanHelp retain families in San FranciscoSupport Muni and a transit-first city Help promote public safety Help improve public health Help to minimize impact on globalclimate change and local air pollutionHelp to minimize sewer/stormwateroverflows into the BayDecrease the likelihood of pedestrianinjuries and fatalitiesIncrease accessibility for all street users Support the Citys local shopping dis- tricts and small businessesSupport neighborliness, civic interaction,and identityEnhance the everyday quality of life forSan Franciscos residentswater quality and global climate change grows increasingly urgent each passing day. Well-designed streets that serve a multitude of uses can help to address these concerns.Each year, the City spends millions of dollars maintaining and improving city streets, yet too often the streets serve only a single purposethe movement of automobiles. With improved planning and coordination, San Francisco could use this money to transform its streets to meet the Citys many objectives for streets, including enhancement of all types of travel, improved ecological performance, encouragement of physical activity for public health, and restoring the streets rightful role as the heart of the citys public life.Te Better Streets Plan provides a blueprint for achiev-ing this multi-use vision of streets streets that continue to function as corridors of movement while at the same time reach their potential for enhanced community life, recreational opportunities, and ecological benefts. As San Francisco continues to grow, the Better Streets Plan will help to ensure that it can fulfll its vision of a world-class city one that is renowned not just for the views from its streets, but for the quality of the streets themselves and the vibrant public life that they foster.Plan BenefItsTe Better Streets Plan describes a set of guidelines for the pedestrian realm. As street improvements are built over time using the Better Streets Plan, the City will realize a number of essential benefts from improved street design. Tese benefts include:Help retain families in San Francisco: Streets that are safe from fast-moving trafc, are clean and well-maintained, and have spaces for neighbors to gather or children to play will help to retain families in San Francisco, much as afordable housing or good public schools will do the same.Support Muni and a transit-frst city: Every transit trip begins and ends with a walking trip. Well designed streets that are safe and convenient for pedestrians and connect to important transit lines will encourage greater use of the transit system.Help promote public safety: Active streets that provide eyes on the street will enhance peoples sense of safety and security from crime and violence. Help improve public health: Walkable, livable streets encourage physical activity and social cohesion, leading to a decrease in obesity, chronic diseases, and social isolation.What is the pedestrian environment?The term pedestrian environment refers to the areas of the street where people walk, shop, sit, play, or interact outside of moving vehicles. Generally speaking, this refers to the sidewalk areas between the property line and the curb, and the crossing areas at intersections. However, the pedestrian environment can also include portions of the street normally associated with vehicular trafficsuch as during street fairs or farmers markets, or the entire street on small streets such as alleys or pedestrian pathways.The pedestrian environmentchAPTER 1.0|B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A NchAPTER 1: INTRoDUcTIoN4Help to minimize impact on global climate changeand local air pollution: Streets that are designed to promote walking, cycling, and transit use over private automobile use will help to minimize San Franciscos contribution to global climate change and reduce local air pollution.Help to minimize sewer/stormwater overfows intothe Bay: Streets can be designed to detain a certain percentage of water during big storms, to reduce over-fows of the Citys combined stormwater and sewer infrastructure into the bay and minimize local food-ing problems.Decrease the likelihood of pedestrian injuries andfatalities: Streets that are designed with the safety of pedestrians in mind will decrease the likelihood of pedestrian/auto collisions and the number of pedes-trian injuries and fatalities that occur each year.Increase accessibility for all street users: Streets that have a clear, accessible path of travel and are free from barriers and obstructions will result in increased usability for all users, including people with dis-abilities, seniors, children, parents with strollers, and everyone else.Support the Citys local shopping districts and smallbusinesses: A street system that encourages people to walk to neighborhood commercial districts rather than drive to regional shopping centers for their daily needs helps to support the small commercial areas and small businesses that make up an important part of San Franciscos character and economy.Provide open space in areas that are lacking: Tere is increasing pressure on the Citys existing open spaces, and a need for open space in new neighborhoods. Te citys street system can complement and link to the larger open space network, bringing more open space to underserved neighborhoods.Support neighborliness, civic interaction, andidentity: Cities depend on peaceful