Scada & hmi

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this is about scada system how it works and layout

Transcript of Scada & hmi

  • 1. Submitted To:-Submitted By :-Ramandeep Singh Gurvinder SinghAshish KapoorAmritpal SinghJugvinder Singh Sidhu

2. TABLE OF CONTENT1. What is SCADA?2. What is Telemetry?3. What is Data Acquisition?4. Differences between SCADA and DCS?5. Components of SCADA i. Field Instrumentationii. Remote Station iii. Communication Network iv.Central Monitoring System(CMS)6. Typical System Configuration7. Modes of Communication8. SCADA Example Application9. SCADA System Benefits10.Futuristic Technoogy for Scada- BAN11. LimitationsContinued. 3. 12. Human Machine Interface(HMI)i. Introduction ii. Terminologyiii. Definationiv.Goals13. HumanMachine Interaction14. Human Machine Interface15. Design Methodologies16. Thirteen Principles of Display Design17. Modalities And Modes18. Interaction Technique19. Human Interface Device20. Biblography 4. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition 5. What is SCADA?SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system refers to thecombination of telemetry and data acquisition. It consists of collectinginformation, transferring it back to a central site, carrying out necessary analysisand control, and then displaying this data on a number of operator screens.TheSCADA system is used to monitor and control a plant or equipment. Control maybe automatic or can be initiated by operator commands. SCADA systems were firstused in the 1960sSCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition. It generally refers toan industrial control system: a computer system monitoring and controlling aprocess. The process can be industrial, infrastructure or facility-based asdescribed below:Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, powergeneration, fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch,repetitive, or discrete modes.Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include watertreatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil andgas pipelines, electrical power transmission and distribution, Wind Farms,civil defense siren systems, and large communication systems.Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones, includingbuildings, airports, ships, and space stations. They monitor and controlHVAC, access, and energy consumption. 6. SCADA SoftwareThe supervisory computer consists of a PC running either Campbell ScientificsHMI software or another vendors software. InTouch, Intellution, Lookout, andother software packages can be used in conjunction with our OPC client/serversoftware application. Like other HMI software packages, our software provides agraphical interface that the operator uses to view the status of remote sites,acknowledge alarms, and control the units.What is Telemetry?Telemetry is usually associated with SCADA systems. It is a technique used intransmitting and receiving information or data over a medium. The information canbe measurements, such as voltage, speed or flow. These data are transmitted toanother location through a medium such as cable, telephone or radio. Informationmay come from multiple locations. A way of addressing these different sites isincorporated in the systemWhat is Data Acquisition?Data acquisition refers to the method used to access and control information or datafrom the equipment being controlled and monitored. The data accessed are thenforwarded onto a telemetry system ready for transfer to the different sites. They canbe analog and digital information gathered by sensors, such as flowmeter, ammeter,etc. It can also be data to control equipment such as actuators, relays, valves, motors,etc. 7. What are the differences betweenSCADA and DCS?Similar to the SCADA systems are the Distributed Control Systems (DCS). The DCS isusually used in factories and located within a more confined area. It uses a high-speedcommunications medium, such as local area network (LAN). A significant amount ofclosed loop control is present on the systemThe SCADA system coverslarger.geographical areas. It may rely on a variety of communication links such asradio and telephone. Closed loop control is not a high priority in this system.Supervision vs controlThere is, in several industries, considerable confusion over the differencesbetween SCADA systems and distributed control systems (DCS). Generallyspeaking, a SCADA system usually refers to a system that coordinates, but doesnot control processes in real time. The discussion on real-time control is muddiedsomewhat by newer telecommunications technology, enabling reliable, lowlatency, high speed communications over wide areas. Most differences betweenSCADA and DCS are culturally determined and can usually be ignored. Ascommunication infrastructures with higher capacity become available, thedifference between SCADA and DCS will fade. 8. Common system componentsA SCADAs System usually consists of the following subsystems:A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presentsprocess data to a human operator, and through this, the human operatormonitors and controls the process.A supervisory (computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the processand sending commands (control) to the process.Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) connecting to sensors in the process,converting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to thesupervisory system.Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs) used as field devices because theyare more economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable than special-purpose RTUs.Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to theRemote Terminal UnitsSystems conceptsThe term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and controlentire sites, or complexes of systems spread out over large areas (anythingbetween an industrial plant and a country). Most control actions are performedautomatically by Remote Terminal Units ("RTUs") or by programmable logiccontrollers ("PLCs"). Host control functions are usually restricted to basicoverriding or supervisory level intervention. For example, a PLC may control theflow of cooling water through part of an industrial process, but the SCADA systemmay allow operators to change the set points for the flow, and enable alarmconditions, such as loss of flow and high temperature, to be displayed andrecorded. The feedback control loop passes through the RTU or PLC, while theSCADA system monitors the overall performance of the loop. 9. Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level and includes meter readings andequipment status reports that are communicated to SCADA as required. Data isthen compiled and formatted in such a way that a control room operator usingthe HMI can make supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU (PLC)controls. Data may also be fed to a Historian, often built on a commodityDatabase Management System, to allow trending and other analytical auditing.SCADA systems typically implement a distributed database, commonly referred toas a tag database, which contains data elements called tags or points. A pointrepresents a single input or output value monitored or controlled by the system.Points can be either "hard" or "soft". A hard point represents an actual input oroutput within the system, while a soft point results from logic and mathoperations applied to other points. (Most implementations conceptually removethe distinction by making every property a "soft" point expression, which may, inthe simplest case, equal a single hard point.) Points are normally stored as value-timestamp pairs: a value, and the timestamp when it was recorded or calculated.A series of value-timestamp pairs gives the history of that point. Its also commonto store additional metadata with tags, such as the path to a field device or PLCregister, design time comments, and alarm information. 10. Human Machine InterfaceTypical Basic SCADA AnimationsA Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process datato a human operator, and through which the human operator controls theprocess.An HMI is usually linked to the SCADA systems databases and software programs,to provide trending, diagnostic data, and management information such asscheduled maintenance procedures, logistic information, detailed schematics fora particular sensor or machine, and expert-system troubleshooting guides.The HMI system usually presents the information to the operating personnelgraphically, in the form of a mimic diagram. This means that the operator can seea schematic representation of the plant being controlled. For example, a pictureof a pump connected to a pipe can show the operator that the pump is runningand how much fluid it is pumping through the pipe at the moment. The operatorcan then switch the pump off. The HMI software will show the flow rate of thefluid in the pipe decrease in real time. Mimic diagrams may consist of linegraphics and schematic symbols to represent process elements, or may consist ofdigital photographs of the process equipment overlain with animated symbols.The HMI package for the SCADA system typically includes a drawing program thatthe operators or system maintenance personnel use to change the way thesepoints are represented in the interface. These representations can be as simple asan on-screen traffic light, which represents the state of an actual traffic light in 11. the field, or as complex as a multi-projector display representing the position ofall of the elevators in a skyscraper or all of the trains on a railway.An important part of most SCADA implementations is alarm handling. The systemmonitors whether certain alarm conditions are satisfied, to determine when analarm event has occurred. Once an alarm event has been detected, one or moreactions are taken (such as the activation of one or more alarm indicators, andperhaps the generation of email or text messages so that management or remoteSCADA operators are informed). In many cases, a SCADA operator may have toacknowledge the alarm event; this may