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Transcript of seed halogenation

IntroductionSeed invigourationDefinition of HalogenationMethodology for incorporation of halogen

Halogen formulationFactors influencing on halogen treatment Advantages and disadvantages

Case Studies

Conclusion

INTRODUCTION Seed is a biological entity and its ageing is an inevitable process beyond

physiological maturity whether the seed is in mother plant or in storage.

Rapid loss of vigour and viability of seed during storage is one of the major

constraints faced by the seed industry and corresponding financial implication.

Although ageing of seeds cannot be arrested completely when stored under

ambient condition, it can however be controlled to an applicable extent by adoption of suitable storage technologies.

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Dry dressing of seeds with halogen formulation has conferred

beneficial effect by lowering lipid peroxidation and there by extension of vigour and viability of seeds under storage.

Halogen treatment slow down the deterioration senescence, reduce

physiological and pathological deterioration in a number of crop seeds.

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Seed invigouration Seed invigouration implies to an improvement in seed performance

by any post harvest treatment that focused on improvement in germinability, storability and better field performance (Basu, 1990). Invigouration treatment should bring about a qualitative improvement

in the seed, which should persist even after the treatment & treatmental effect should basically be physiological in nature.

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

PHYSIOLOGICAL INVIGORATION SEED TRETMENTS

The physiological invigouration treatments are distinguished (Basu, 1994) As follows.

Pre-sowing treatments for improved field performance.

Pre-storage treatments for maintenance of vigour and viability in storage that result in better field performance. Mid-storage treatments for extension of vigour and viability in storage that ensure better field performance .

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

STORAGE TREATMENTS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO CATEGORIES:

Wet treatments Dry treatments

Halogenation

Vapour treatmentBasu et al (1994 )Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Significance of Seed Halogenation This treatment avoids use of water. It does not require drying back to safe moisture content for

extended storage ability. It is ideal for large scale application. This treatment also have the additional cost-saving advantage

that will occur if the dry treatment is given before the seed is bagged and stored .

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

In halogenations treatment, seeds are exposed to halogens like chlorine, bromine or iodine either directly or through the carriers.

Halogens 1) 2) 3) chlorine Iodine potassium iodide and bromine

Applied forms bleaching powder Iodine crystals potassium bromide or bromine solution

These halogens are used for safe storage treatment with dual purpose utilization of seed as seed for sowing and grain for consumption.

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

The commonly available inert carriers are as follows:1. 2. 3.

Calcium carbonate fresh chalk Talc

4. Charcoal or activated clay

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Methodology For Incorporation of Halogens The carrier are first exposed to the halogen in vapour in optimum

quantities . The vapour saturated carriers are dry dressed with the seeds. These chemicals are also added directly to the carrier Among the carriers calcium carbonate has been proved to be

superior one. After equilibrating the carrier-chemical mix, the seed is

thoroughly dressed with the mixture, in the closed container.

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Anti-microbial property of halogens

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Contd The positive effect of halogen treatment is that, it reduces

production of volatile aldehyde, which are presumably the product of lipid peroxidation.Rudrpal and Basu 1982

Besides other effect, the anti-fungal role of chemical may

give some beneficial effect on germinability .

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Concept of halogenation treatment

Dharmalingam et al (1998)Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Contd Chlorine may also be obtained by just placing bleaching powder

and iodine by putting 25-50 mg of solid iodine crystals in the Petri-dish. In wheat, rice, pea, and egg plant seeds treatment with 2.3 g of

bleaching powder per kg of seed effectively controlled the loss of vigour and viability of fresh vigour seeds. The treatment were given to high vigour seeds before bagging and

storage.

These chemical were mixed with inert carrier like caco3, talc, fresh

chalk, charcoal, clay, brick powder etc and used for dry-dressing of seeds.

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Classification of Halogen Formulation

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Methods for Application of Halogen Formulations to Seed

The halogen formulation could be added to the seed

similar to that of fungicide seed treatment and pesticide . The chemicals are applied either dry dressing or slurry

treatment using 5 ml of water for kg of seeds.

The efficacy of dry treatment is lower compared to slurry

treatment.

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Factors Influencing Halogen Treatment1) Selectivity of treatment

2) Duration of treatment3) Dosage of halogen 4) Age of the seed

5) Selectivity of crop6) Mode of application

Advantages of seed halogenation

Disadvantages Time consuming Laborious Efficacy of halogen treatment low compared to other treatment.

