2. warm up 3. Topics to be covered 1) Why warm up? 2) What happens when you warm up? 3) How should you warm up? 4. Jones AM, Koppo K, Burnley M. Effects of prior exercise on metabolic and gas exchange responses to exercsie. Sports Med 2003; 33:949971. Bishop D. Warm up I: potential mechanisms and the effects of passive warm up on exercise performance. Sports Med 2003; 33:439-454. Bishop D. Warm up II: performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up. Sports Med 2003; 33:483-498. 5. Why warm up? 1) To prevent injury 2) To psychologically prepare for competition 3) To physiologically prepare for competition 6. Why NOT warm up? 1) Inconvenient 2) Because performance may actually be impaired due to: A) residual fatigue B) hyperthermia C) glycogen depletion 7. What happens when you warm up? Tm and Tr muscular strength muscular viscosity (slight) speed of muscle contraction maximal power (+10% per C when cycling at 140 rpm)HR, Q, and muscle blood flow overall speed of VO2 kinetics primary VO2 gain VO2 slow component decline in muscle pO2 glycogenolysis lactate accumulation iEMG 8. Effect of priming exercise on VO2 kinetics: upright vs. supineJones AM et al. J Appl Physiol 2006; 101:1432-1441 9. Energy metabolism during repeated 30 s sprints 10. Different types of warm up 1) Passive vs. active 2) Specific vs. non-specific 3) Scripted vs. free form 11. Effects of passive warm up on performance 1) Event duration 10 s: performance improved by up to 6% 2) Event duration 10 s to 5 min: performance not improved or may be impaired 3) Event duration 5 min: performance not improved or may be impaired 12. Effects of active warm up on performance 1) Event duration 10 s: performance improved by up to 6% 2) Event duration 10 s to 5 min: variable results 3) Event duration 5 min: variable results 13. Bishops recommendations for warm up 1) Duration: 10-20 min 2) Intensity: 60-70% of VO2max (75-85% of functional threshold power) 3) Recover for 5 min but 20 min 4) Performance may be further improved by insertion of brief, non-fatiguing bursts of a task-specific nature. 14. Factors influencing how much (if any) warm up is optimal 1) The athlete 2) The environment 3) The competition 15. Different types of warm up 1) Passive vs. active 2) Specific vs. non-specific 3) Scripted vs. self-selected 16. Sample scripted warm up used by German track cycling team 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)20 min at basic training intensity 5 min at evolution training intensity 20 min active recovery (self-selected intensity) 5 min at evolution training intensity 10 min at basic training intensity 20 min of rest or active recoveryWhere: Basic training = 50-60% of VO2max (65-75% of functional threshold power) Evolution training = Cadence-orientated track training with intensities around the anaerobic threshold Schumacher YO, Mueller P . The 4000-m team pursuit cycling world record: theoretical and practical aspects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34:1029-1036 17. Advantages of a scripted warm up 1) Assures adequate warm up 2) Can be confidence-inspiring 18. Disadvantages of a scripted warm up 1) Does not account for athlete, environment, or competition 2) Can undermine athletes confidence if unable to execute as planned 19. Variations in self-selected warm up among experienced cyclistsPalmer CD et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41:221-229 20. Effect of warm up on performance: individual differencesPalmer CD et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41:221-229 21. Differing approaches to warm up: an example 22. Did warm up make the difference?? 23. Summary and conclusions 1) Warm up may or may not improve performance. 2) Significant improvements in performance are more likely in short and intermediate vs. longer events. 24. Summary and conclusions (cont) 3) Improvements in performance over short durations likely due to increase in muscle temperature. 4) Improvements in performance over intermediate durations likely related to increased aerobic energy production early in exercise due to reduced metabolic inertia. 25. Summary and conclusions (cont) 5) Individuals may differ in how much warm up they require, and/or in how they need to warm up. 6) A self-selected warm up strategy may be just as effective as a scripted approach. 26. Summary and conclusions (cont) 7) Warm up may impair performance if it results in residual fatigue, hyperthermia, and/or premature glycogen depletion. 8) IOW, more is not always better!