Seattle/King County EMT-B Class. Topics 12 Pediatric Emergencies: Chapter 31 Pediatric Assessment:...

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Transcript of Seattle/King County EMT-B Class. Topics 12 Pediatric Emergencies: Chapter 31 Pediatric Assessment:...

  • Slide 1
  • Seattle/King County EMT-B Class
  • Slide 2
  • Topics 12 Pediatric Emergencies: Chapter 31 Pediatric Assessment: Chapter 32 3 Pediatric SICK/NOT SICK
  • Slide 3
  • 1 Pediatric Emergencies
  • Slide 4
  • Airway Differences Larger tongue relative to the mouth Larger epiglottis Less well-developed rings of cartilage in the trachea Narrower, lower airway 1
  • Slide 5
  • Breathing Differences Infants breathe faster than children or adults. Infants use the diaphragm when they breathe. Sustained, labored breathing may lead to respiratory failure. 1
  • Slide 6
  • Circulation Differences The heart rate increases for illness and injury. Vasoconstriction keeps vital organs nourished. Constriction of the blood vessels can affect blood flow to the extremities. 1
  • Slide 7
  • Skeletal Differences 1 Bones are weaker and more flexible. They are prone to fracture with stress. Infants have two small openings in the skull called fontanels. Fontanels close by 18 months.
  • Slide 8
  • Growth and Development Thoughts and behaviors of children usually grouped into stages: 1 Infancy Toddlers Preschool School age Adolescence
  • Slide 9
  • InfantFirst year of life They respond mainly to physical stimuli. Crying is a way of expression. Usually prefer to be with caregiver. If possible, have caregiver hold the infant as you start your examination. 1
  • Slide 10
  • Toddler1 to 3 years of age They begin to walk and explore the environment. They may resist separation from caregivers. Make any observations you can before touching a toddler. They are curious and adventuresome. 1
  • Slide 11
  • Preschool3 to 6 years of age They can use simple language effectively. They can understand directions. They can identify painful areas when questioned. They can understand when you explain what you are going to do using simple descriptions. They can be distracted by using toys. 1
  • Slide 12
  • School Age6 to 12 years of age They begin to think like adults. They can be included with the parent when taking medical history. They may be familiar with physical exam. They may be able to make choices. 1
  • Slide 13
  • Adolescent12 to 18 years of age They are very concerned about body image. They may have strong feelings about being observed. Respect an adolescents privacy. They understand pain. Explain any procedure that you are doing. 1
  • Slide 14
  • Family Matters When a child is ill or injured, you have several patients, not just one. Caregivers often need support when medical emergencies develop. Children often mimic the behavior of their caregivers. Be calm, professional, and sensitive. 1
  • Slide 15
  • Pediatric Emergencies Dehydration Vomiting and diarrhea Greater risk than adults Fever Rarely life threatening Caution if occurring with rash 1
  • Slide 16
  • Pediatric Emergencies, cont'd 1 Meningitis Inflammation of the tissue that covers the spinal cord and brain. Caused by an infection. If left untreated can lead to brain damage or death.
