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Transcript of Seven Wonders of The Corn Growing World - naicc.org meeting 2014/Track I/Seven Wondeآ  Seven...

  • Seven Wonders of The

    Corn Growing World

    Fred Below

    Crop Physiology Laboratory

    Department of Crop Sciences

    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    NAICC 2014 Annual Meeting & Ag Expo, New Orleans, LA January 30, 2014

  • Quest for 300 Bushel Corn

    •9 billion people by 2050

    requires a doubling of grain

    production including corn

    •300 bu corn produced each

    year in the U.S. National

    Corn Growers Contest

  • Quest for 300 Bushel Corn

    •Intelligent Intensification

    with the Seven Wonders of

    the Corn Yield World

    •What are the factors that

    have the biggest impact on

    corn yield each year?

  • Seven Wonders of the Corn

    Yield World

    •Ranks those factors that each

    year can have a positive (and

    sometimes negative) impact

    on corn yield

    •Gives each factor an average

    bushel per acre value

  • Crucial Prerequisites, but not

    Yield Wonders

    •Drainage

    •Pest/Weed Control

    •Proper soil pH & adequate

    levels of P and K based on

    soil tests

  • 70+ Weather

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    bu/acre

    Value Factor Rank

    Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

    Given key prerequisites

  • Excess Precipitation Delayed Planting in 2013

  • Extreme Drought in Illinois in 2012

  • 70 Nitrogen

    70+ Weather

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    bu/acre

    Value Factor Rank

    Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

    Given key prerequisites

  • Fertilizer N rate (lb acre-1)

    G ra

    in y

    ie ld

    ( b

    u a

    c re

    -1 )

    Weather and Nitrogen

    0 50 100 150 200

    100

    120

    140

    160

    180

    200

    220

    2009

    2008

    Same site – DeKalb, IL

  • Weather and Nitrogen

    0 50 100 150 200 250

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    180

    200

    220

    2005

    2006

    Fertilizer N rate (lb acre-1)

    G ra

    in y

    ie ld

    ( b

    u a

    c re

    -1 )

    Same site – Champaign, IL

  • 50 Hybrid

    70 Nitrogen

    70+ Weather

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    bu/acre

    Value Factor Rank

    Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

    Given key prerequisites

  • Biotechnology Traits for Insect Control

    Western Corn Rootworm

    (Diabrotica virgifera)

    http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/elements/view.aspx?ID=1929

  • 0 50 100 150 200 250

    120

    150

    180

    210

    240

    Single

    Double

    Triple

    Better N Use From Biotechnology Traits

    Fertilizer N rate (lb acre-1)

    G ra

    in y

    ie ld

    ( b

    u a

    c re

    -1 )

    Champaign, IL 2006 Crop Sci. 53:585-594 (2013)

  • 50 Hybrid

    70 Nitrogen

    70+ Weather

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    bu/acre

    Value Factor Rank

    Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

    Given key prerequisites

  • Rank Yield Rank Yield Rank Yield Rank Yield

    bu acre-1 bu acre-1 bu acre-1 bu acre-1

    1 216.3 17 193.3 33 180.8 49 163.9

    2 211.1 18 193.0 34 179.3 50 163.7

    3 210.6 19 192.4 35 179.0 51 163.5

    4 210.4 20 192.3 36 178.0 52 163.0

    5 208.1 21 192.1 37 176.0 53 162.3

    6 206.6 22 191.5 38 174.2 54 162.3

    7 203.1 23 190.3 39 174.1 55 160.3

    8 202.5 24 188.4 40 173.4 56 156.6

    9 202.0 25 188.1 41 172.8 57 153.8

    10 201.2 26 187.1 42 172.5 58 153.4

    11 200.5 27 186.5 43 172.1 59 153.2

    12 199.3 28 186.5 44 169.2 60 153.0

    13 194.5 29 185.1 45 167.9 61 151.1

    14 194.2 30 184.9 46 167.6 62 135.6

    15 194.2 31 184.3 47 165.8 63 132.6

    16 194.1 32 181.6 48 165.2 64 129.1

    All Hybrids are Not Created Equal -2012

    32,000 plants/acre with 240 lbs N at Champaign, IL in 2012 LSD (0.10) = 32.5

  • 25 Previous Crop

    50 Hybrid

    70 Nitrogen

    70+ Weather

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    bu/acre

    Value Factor Rank

    Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

    Given key prerequisites

  • 20 Plant Population

    25 Previous Crop

    50 Hybrid

    70 Nitrogen

    70+ Weather

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    bu/acre

    Value Factor Rank

    Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

    Given key prerequisites

  • How have corn yields increased?