interactions of colleagues, neighbors, and strangers who share a col-lective identity and pride as the residents of a place. Well-designed streets that include places to sit, stop, gather, and play create the spaces for this interaction to take place.Enhance the everyday quality of life for SanFranciscos residents: Above all, a well-designed street system will enhance the Citys livability for San Franciscos residents, workers, and visitors, by provid-ing pleasant places to stroll or sit, opportunities for neighborly interaction, freedom from excessive noise and pollution, and a green, attractive cityscape.For the Better Streets Plan to help achieve these benefts, the City must reform many of its current standards, guide-lines, and practices relating to street design, construction and maintenance. Tese practices, standards and guide-linesfound in the Citys codes, plans, and departmental ordersare strong determinants of the resulting street environment that we see and use everyday. Many of these codes are old or out of date, and often confict with one another. Many were adopted during times when thinking about streets, technologies, and ecological best practices was diferent than it is today, and often refect a single-use vision for streets that does not account for the multitude of uses that streets can serve.Te Better Streets Plan seeks to balance and reconcile these codes while considering all potential street uses; when the Better Streets Plan is adopted, it will update many of these codes.Additionally, there must be an on-going commitment from the City to ensure that future changes to the public right-of-way are consistent with the Better Streets Plan. Tis document provides a guide for City agencies, community members, and private developers and anyone else making changes to the pedestrian realm. Tis guide must be com-plemented with an on-going commitment from the Citys elected ofcials and department heads to funding, stafng, building, and maintaining Better Streets improvements.chAPTER 1.0B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N | 1.1 BAckGRoUND5Recent San Francisco projects such as Octavia Boulevard (top) and Mint Plaza (bottom) show how streets can be transformed into active and green public spaceschAPTER 1.0|B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N 6DISTINcTIvE, UNIFIED ovERALL DESIGNIntegrated site furnishings [ Section 6.5 ]Pedestrian-oriented lighting [ 6.3 ]Minimize site cluttering [ 6.5 ]SPAcE FoR PUBLIc LIFEVisible crossings [ 5.1 ]Slower turning speed [ 5.2 ]Shorter crossing distances [ 5.3 ]PEDESTRIAN SAFETY PEDESTRIAN PRIoRITY UNIvERSAL DESIGNREcLAImING ExcESSSTREET SPAcEINTEGRATING PEDSAND TRANSITExTENSIvE GREENINGEcoLoGYGenerous, unobstructed sidewalks [ 4.2 ]Curb ramps for all users [ 5.1 ]Accessible pedestrian signals [ 5.1 ]Flexible use for cafe seating [ 5.6 ]Permanent mini-plazas [ 5.3 ]Landscaping in the parking lane [ 6.1 ]Stormwater management [ 6.2 ]Permeable materials [ 6.2 ]Streets as habitats [ 6.1 ]Healthy urban forest [ 6.1 ]Expanded sidewalk plantings [ 6.1 ]Utility consolidation [ 6.6 ]Transit rider amenities [ 5.5 ]Bus bulbouts and boarding islands [ 5.5 ]Safe, convenient routes to transit [ 5.5 ]Street parks and new plazas [ 5.8 ]Traffic circles [ 5.7 ]Landscaped medians [ 5.4 ]cREATIvE USE oFPARkING LANEShared public ways [ 5.8 ]Temporary or permanent street closures [ 5.8 ]Raised crossings [ 5.1 ]Reclaim excess street space for public use [ 5.8 ]Safe public seating for neighborhood gathering[ 6.5 ]Merchant participation [ 6.5 ]PLAN HIGHLIGHTSchAPTER 1.0B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N | 1.1 BAckGRoUND7Street Delivery in San FranciscoStreets in San Francisco are regulated and managed by a variety of agencies, reflecting specific areas of expertise. Although this is sometimes necessary to provide specific technical know-how, there is no one body coordinating streetscape design projects. As a result, individual decisions about street design, use, priori-tization, and management do not add up to streets that reflect the Citys goals for the character of our streets.The Better Streets Plan posits a new manner of designing and building streets in San Francisco. Streets should be designed with greater agency coordination, and individual decisions should add up to an integrated whole that prioritizes the needs of people. Each design or management decision should bring the City closer to the collective vision for streets.As a follow-up action to the Better Streets Plan, the Controllers Office has analyzed the Citys street design process and made recommendations for its improvement.See the Controllers Office report: Better Streets Plan: Recommendations for Improved Streetscape Planning, Design, Review, and Approval, available at www.sfbetterstreets.org.Jurisdiction over streets is divided among numerous agencies, including those shown here, and others as wellBusiness as usual Better Streets PlanPROCESSRESULTIndependent agencies with competing goalsLack of overall framework for street improvementsLack of coordination for street programming and fundingCoordinated agencies working toward citywide goalsIntegrated framework for street improvementsCoordinated programming and funding for street improvementsCitywide priorities clearly denedEcient use of City resources More numerous and more complete street projectsMulti-purpose projects with greater