  • Slide 17
  • Febrile seizures Common between 6 months and 6 years Last less than 15 minutes Poisoning Signs and symptoms vary widely. Determine what substances were involved. 1 Pediatric Emergencies, cont'd
  • Slide 18
  • Physical Differences Children and adults suffer different injuries from the same type of incident. Childrens bones are less developed than an adults. A childs head is larger than an adults, which greatly stresses the neck in deceleration injuries. 1
  • Slide 19
  • Psychological Differences Children are not as psychologically mature. They are often injured due to their undeveloped judgment and lack of experience. 1
  • Slide 20
  • Injury Patterns: Automobile Collisions The exact area of impact will depend on the childs height. A car bumper dips down when stopping suddenly, causing a lower point of impact. 1
  • Slide 21
  • Injury Patterns: Sports Activities Head and neck injuries can occur from high-speed collisions during contact sports. Immobilize the cervical spine. Follow local protocols for helmet removal. 1
  • Slide 22
  • Head Injuries Common injury among children The head is larger in proportion to an adult. Nausea and vomiting are signs of pediatric head injury. 1
  • Slide 23
  • Chest Injuries Most chest injuries in children result from blunt trauma. Children have soft, flexible ribs. The absence of obvious external trauma does not exclude the likelihood of serious internal injuries. 1
  • Slide 24
  • Abdominal Injuries Abdominal injuries are very common in children. Children compensate for blood loss better than adults but transition into shock more quickly. Watch for: Weak, rapid pulse Cold, clammy skin Poor capillary refill 1
  • Slide 25
  • Injuries to the Extremities Childrens bones bend more easily than adults bones. Incomplete fractures can occur. Do not use adult splinting devices on children unless the child is large enough to meet the required objectives. 1
  • Slide 26
  • PASG Pneumatic Anti-shock Garments We don't use them in King County. They're being mentioned now because the state exam may have a few questions about them. This has been a public service announcement=-) 1
  • Slide 27
  • Burns Most common burns involve exposure to hot substances. Suspect internal injuries from chemical ingestion when burns are present around lips and mouth. Infection is a common problem with burns. Consider the possibility of child abuse. 1
  • Slide 28
  • Submersion Injury Drowning or near drowning 2nd most common cause of unintentional death of children in the US Assessment and reassessment of ABCs are critical. Consider the need for C-spine protection. 1
  • Slide 29
  • SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Several known risk factors: Mother younger than 20 years old Mother smoked during pregnancy Low birth weight 1
  • Slide 30
  • Tasks at Scene Assess and manage the patient. Communicate with and support the family. Assess the scene. 1
  • Slide 31
  • Assessment and Management Assess ABCs and provide interventions as necessary. If child shows signs of postmortem changes, call medical control. If there is no evidence of postmortem changes, begin CPR immediately. 1
  • Slide 32
  • Communication and Support The death of a child is very stressful for the family. Provide support in whatever ways you can. Use the infants name. If possible, allow the family time with the infant. 1
  • Slide 33
  • Scene Assessment Carefully inspect the environment, following local protocols. Concentrate on: Signs of illness General condition of the house Family interaction Site where infant was discovered 1
  • Slide 34
  • Apparent Life-Threatening Event Infant found not breathing, cyanotic, and unresponsive but resumes breathing with stimulation Complete careful assessment. Transport immediately. Pay strict attention to airway management. 1
  • Slide 35
  • Death of a Child Be prepared to support the family. Family may insist on resuscitation efforts. Introduce yourself to the childs caregivers. Do not speculate on the cause of death. 1
  • Slide 36
  • Death of a Child, continued Allow the family to see the child and say good-bye. Be prepared to answer questions posed by caregivers. Seek professional help for yourself if you notice signs of posttraumatic stress. 1
  • Slide 37
  • Children With Special Needs Children born prematurely who have associated lung problems Small children or infants with congenital heart disease Children with neurologic diseases Children with chronic diseases or with functions that have been altered since birth 1
  • Slide 38
  • Tracheostomy Tube 1
  • Slide 39
  • Artificial Ventilators Provide respirations for children unable to breathe on their own. If ventilator malfunctions, remove child from the ventilator and begin ventilations with a BVM device. Ventilate during transport. 1
  • Slide 40
  • Central IV Lines 1
  • Slide 41
  • Gastrostomy Tubes Food can back up the esophagus into the lungs. Have suction readily available. Give supplemental oxygen if the patient has difficulty breathing. 1
