Seafood Traceability Copy 2

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Transcript of Seafood Traceability Copy 2

  • 1. Seafood Traceability: A Practical Guide for the U.S. Industry By Arni Petersen and David Green
  • 2. About the Authors Arni Petersen, who is a native of the Faroe Islands, Denmark, is a visiting scholar from the Danish Technical University in Lyngby. Petersen has extensive knowledge and has performed practical applications on seafood traceability systems in the United States and Europe. David Green is a professor and seafood processing specialist at North Carolina State University. Green also is a North Carolina Sea Grant researcher and director of the North Carolina State University Seafood Laboratory at the Center for Marine Sciences and Technology in Morehead City. For more information, contact the North Carolina State University Seafood Laboratory, 252/222-6334. Cover photos by Scott D. Taylor Other photos by Scott D. Taylor and Arni Petersen Design by Kathy McKee Editing by Ann Green
  • 3. Table of Contents Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 II. Legal Basis of Traceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Who Keeps Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Recordkeeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Nontransporters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Transporters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Time Period for Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Records/Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Record Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Traceability in Major U.S. Seafood Export Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 European Union (EU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 U.S. Import Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 III. Common Traceability Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Internal/External Traceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Traceability Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Paper Traceability Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Electronic Traceability Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Multi-database Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Single database Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Units and Batches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Batches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Identifiers, Carriers and Readers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Data Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Bar Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Radio Frequency Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Readers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Identifier Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 GS1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 EPCglobal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Paper-Based Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Bar Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 RFID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 IV. Practical Basis of Traceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Current Documentation in Supply Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Fishing Vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Fishing Vessel/Dealer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Fish Dealer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Fish Dealer/Producer/Distributor/Retailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Recall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Future Demands from Retailers & Federal Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Implementing Traceability System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 NC Industry Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 References and Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 1
  • 4. Acknowledgments For information and help in the preparation of this manuscript, the authors would like to thank: Barry Nash, Bob Hines and Ann Green of North Carolina Sea Grant; Julie Powers and Durita Nielsen from the North Carolina State University Seafood Laboratory; and Louis Daniel with the North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries. The research was supported by grant NA16RG2251 from North Carolina Sea Grant and grant XMOA-01-150-TDC from the National Fisheries Institutes Fisheries Scholarship Fund. Funding for editing and design was provided by the Seafood Technology and Safety Theme Team. The authors also would like to recognize North Carolina Cooperative Extension for their support of this project. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of North Carolina State University, the National Fisheries Institute, North Carolina Sea Grant or North Carolina Cooperative Extension. 2
  • 5. I. Introduction Food production and distribution in the United The U.S. initiated traceability in the food sup- States have been dramatically reshaped in the last ply chain after the terrorist attacks on the World three decades. A network of small, self-sufficient Trade Center on Sept. 11, 2