    Year

    1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

    G ra

    in y

    ie ld

    ( b

    u a

    c re

    -1 )

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    180

    P la

    n t

    d e n

    s it

    y (

    a c

    re -1

    )

    16000

    18000

    20000

    22000

    24000

    26000

    28000

    30000

    32000 U.S. plant density U.S. average grain yield

    Source USDA

  • Grain Yield is a Product Function

    of Yield Components

    Yield = (plants/acre) x

    (kernels/plant) x

    (weight/kernel)

  • Some Examples of Yield Component

    Combinations for Different Yields

    200 bushels =

    32,000 plants/ac x 550 kernels/plant x 250 mg/kernel

    250 bushels =

    36,000 plants/ac x 600 kernels/plant x 255 mg/kernel

    300 bushels? =

    45,000 plants/ac x 565 kernels/plant x 260 mg/kernel

    Kernel weight expressed at 0% and yield at 15% moisture

  • Are Twin Rows a way to increase

    Plant Population?

    Champaign, 2009

    30 inch rows vs twin rows both at 45,000 plants/acre

  • Water Funneling in Twin Rows

    7.5 inch twin rows on 30 inch centers, 45,000 plants/acre

  • Twin Rows are Warmer

    30” Rows (76 cm) Twin Rows

    Champaign, IL August 20, 2011, 45,000 plants/acre

    Lower canopy thermal images

  • Twin Rows Lose Lower Leaves

    Lower canopy images

    30” Rows (76 cm) Twin Rows

    Champaign, IL August 26, 2011, 45,000 plants/acre

  • 15 Tillage

    20 Plant Population

    25 Previous Crop

    50 Hybrid

    70 Nitrogen

    70+ Weather

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    bu/acre

    Value Factor Rank

    Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

    Given key prerequisites

  • 10 Growth Regulators

    15 Tillage

    20 Plant Population

    25 Previous Crop

    50 Hybrid

    70 Nitrogen

    70+ Weather

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    bu/acre

    Value Factor Rank

    Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

    Given key prerequisites

  • Leaf Greening from Strobilurin Fungicides

    Leaves greener 50 days after VT application

  • 10 Growth Regulators

    15 Tillage

    20 Plant Population

    25 Previous Crop

    50 Hybrid

    70 Nitrogen

    70+ Weather

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    bu/acre

    Value Factor Rank

    Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

    260 bu TOTAL Given key prerequisites

  • How to Get High Corn Yields?

    • Optimize each of the seven

    wonders and their positive

    interactions.

    • Provide better prerequisites,

    season long weed control &

    balanced fertility/nutrition

  • Prerequisites for High Yields?

    • Proper soil pH & adequate

    levels of P and K based on

    soil tests

    • Fertility- Use application

    and fertilizer technologies

    to supply required crop

    nutrition

  • Nutrition Needed for 230 Bushel Corn

    Nutrient Required

    to Produce

    Removed

    with Grain

    Harvest

    Index

    lbs/acre %

    N 256 148 58

    P2O5 101 80 79

    K2O 180 58 32

    S 23 13 57

    Zn (oz) 7.1 4.4 62

    B (oz) 1.2 0.3 23

    Average of 6 hybrids in Champaign and DeKalb IL in 2010. Agron. J. 105:161-170 (2013)

  • B U

    p ta

    k e (

    o z

    B a

    c -1

    )

    0.0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1.0

    1.2

    GDD F

    0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

    P e rc

    e n

    t