  • Slide 42
  • Shunts Tubes that drain excess fluid from around brain If shunt becomes clogged, changes in mental status may occur. If a shunt malfunctions, the patient may go into respiratory arrest. 1
  • Slide 43
  • Pediatric Assessment 2
  • Slide 44
  • Assessment and Management Caring for sick and injured children presents special challenges. EMT-Bs may find themselves anxious when dealing with critically ill or injured children. Treatment is the same as that for adults in most emergency situations. 2
  • Slide 45
  • Take note of your surroundings. Scene assessment will supplement additional findings. Note: Position of the patient Condition of the home Clues to child abuse 1. Scene Size-up Scene Size-up 2
  • Slide 46
  • Decide SICK/NOT SICK (Begins before you touch the patient.) Determine a chief complaint. The Pediatric Assessment Triangle can help. 1. Scene Size-up Initial Assessment 2.Initial Assessment 2
  • Slide 47
  • Should be completed on scene unless severity requires rapid transport Young children should be examined toe to head. Focused exam on non- critical patients Rapid exam on potentially critical patients 1. Scene Size-up Focused History/Physical Exam 2.Initial Assessment 3.Focused History/ Physical Exam 2
  • Slide 48
  • Status changes frequently in children. The PAT can help with reassessment. 1. Scene Size-up Detailed Physical Exam 2.Initial Assessment 3.Focused History/ Physical Exam 4.Detailed Physical Exam 2
  • Slide 49
  • Repeat vital signs frequently. If child deteriorates, repeat the initial assessment. 1. Scene Size-up Ongoing Assessment 2.Initial Assessment 3.Focused History/ Physical Exam 4.Detailed Physical Exam 5.Ongoing Assessment 2
  • Slide 50
  • Pediatric Assessment Triangle 2
  • Slide 51
  • Assessing the ABCs Airway: position patient correctly Work of breathing: Effort Obstructions Rate Circulation: Rate Skin color, temperature, and capillary refill 2
  • Slide 52
  • Transport Decision Children under 40 lbs should be transported in a child safety seat, if the situation allows. Seat should be secured to the cot or captains chair. Cannot be secured to bench seat Child may have to be transported without a seat, depending on condition. 2
  • Slide 53
  • Respirations Abnormal respirations are a common sign of illness or injury. Count respirations for 30 seconds. In children less than 3 years, count the rise and fall of the abdomen. Note effort of breathing. Listen for noises. 2
  • Slide 54
  • Pulse In infants, feel over the brachial or femoral area. In older children, use the carotid artery. Count for at least 1 minute. Note strength of the pulse. 2
  • Slide 55
  • Blood Pressure Use a cuff that covers two thirds of the upper arm. If scene conditions make it difficult to measure blood pressure accurately, do not waste time trying. 2
  • Slide 56
  • Skin Signs Feel for temperature and moisture. Estimate capillary refill. 2
  • Slide 57
  • Care of the Pediatric Airway Position the airway. Position the airway in a neutral sniffing position. If spinal injury is suspected, use jaw- thrust maneuver to open the airway. 2
  • Slide 58
  • Care of the Pediatric Airway, cont'd Positioning the airway: Place the patient on a firm surface. Fold a small towel under the patients shoulders and back. Place tape across patients forehead to limit head rolling. 2
  • Slide 59
  • Oropharyngeal Airways Determine the appropriately sized airway. Place the airway next to the face to confirm correct size. Position the airway. Open the mouth. Insert the airway until flange rests against lips. Reassess airway. 2
  • Slide 60
  • Assessing Ventilation Observe chest rise in older children. Observe abdominal/chest rise and fall in younger children or infants. Skin color indicates amount of oxygen getting to organs. 2
  • Slide 61
  • Oxygen Delivery Devices Nonrebreathing mask at 10 to 12 L/min provides 90+% oxygen concentration. Blow-by technique at 6 L/min provides more than 21% oxygen concentration. Nasal cannula at 4 to 6 L/min provides 24% to 44% oxygen concentration. 2
  • Slide 62
  • BVM Devices Equipment must be the right size. BVM device at 10 to 15 L/min provides 90+% oxygen concentration. Ventilate at the proper rate and volume. May be used by one or two rescuers 2
  • Slide 63
  • Airway Obstruction Croup A viral infection of the airway below the level of the vocal cords Epiglottitis Infection of the soft tissue in the area above the vocal cords Foreign body airway obstructions 2
  • Slide 64
  • Signs and Symptoms Stridor Retractions Nasal flaring Difficulty speaking Decreased or absent breath sounds 2
  • Slide 65
  • Complete Airway Obstruction 2 Signs and symptoms Ineffective cough (no sound) Inability to cry Increasing respiratory difficulty, with stridor Cyanosis Loss of consciousness
  • Slide 66
  • 2 Removing an FBAO In a RESPONSIVE child: Kneel behind the child. Give abdominal thrusts. Repeat the technique until object comes out or the child becomes unresponsive.