competitive-ness for fundingUnied street designFewer cluttering streetscape elementsStreets with a healthy public realmIncreased greenery and ecological functioningEnhanced safety and accessibilityCentralized coordination on street design and usePlanning for streets as a wholeUnied vision for streetsCluttering streetscape elementsStreets with lack of unifying aestheticStreets that do not serve well as public spacesLack of greeneryLack of ecological functioningCity priorities not clearly denedUncoordinated use of City resourcesAd hoc coordination on street design and usePlanning for individual elementsCompeting visions for streets/lack of overall vision for streetsThis photo-simulation illustrates how the Better Streets Plan guidelines could be applied to a typical mixed-use San Francisco street to improve the pedestrian environmentPhotosimulations are for visualization purposes only, and are not intended to show specific details and dimensionsThis photo-simulation illustrates how the Better Streets Plan guidelines could be applied to improve the pedestrian environment on a typical residential San Francisco streetTe Better Streets Plan is a partnership among City departments and agencies, with the goal of coordinating and streamlining the Citys street design processes and resulting in a more gracious pedestrian realm. Plan Development1.2HIstory of tHe PlanIn February 2006, the Board of Supervisors passed the Better Streets Policy (Administrative Code Section 98.1shown in Attachment A), which requires the City to consider the multiple objectives for streets in all decisions about the public right-of-way. Responding to this policy, City departments joined together to work on the Better Streets Plan, to provide a single comprehensive, consistent set of guidance for the design of the pedestrian realm.Work on the Better Streets Plan began in Fall 2006, with a public kick-of in April 2007. Te Better Streets Plan Draft for Public Review was published in June 2008, with Plan Revisions published in October 2009.Te Better Streets Plan is a unique collaboration among all of the agencies involved in the funding, design, and management of streets citywide, including the Planning Department, San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA), San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC), Department of Public Works (DPW), Department of Public Health (DPH), Mayors Ofce on Disability (MOD), Mayors Ofce on City Greening, and the San Francisco County Transportation Authority (SFCTA). Staf from each of these agencies (the Better Streets team) met bi-weekly to develop the plan, and gave frequent updates to Department leadership.Te Better Streets team convened a wider Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of over 50 staf from 15 City departments who work in design and management of the public right-of-way. Te Better Streets Plan TAC met mul-tiple times over the course of the project to comment on the technical feasibility of plan proposals.Additionally, the Better Streets team convened a 15 member Community Advisory Committee, which met monthly over a two-year period to provide input into plan as it was developed. Finally, the Better Streets Team held a signifcant public outreach program, summarized in the following section.chAPTER 1.0B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N |11sUmmary of PUBlIc oUtreacHIn order to create the Better Streets Plan, the Better Streets Team conducted signifcant community involvement eforts to present plan concepts and gather public input. Over four rounds of community involvement, the Better Streets Team held over 100 community meetings, and received over 1,000 responses to two Better Streets Plan surveys.Mayor Gavin Newsom kicked of the community involve-ment for the Better Streets Plan in April 2007, at a project kick-of meeting at City Hall attended by over 200 members of the public. Following the kick-of meeting, in April through June 2007, City agencies held four public workshops around the city, seven focus groups, and over 25 neighborhood meetings with community groups by request.Te second round of outreach took place from July through September 2007, and consisted of over 40 events, including focus groups, stakeholder interviews with a variety of advocacy and community organizations, neigh-borhood meetings with community groups, street-side tabling events, and a youth walking tour.In June 2008, Mayor Gavin Newsom formally released the Draft Better Streets Plan for Public Review at a public event in Mint Plaza. Following the plan release event, the Better Streets Team held a third round of outreach to gather feedback on the Draft Plan, consisting of several community meetings and a walking tour. Te fourth round of outreach, held in October 2009 to coincide with the release of the Plan Revisions, consisted of public informa-tional hearings to the Citys Boards and Commissions, and public discussions hosted by local organizations.A full list of community meetings is included in Appendix B.Trough the public outreach, participants could give their input in multiple ways, including facilitated small group exercises, comment boards, questions and answer sessions, surveys, comment sheets, and informal discussion and correspondence.Respondents to the frst Better Streets Plan survey rated the fve most important street improvements as:street trees; greenery (landscaping other than