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Transcript of Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes - Amazon S3s3.amazonaws.com/scschoolfiles/136/mb_21_win.pdfSection 1...

  • Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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    Ecosystems Chapter 21

    Table of Contents

    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

  • Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    Objectives

    Identify the eight major biomes.

    Compare tundra with taiga.

    Compare the different kinds of forests.

    Compare the different kinds of grasslands.

    Describe the adaptations of desert organisms.

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    The Major Biomes

    The major types of terrestrial ecosystems, known as

    biomes, are tundra, tropical forest, temperate forest,

    taiga, temperate grassland, savanna, chaparral, and

    desert.

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    Chapter 21

    Earths Major Biomes

    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    Tundra

    Tundra is a cold biome characterized by permafrost

    under the surface of the ground.

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    Chapter 21

    Tundra

    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    Forests

    Tropical Forests

    Tropical forests receive abundant rainfall and

    have stable temperatures.

    They have a greater species richness than any

    other biome.

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    Chapter 21

    Tropical Rain Forest

    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    Forests, continued

    Temperate Forests

    Temperate forests have coniferous trees, which

    bear seeds in cones, or deciduous trees, which

    shed their leaves each year.

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    Forests, continued

    Temperate Deciduous Forests

    The trees in temperate deciduous forests shed

    all of their leaves in the fall.

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    Chapter 21

    Temperate Deciduous Forest

    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    Forests, continued

    Taiga

    Taiga is cold but is warmer than tundra and

    receives more precipitation.

    Taiga is dominated by coniferous forests.

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    Chapter 21

    Taiga

    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    Grasslands

    Temperate Grasslands

    Temperate grasslands occur in areas with cold

    winters and hot summers.

    They are dominated by grasses and herds of

    grazing animals.

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    Grasslands, continued

    Savanna

    Savannas are tropical grasslands with alternating

    wet and dry seasons.

    They are dominated by herds of grazing animals.

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    Chapter 21

    Savanna

    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    Grasslands, continued

    Chaparral

    Chaparral is found in coastal regions with warm,

    dry summers and mild winters.

    It is dominated by dense, spiny shrubs.

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    Chapter 21

    Grassland

    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

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    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

    Chapter 21

    Deserts

    Deserts receive less than 25 cm (9.9 in.) of

    precipitation per year.

    Desert inhabitants have adaptations for conserving

    water.

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    Chapter 21

    Desert

    Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

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    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

    Chapter 21

    Objectives

    Identify the major ocean zones.

    Compare the aphotic zone with the photic zone.

    Compare the neritic zone with the oceanic zone.

    Describe estuaries.

    Compare eutrophic lakes with oligotrophic lakes.

    Explain the significance of gradient in rivers and streams.

    Describe freshwater wetlands.

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    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

    Chapter 21

    Ocean Zones

    The photic zone in the ocean receives light, but the

    aphotic zone does not.

    Other zones of the ocean are defined based on their

    relative locations.

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    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

    Chapter 21

    Ocean Zones, continued

    The Intertidal Zone

    In the intertidal zone, organisms must be able to

    tolerate drying and pounding by waves.

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    Chapter 21

    Intertidal Zone

    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

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    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

    Chapter 21

    Ocean Zones, continued

    The Neritic Zone

    The neritic zone receives nutrients from the

    bottom of the ocean and from land. It is the

    oceans richest zone in terms of the number of

    species and individuals.

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    Chapter 21

    Neritic Zone

    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

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    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

    Chapter 21

    Ocean Zones, continued

    The Oceanic Zone

    Production in the oceanic zone is limited by a

    shortage of nutrients.

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    Chapter 21

    Oceanic Zone

    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

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    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

    Chapter 21

    Ocean Zones, continued

    Estuaries

    Estuaries are very productive areas where rivers

    and streams flow into the sea.

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    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

    Chapter 21

    Freshwater Zones

    Lakes and Ponds

    Oligotrophic lakes are clear and lacking in

    nutrients.

    Eutrophic lakes are rich in nutrients and are often

    murky.

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    Chapter 21

    Three Lake Zones

    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

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    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

    Chapter 21

    Freshwater Zones, continued

    Rivers and Streams

    Rivers and streams are bodies of water that flow

    down an elevation gradient within a watershed.

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    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

    Chapter 21

    Freshwater Zones, continued

    Freshwater Wetlands

    Freshwater wetlands are areas of land, such as

    marshes and swamps, that are covered with fresh

    water for at least part of each year.

