Sausage  · Web view2019. 2. 1. · UNIT III. Definition: Charcuterie is the art of making...

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1 UNIT III Definition: Charcuterie is the art of making sausages and other cured, smoked and preserved meats. In addition to sausages, classic charcuterie items include pâtés, terrines, galantines , ballotines , confit and crèpinettes . Charcuterie is one of the principal categories of garde manger , which encompasses various classical techniques for preserving foods that date from an era before refrigeration. Originally, the word charcuterie was used to refer only to products made from pork. But today, the word charcuterie is used to describe any product prepared using these traditional methods, even ones made from poultry, fish, seafood or other meats. One of the characteristics of charcuterie recipes is its use of forcemeat . But familiar smoked or cured meats such as ham and bacon are technically within the purview of charcuterie. Charcuterie, from chair 'flesh' and cuit 'cooked') is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, such as bacon , ham , sausage , terrines , galantines , pâtés , and confit , primarily from pork . [1] Charcuterie is part of the garde manger chef 's repertoire. Originally intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, they are prepared today for their flavors derived from the preservation processes. [ Sausage Sausage-making Its name derived through French from the Latin sal, "salt", the sausage-making technique involves placing ground or chopped meats along with salt into a tube. The tubes can vary, but the more common animal-derived tubes include sheep, hog, or cattle intestinal linings. Additionally, animal stomachs and bladders, as well as edible artificial casings produced from collagen and inedible plant cellulose or paper are also used. Inedible casings are primarily used to shape, store, and age the sausage. The two main variants of sausage are fresh and cooked. Fresh sausages involve the production of raw meats placed into casings to be cooked at a later time, whereas

Transcript of Sausage  · Web view2019. 2. 1. · UNIT III. Definition: Charcuterie is the art of making...

UNIT III
Definition: Charcuterie is the art of making sausages and other cured, smoked and preserved meats. In addition to sausages, classic charcuterie items include pâtés, terrines, galantines , ballotines , confit and crèpinettes . Charcuterie is one of the principal categories of garde manger , which encompasses various classical techniques for preserving foods that date from an era before refrigeration. Originally, the word charcuterie was used to refer only to products made from pork. But today, the word charcuterie is used to describe any product prepared using these traditional methods, even ones made from poultry, fish, seafood or other meats. One of the characteristics of charcuterie recipes is its use of forcemeat . But familiar smoked or cured meats such as ham and bacon are technically within the purview of charcuterie.
Charcuterie, from chair 'flesh' and cuit 'cooked') is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, such as bacon , ham , sausage , terrines , galantines , pâtés , and confit , primarily from pork . [1] Charcuterie is part of the garde manger chef 's repertoire. Originally intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, they are prepared today for their flavors derived from the preservation processes. [
Its name derived through French from the Latin sal, "salt", the sausage-making technique involves placing ground or chopped meats along with salt into a tube. The tubes can vary, but the more common animal-derived tubes include sheep, hog, or cattle intestinal linings. Additionally, animal stomachs and bladders, as well as edible artificial casings produced from collagen and inedible plant cellulose or paper are also used. Inedible casings are primarily used to shape, store, and age the sausage. The two main variants of sausage are fresh and cooked. Fresh sausages involve the production of raw meats placed into casings to be cooked at a later time, whereas cooked sausages are heated during production and are ready to eat at the end of production. [6]
Emulsified sausage
Emulsified sausages are cooked sausages with a very fine texture, using the combination of pork, beef, or poultry with fat, salt, cure, flavorings, and water. These items are emulsified at high speed in a food processor or blender. During this process, the salt dissolves the muscle proteins, which helps to suspend the fat molecules. Temperature is an important part of the process: if the temperature rises above 60°F for pork or 70°F for beef, the emulsion will not hold and fat will leak from the sausage during the cooking process.
Fermented sausage
Fermented sausages are created by salting chopped or ground meat to remove moisture, while allowing beneficial bacteria to break down sugars into flavorful molecules. Bacteria, including Lactobacillus species and Leuconostoc species, break down these sugars to produce lactic acid , which not only affects the flavor of the sausage, but also lowers the pH from 6.0 to 4.5-5.0, preventing the growth of bacteria that could spoil the sausage. These effects are magnified during the drying process, as the salt and acidity are concentrated as moisture is extracted.