trees); sidewalk maintenance; clear sidewalks (free from obstructions); and slower trafc. chAPTER 1.0|B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A NchAPTER 1: INTRoDUcTIoN12Better Streets Plan kick-off event at City Hall (left) and street-side tabling event (right)Round 1 Survey Responses: Average Score for Street Improvements(Scale of 1 to 7, 7 being most important)Trees5.6Greenery5.4Sidewalk Maintenance5.3Blocked Sidewalks5.3Slower Traffic5.3Pedestrian Lighting5.1Places to Sit5.0Crosswalk Conditions5.0Sidewalk Materials4.8Countdown Signals4.8Wider Sidewalks4.6Narrow Street Crossings4.1Curb Ramps4.0 A broader summary of community input is included in Appendix D.chAPTER 1.0B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N | 1.2 PLAN DEvELoPmENT13ADA Transition Plan OutreachIn coordination with the Better Streets Plan, the CIty conducted public outreach to provide input to the Citys ADA Transition Plans for Curb Ramps and Sidewalks, which describe the Citys priorities for installing accessible curb-ramps and barrier-free sidewalks.Five meetings were hosted by com-munity organizations and directed at seniors and people with mobility, visual, or cognitive impairments. Participants were asked their priorities for installing these features.Community InvolvementMilestones to Date4 rounds of community involvement Over 100 community meetings Over 500 attendees Over 1,000 responses to two BetterStreets Plan surveysParticipants at the Better Streets Plan youth walking tourThe priority improvements identified by participants included:install new curb ramps instead of fixing existing (unless unsafe); focus on high-need areas throughout the city instead of movingdistrict-by-district;fix sidewalks broken by tree roots; provide accessible wayfinding signage; remove obstructions such as low branches, parked cars, tables,merchant signs and displays, and bikes and skateboards;For more information on the ADA Transition Plans for Curb Ramps and Sidewalks, see:http://www.sfgov.org/site/mod_index.asp?id=36604The Better Streets Team held over 100 public meetings and events across the city. Each red dot marks the location of a Better Streets public outreach event (some locations held multiple events)Moving Forward1.3fUtUre actIonsTe Better Streets Plan provides a comprehensive vision and guidelines for the design of the Citys pedestrian realm. However, it is not enough for the City to simply adopt the Better Streets Plan.Te City must also follow through to consistently use the Better Streets Plan and build projects that adhere to the Plans vision.To achieve this, the City should take a number of addi-tional steps. Some of these steps are already funded and on-going; others have not yet begun and lack adequate funding.Improve the Citys street design processTe Better Streets Plan process has illustrated how City agencies can work together in the design of streets. However, it has also highlighted the challenges of doing so on an on-going basis. Te Better Streets Team is working with the Controllers Ofce to study the Citys existing street design and maintenance process and make recom-mendations for its improvement. See the Controllers Ofce report, available at www.sfbetterstreets.org.Develop a Better Streets Plan user guide and interactive websiteTe City should create a user-friendly guide and website to easily communicate the relevant guidelines, permits and resources in one place to anyone proposing to make changes to the public right-of-way. Te Better Streets Plan is a living document and will be amended over time to refect new thinking.Te user guide and website would be updated accordingly, such that there is a single, com-prehensive location for information about making street changes.Moving Forward:SummaryImprove the Citys streetdesign processDevelop Better Streets Planuser guide and websiteDevelop implementation andfunding frameworkDevelop additional technicalplans (street and pedestrian lighting, street furnishings, roadway design manual)chAPTER 1.0B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A N |15Develop a funding and implementation programUsing information from on-going planning eforts, long-range plans, and capital projects, the City should coordinate among agencies to develop a set of priorities, specifc implementation projects, and a long-term capital plan for street improvements, recognizing opportunities to combine funding sources into single projects for cost ef-ciency and completeness.Te City should identify existing and potential new funding sources for pedestrian realm improvements.Develop additional technical guidanceTe Better Streets Plan provides high-level guidance on how to design and layout the pedestrian realm. Tese guidelines complement existing City street design guidance, such as the Bicycle Plan design guidelines, Stormwater Design Guidelines, and Trafc Calming Guidelines.City guidelines that are not consistent with the Better Streets Plan should be amended to make them consistent.In addition, the City should create guidelines for areas of the right-of-way that are not covered by the Better Streets Plan or other existing guidelines, including the develop-ment of:street furnishings palette; street and pedestrian lighting plan; roadway design manual. PayIng for Better streets ImProvementsTe Better Streets Plans premise is that streets and side-walks must be improved comprehensively to meet a variety of