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    Chapter 21

    Freshwater Biomes

    Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

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    Multiple Choice

    1. Why are estuaries more productive than most other

    biomes?

    A. Estuaries contain vast coniferous forests.

    B. Estuaries have shallow, nutrient-laden water.

    C. Estuaries get more sunlight than other biomes.

    D. The majority of land on Earth is covered by

    estuaries.

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    1. Why are estuaries more productive than most other

    biomes?

    A. Estuaries contain vast coniferous forests.

    B. Estuaries have shallow, nutrient-laden water.

    C. Estuaries get more sunlight than other biomes.

    D. The majority of land on Earth is covered by

    estuaries.

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    2. Which of the following characterizes the neritic zone

    of the ocean?

    F. It receives little sunlight.

    G. It supports very few species.

    H. It is exposed to the air by low tide.

    J. It receives nutrients washed from land.

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    2. Which of the following characterizes the neritic zone

    of the ocean?

    F. It receives little sunlight.

    G. It supports very few species.

    H. It is exposed to the air by low tide.

    J. It receives nutrients washed from land.

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    3. Which of the following is true of temperate deciduous

    forests?

    A. They are found near the equator.

    B. They have the lowest rainfall of any biome.

    C. They undergo seasonal changes in temperature.

    D. They have the highest species richness of any

    biome.

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    3. Which of the following is true of temperate deciduous

    forests?

    A. They are found near the equator.

    B. They have the lowest rainfall of any biome.

    C. They undergo seasonal changes in temperature.

    D. They have the highest species richness of any

    biome.

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    4. Which of the following best describes the water of all

    eutrophic lakes?

    F. cold

    G. salty

    H. murky

    J. lifeless

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    4. Which of the following best describes the water of all

    eutrophic lakes?

    F. cold

    G. salty

    H. murky

    J. lifeless

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    Use the graph below to answer question 5. The

    graph shows the relative temperature,

    precipitation, and soil nutrient content in a

    specific biome.

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    5. Which of the following biomes is best represented by

    this graph?

    A. tundra

    B. desert

    C. tropical rain forest

    D. temperate grassland

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    5. Which of the following biomes is best represented by

    this graph?

    A. tundra

    B. desert

    C. tropical rain forest

    D. temperate grassland

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    Complete the following analogy:

    6. grasses : savanna :: coniferous trees :

    F. taiga

    G. tundra

    H. desert

    J. temperate deciduous forest

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    Complete the following analogy:

    6. grasses : savanna :: coniferous trees :

    F. taiga

    G. tundra

    H. desert

    J. temperate deciduous forest

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    Use the graph below to answer question 7. The graph

    ranks several types of biomes in terms of their

    relative productivity.

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    7. If a scientist needed to add a bar representing the

    temperate grassland biome to this graph, where

    should the bar be placed?

    A. to the left of desert

    B. between savanna and estuary

    C. between estuary and tropical rain forest

    D. to the right of tropical rain forest

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Multiple Choice, continued

    7. If a scientist needed to add a bar representing the

    temperate grassland biome to this graph, where

    should the bar be placed?

    A. to the left of desert

    B. between savanna and estuary

    C. between estuary and tropical rain forest

    D. to the right of tropical rain forest

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Short Response

    Biomes are very large terrestrial ecosystems that

    contain a number of smaller but related

    ecosystems.

    Describe how the major biomes are characterized.

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Short Response, continued

    Biomes are very large terrestrial ecosystems that

    contain a number of smaller but related

    ecosystems.

    Describe how the major biomes are characterized.

    Answer: The major biomes are distinguished by

    abiotic factors and by the presence of

    characteristic plants and animals.

    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

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    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

    Extended Response

    Base your answers to parts A & B on the information

    below.

    Ecologists recognize the following ecological zones in the

    ocean: photic, aphotic, intertidal, neritic, oceanic,

    pelagic, and benthic.

    Part A Describe the factors used as a basis for

    distinguishing the zones.

    Part B Relate these factors to the types of organisms that

    inhabit each zone.

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    Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

    Extended Response, continued

    Answer:

    Part A Factors used as a basis for distinguishing the

    ecological zones of the ocean are depth, distance from

    shore, and penetration of sunlight.

    Part B Student responses should explain that the ocean

    can be divided into zones along a vertical axis on the

    basis of light penetration (photic and aphotic zones) or

    nearness to the bottom (benthic and pelagic zones), or

    along a horizontal axis on the basis of distance from

    shorelines (intertidal, neritic, and oceanic zones).

    Responses should also describe typical organisms and

    adaptations for each of these zones.