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Germination (%)Hours of Iodination 0 5 15 24 CD (P=0.05) Wheat 65 80 85 60 Jute 58 67 76 65 Mustard 55 75 85 91

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Basu and Rudrapal (1979)

Germination (%) (%) GerminationDry dressing with bleaching powder (g Dry dressing with bleaching powder (g kg-1 kg-1 of seed) of seed) Acceleratedaging Accelerated aging (100 % RH OF 400C0C ) (100 % RH OF 40 ) Natural aging Natural aging 0 (78.0 4 RH of 28.3 10C)C) (78.0 4 RH of 28.3 1

0 02 2

60 (50.8) 60 (50.8)81 (64.2) 81 (64.2)

58 (49.6) 58 (49.6)74 (59.3) 74 (59.3)

5 510 10

76 (60.7) 76 (60.7)67 (54.9) 67 (54.9)

71 (57.4) 71 (57.4)68 (55.6) 68 (55.6)

20 20 50 50 CD (P=0.05) CD (P=0.05)

69 (56.2) 69 (56.2) 65 (53.7) 65 (53.7) (4.8) (4.8)

66 (54.3) 66 (54.3) 64 (53.1) 64 (53.1) (6.9) (6.9)

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Standardization of dosage of bleaching powder after 9 days of accelerated ageing in paddy cv. ASD 16Treatments Control CaOCl2 (4 g kg-1) CaOCl2 (6 g kg-1) Germination (%) 60 (50.62) 60 (50.67) 57 (49.10) Vigour index 1627 1616 1142

CaOCl2 (8 g kg-1)

72 (57.74)

2109

CaOCl2 (10 g kg-1)CD (P=0.05)

71 (55.24) (8.03)

1892 52

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Standardization of dosage of CaOCl2 and CaCO3 mixture on paddy cv. ASD 16

TreatmentsControl CaOCl2+

Germination (%)60 (50.62) 64 (52.98) 65 (53.60) 71 (57.29) 81 (64.38) 80 (63.85) (2.33)

Vigour index1478 1648 1763 1987 2481 2471 110

CaCO3 (2 g kg-1)

CaOCl2 + CaCO3 (3 g kg-1) CaOCl2 + CaCO3 (4 g kg-1) CaOCl2 + CaCO3 (5 g kg-1) CaOCl2 + CaCO3 (6 g kg-1) CD (P=0.05)

Punitha (1996)Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Halogenated Seeds in Storage In storage halogenation of seeds with either iodine or chlorine

prolonged the shelf life of seeds. The studies also revealed that Iodination is best for seeds to

prolong their storability compared to chlorination. Halogenated seeds in storage not only prolong the storage

life, but also prevent the multiplication of seed borne pathogen and also insect.

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Dept of Seed Science and Technology

On farm storage of halogenated paddy seeds cv.ASD 16

Parameters

Initial

6 months After storage

CD (P=0.05) 0.131 5.65 0.068

ControlGermination (%) Vigour index Insect infestation (No/g)

Halogenated80 1270 4

87 1467 3

69 858 16

Pathogen infection (%)Yield (g/m2)

2-

14510

3543

0.075.17

Chandrasenannair (1995)Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Performance of halogenation on storability of sorghum cv. CO 26Parameters Initial 8 month after storage CB C Germination (%) Vigour index Storage fungi (%) Insect infestation(No/kg) 90 2435 19.1 68 1749 45 14.0 H 76 2000 28 8 C 69 1876 30 10 HDPV H 80 2138 19 6 (1.21) 22.2 1.26 1.40 CD (P=0.05)

Jegathambal (2000)Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Influence of halogenation on storability of wheat cv. HD 2501

Parameters

3 months after storage

CD (P=0.05)

ControlGermination (%) Seedling length (cm) Vigour index 90 20.8 1890

Halogenated94 24.1 2184 (1.54) 1.44 9.23

Dharmalingam et al (1998)Dept of Seed Science and Technology

Seed quality of chlorinated Pea cultivar after 9 months of storageTreatment (T) Germination (%) Variety (V) Arkel Control Bleaching powder 78 83 Bonnevilla 91 97 Arkel 155 168 Total seedling Length (cm) Variety(V) Bonnevilla 41 62

Bhattachaya and Basu (1990)Dept of Seed Science and Techn