functions, in a way that ofers a safe and pleasant expe-rience for everyone using them. To achieve this in any signifcant and efcient measure requires an agreed upon plan, which depends for its success and implementation on the full range of partners who make changes to the street: individuals and community groups through their personal interests in improving their immediate streetscapes, the development community as a condition of their right to build, the City through its capital improvement program, and the integrated actions of utilities working in the public realm.For those streetscape improvements initiated by the City, the holistic improvements envisioned in the Better Streets Plan will require signifcant amounts of funding to build and maintain. Despite record investments in capital improvements proposed over the next decade, the City has an estimated $885 million of deferred capital improve-ments required to merely maintain the citys streets and right-of-ways in their current condition. Funding this backlog alone would require more than doubling this his-toric investment and would only bring our infrastructure to current standards, not the signifcantly higher standards envisioned within this document.Complete streetscape improvements currently cost several million dollars per block to construct. For publicly funded projects, funding sources for these improvements (includ-ing transportation sales tax funds and federal and state grant sources) are limited. Tis means the City can only improve a select number of streets with Better Streets-type improvements each year at current funding levels. (Private developers and community members may also build or improve streets, constituting a signifcant source of streetscape improvements.)Given limited capital funding, this may require signif-cant trade-ofs and decision points: should there be fewer projects with a more complete set of improvements, or a greater number with fewer improvements per street? Should a project cross an entire corridor, or just a few blocks? Which streetscape elements or corridors should be prioritized? Te Better Streets Plan posits that street improvements should be made holistically, such that improvements have a greater impact and capital and operating efciencies can be realizedhowever, it is impor-tant to note the trade-ofs that this entails given funding limitations. As a next step to the Better Streets Plan, the City should develop a recommended program for implementing the envisioned improvements. Tat program must be inte-grated into the citys ten-year capital plan so that it can be appropriately prioritized and adequately coordinated within the citys larger capital planning program. Moreover, the operating budget impacts of any capital improvements must be identifed and funded prior to implementation.Securing sustained maintenance funding is essential to ensuring the viability and durability of any improvements such as those contemplated in this document.Te City must address funding and set realistic priori-ties as part of its capital planning process for what can be accomplished. Te need for higher funding levels will pose a challenge. Currently available resources and funding levels will greatly limit our ability to accomplish more than a fraction of the desired improvements in the foreseeable future.But it is important to get started. Other thriving cities have realized that prosperity depends on safe, convenient, and pleasant ways of getting aboutand are further along on improving their public realm. San Franciscos future is tied to functional, attractive streets and sidewalks. Te Better Streets Plan is a key frst step in this important journey.chAPTER 1.0|B E T T E R S T R E E T S P L A NchAPTER 1: INTRoDUcTIoN16The pedestrian character and quality of place for a given street is determined as much by the design of the roadway between the curbs as by what happens on the sidewalk. Factors such as numbers of lanes, lane widths, design and posted speeds, number of directions (one-way or two-way), and how the roadway is split among different travel modes (transit, bicycles, vehicles) exert a great influence on pedestrian safety and quality. There are many opportunities across the City to enhance the pedestrian realm by putting streets on a road diet: removing vehicle travel lanes and increasing sidewalk space, bicycle and transit lanes, and other amenities. The Better Streets Plan does not directly address these roadway design issues, focusing instead on the pedestrian realm of sidewalks and crossings. It is an important step that will lay the groundwork for future plans and projects. It represents a manageable piece to begin to bring the multitude of City agencies, community members, private developers, and advocates together to begin the work of improving the Citys streets, and to provide a comprehen-sive resource on streetscape and pedestrian design that the city currently lacks.Although they are complex subjects in themselves, the poli-cies and guidelines in the BSP are likely to have greater public acceptance, present fewer conflicts among various City agencies, and be generally simpler than the pieces that may follow politically and technically difficult decisions about street classifications, levels of service, or assigning roadway right-of-way among various travel modes. This plan is intended to begin the public dialogue and create the strong i