The ingredients found in a fermented sausage include meat, fat, bacterial culture, salt, spices, sugar and nitrite. Nitrite is commonly added to fermented sausages to prevent the formation of botulism -causing bacteria, while some traditional and artisanal producers avoid nitrites. Sugar is added to aid the bacterial production of lactic acid during the 18-hour to three-day fermentation process; the fermentation time depends on the temperature at which the sausage is stored: the lower the temperature, the longer the required fermentation period. A white mold and yeast sometimes adheres to the outside of the sausage during the drying process. This mold adds to the flavor of the sausage and aids in preventing harmful bacteria from attaching to the sausage. [17]
The two main types of fermented sausage are the dry, salted, spiced sausages found in warmer climates and fermented semidry sausages found in cooler, more humid climates. Since the dry sausages of the Mediterranean , in countries such as Italy , Spain , and Portugal contain 25-35% water and more than 4% salt, they may be stored at room temperature. The sausages of northern Europe usually contain less salt (around 3%) and 40-50% water, and as such do not dry well in the humid climate of countries such as Germany .
Forcemeat is a mixture of ground, lean meat emulsified with fat. The emulsification can be accomplished by grinding, sieving, or pureeing the ingredients. The emulsification may either be smooth or coarse in texture, depending on the desired consistency of the final product. Forcemeats are used in the production of numerous items found in charcuterie. Proteins commonly used in the production of forcemeats include pork , fish ( pike , trout , or salmon ), seafood , game meats ( venison , boar , or rabbit ), poultry , game birds , veal , and pork livers. Pork fatback is often used for the fat portion of forcemeat, as it has a somewhat neutral flavor. [ In US usage, there are four basic styles of forcemeat. Straight forcemeats are produced by progressively grinding equal parts pork and pork fat with a third dominant meat which can be pork or another meat. The proteins are cubed and then seasoned, cured, rested, ground and then placed into desired vessel. [4] Country-style forcemeats are a combination of pork, pork fat, often with the addition of pork liver and garnish ingredients. The finished product has a coarse texture. [4] The third style is gratin which has a portion of the main protein browned; the French term gratin connotes a "grated" product that is browned. [4] The final style is mousseline , which are very light in texture using lean cuts of meat usually from veal , poultry, fish, or shellfish. The resulting texture comes from the addition of eggs and cream to this forcemeat.
Pâté, terrine, galantine, roulade
Various pâtés and terrines
Pâté and terrines are often cooked in a pastry crust or an earthenware container. Both the earthenware container and the dish itself are called a terrine. Pâté and terrine are very similar: the term pâté often suggests a finer-textured forcemeat using liver, while terrines are more often made of a coarser forcemeat. The meats are chopped or ground, along with heavy seasoning, which may include fat and other proteins. The seasoning is important, as they will generally be served cold, which mutes the flavors. [7]
The mixture is placed into a lined mold, covered, and cooked in a water bath to control the temperature, which will keep the forcemeat from separating, as the water bath slows the heating process of the terrine. Pâté and terrine are generally cooked to 160°F (71°C), while terrine made of foie gras are generally cooked to an internal temperature of 120°F (59°C). After the proper temperature is reached, the terrine is removed from the oven and placed into a cooling unit topped with a weight to compact the contents of the terrine. Then it is allowed to rest for several days to allow the flavors to blend. [7]
Galantine is a chilled poultry product created after the French Revolution by the chef to the Marquis de Brancas . The term galant connotes urbane sophistication. Other origins are suggested: the older French word for chicken géline or galine or the word gelatin . Sources suggest the spelling of gelatin transformed into the words galentyne, galyntyne, galandyne, and galendine.
The galantine is prepared by skinning and boning a chicken or other poultry. The skin is laid flat, with the pounded breast laid on top. A forcemeat is then placed on top of the pounded breast. The galantine is then rolled with the ends of the breast meeting one another. The galantine is then wrapped in cheesecloth and poached in poultry stock until the proper internal temperature is reached. [8]
Roulade is similar to a galantine'. The two major differences are instead of rolling the poultry evenly for the ends of the breasts to meet, the bird is rolled into a pinwheel shape, and the roulade is cooled by chilling it after it has been removed from the poaching liquid
Casing, sausage casing, or sausage skin is the material that encloses the filling of a sausage . Casings are divided into two categories, natural and artificial. Artificial casings, such as collagen , cellulose , plastic , and extruded casings, are relatively new to the field, mainly borne of market demand during the technological advances of the early 20th century. [1]
Natural sausage casings (“casings”) are made from the sub-mucosa , a layer of the intestine that consists mainly of naturally occurring collagen. This should not be confused with collagen casings, which are artificially processed from collagen derived from the skins of cattle. Natural casings are derived from the intestinal tract of farmed animals, are edible and bear a close resemblance to the original intestine after processing. The outer fat and the inner mucosa lining are removed during processing.
Natural casings are traditional products that have been used in the production of meat specialties for centuries and have remained virtually unchanged in function and appearance and composition. Salt and water are all that is used for cleaning and preservation. Natural casings are the only casings that can be used in organic sausage production.