  • Slide 67
  • Removing an FBAO, continued In an UNRESPONSIVE child: Place the child on a firm, flat surface. Inspect the upper airway and remove any visible object. (No blind sweeps.) Attempt rescue breathing. If ventilation is still unsuccessful, CPR with one exception: Visualize in the airway before you attempt ventilation. 2
  • Slide 68
  • Open airway again to try and see object. Only try to remove object if you see it. Attempt rescue breathing. 2 Removing an FBAO, continued
  • Slide 69
  • 2 If unsuccessful, reposition head and attempt ventilation again. Continue CPR with one exception: Visualize in the airway before you attempt ventilation.
  • Slide 70
  • Airway Obstruction in Infants If RESPONSIVE: Deliver 5 back slaps. Bring infant upright on the thigh. Give five quick chest thrusts. Check airway. Repeat cycle as often as necessary. 2
  • Slide 71
  • 2 Removing an FBAO, continued If the infant is UNRESPONSIVE: Inspect the airway. Attempt rescue breathing. Reposition the airway (if needed) If airway remains obstructed, CPR with one exception: Visualize in the airway before you attempt ventilation.
  • Slide 72
  • Trauma Extremity injuries in children are generally managed in the same manner as those in adults. 2
  • Slide 73
  • Trauma, continued Be alert for airway problems on all children with traumatic injuries. Give supplemental oxygen to all children with possible: Head injuries Chest injuries Abdominal injuries Shock If ventilation is required, provide at 20 breaths/min. 2
  • Slide 74
  • Immobilization Any child with a head or back injury should be immobilized. Young children may need padding beneath their torso. Children may need padding along the sides of the backboard. 2
  • Slide 75
  • Immobilization in a Child Safety Seat Assess child for injuries and seat for visible damage. If child is injured or seat is damaged, remove child to another transport device Apply padding around child to minimize movement. 2
  • Slide 76
  • Removing a Child from a Safety Seat Remove both the child and the seat from the vehicle. Place immobilization device behind the child. Slide child into place on device. 2
  • Slide 77
  • Respiratory Emergencies Signs and Symptoms include: Nasal flaring Grunting respirations Use of accessory muscles Retractions of rib cage Tripod position in older children 2
  • Slide 78
  • Emergency Care Provide supplemental oxygen in the most comfortable manner. Place child in position of comfort. This may be in caregivers lap. If patient is in respiratory failure, begin assisted ventilation immediately. Continue to provide supplemental oxygen. 2
  • Slide 79
  • Shock Circulatory system is unable to deliver sufficient blood to organs. Many different causes Patients may have increased heart rate, respirations, and pale or mottled skin. Children do not show decreased blood pressure until shock is severe. 2
  • Slide 80
  • Assessing Circulation Pulse: Above 160 beats/min suggests shock Skin signs: Assess temperature and moisture Capillary refill: Is it delayed? Color: Is skin pink, pale, ashen, or mottled? 2
  • Slide 81
  • Emergency Care for Shock Ensure airway. Give supplemental oxygen. Provide immediate transport. Continue monitoring vital signs en route. Contact ALS for backup as needed. 2
  • Slide 82
  • Seizures May present in several different ways A postictal period of extreme fatigue or unresponsiveness usually follows seizure. Be alert to presence of medications, poisons, and possible abuse. 2
  • Slide 83
  • Febrile Seizures Febrile seizures are most common in children from 6 months to 6 years. Febrile seizures are caused by fever. Generally last less than 15 minutes Assess ABCs and begin cooling measures. Provide prompt transport. 2
  • Slide 84
  • Emergency Care for Seizures Perform initial assessment, focusing on the ABCs. Securing and protecting the airway is the priority. Place patient in the recovery position. Be ready to suction. 2
  • Slide 85
  • Emergency Care for Seizures Deliver oxygen by mask, blow-by, or nasal cannula. Begin BVM ventilation if no signs of improvement. Call ALS for backup if appropriate. 2
  • Slide 86
  • Dehydration Determine if child is vomiting or has diarrhea and for how long. How many wet diapers has the child had during the day? (6 to 10 is normal) What fluids are the child taking? What was the childs weight before the symptoms started? Has the child been normally active? 2
  • Slide 87
  • Emergency Care for Dehydration Assess the ABCs. Obtain baseline vital signs. ALS backup may be needed for IV administration. 2
  • Slide 88
  • What questions do you have? Questions To review this presentation, go to: http://www.emsonline.net/emtb To review this presentation, go to: http://www.emsonline.net/emtb