A large variety of sausage is produced world-wide using intestines of pigs, sheep, goats, cattle and sometimes horses. Although the intestines were previously flushed, scraped and cleaned by hand, more recently, machinery has been used for large scale production.
Artificial casings
Artificial casings are made of collagen, cellulose, or even plastic and may not be edible. Artificial casings from animal collagen can be edible, depending on the origin of the raw material.
Collagen
Collagen casings are mainly produced from the collagen in beef or pig hides, and the bones and tendons. It can also be derived from poultry and fish. They have been made for more than 50 years and their share of the market has been increasing. Usually the cost to produce sausages in collagen is significantly lower than making sausages in gut because of higher production speeds and lower labor requirements.
The collagen for artificial casings is processed extensively and, as a raw material, it is similar to bread dough prior to final production. It is then extruded through a die to the desired diameter, dried and shirred into short sticks up to 41 cm long that contain as much as 50m of casing. In a newer process, a form of dough is coextruded with the meat blend, and a coating is formed by treating the outside with a calcium solution to set the coating.
The latest generation of collagen casings are usually more tender than natural casings but do not exhibit the “snap” or “bite” of natural casing sausages. The biggest volume of collagen casings are edible, but a special form of thicker collagen casings is used for salamis and large caliber sausages where the casing is usually peeled off the sausage by the consumer. Collagen casings are permeable to smoke and moisture, are less expensive to use, give better weight and size control, and are easier to run when compared to natural casings.
Cellulose
Cellulose, usually from cotton linters, is similarly processed into a paste and extruded into clear, tough casings for making wieners and franks. They also are shirred for easier use and can be treated with dye to make "red hots". The casing is peeled off after cooking, resulting in "skinless" franks. Cellulose fibers are combined with wood pulp to make large diameter fibrous casings for bologna, cotto salami, smoked ham and other products sliced for sandwiches. This type is also permeable to smoke and water vapor. They can be flat or shirred, depending on application, and can be pretreated with smoke, caramel color, or other surface treatments.
Plastic casings
Plastic casings are extruded like most other plastic products. They also can be flat or shirred. Generally, smoke and water do not pass through the casing, so plastic is used for non-smoked products where high yields are expected. The inner surface can be laminated or co-extruded with a polymer with an affinity for meat protein causing the meat to stick to the film, resulting in some loss when the casing is peeled, but higher overall yield due to better moisture control. Plastic casings are not commonly used any more due to health hazards.
Sausage making originally developed as a means to preserve and transport meat . Primitive societies learned that dried berries and spices could be added to dried meat. By 600-500 BC there is mention of sausages from China, Rome and Greece. Sausages come in two main types: fresh and cured. Cured sausages may be either cooked or dried. Most cured sausages are smoked, but this is not mandatory. The curing process itself changes the meat and imparts its own flavors. An example is the difference in taste between a pork roast and a ham .
All smoked sausages are cured. The reason is the threat of botulism . The bacterium responsible, Clostridium botulinum , is ubiquitous in the environment, grows in the anaerobic conditions created in the interior of the sausage, and thrives in the 40 °F (4 °C) to 140 °F (60 °C) temperature range common in the smoke house and subsequent ambient storage. Thus, for safety reasons, sausages are cured before smoking.
Cures: sodium and potassium nitrite and nitrate
Making dry sausages involves curing salts , which incorporate sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate . Nitrites are used for all types of sausages and are the most common. Nitrates are used only in the preparation of the cured dry style of sausages. Over a period of time the nitrates are converted into nitrites by endogenous or added bacteria.
The human digestive system manufactures nitrites, which is thought to be what prevents botulism , which would thrive in the anaerobic conditions and temperature range of the digestive system ( gut ).The lack of nitrites has been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome .[ citation needed ]
Cured meat products typically contain less than 40 ppm w/w nitrites.
Potassium nitrite and potassium nitrate additions allow the production of sausages with lower levels of sodium. When using the potassium form, it is necessary to include other ingredients to mask the bitter flavours it imparts.
Old recipes use saltpetre which is not recommended. The primary reason is that often these old recipes contain many times more curing ingredients than are appropriate. Modern techniques are readily available and do a much better job.
In the sausage industry the nitrites and nitrates are pre-formulated into products called Prague powder#1 and Prague powder#2. Prague powder #1 contains 6.25% sodium nitrite and 93.75% sodium chloride and is used for the preparation of all cured meats and sausages other than the dry type. [1] Prague powder #2 contains 1 ounce of sodium nitrite (6.25%) and 0.64 ounces sodium nitrate (4.0%) per pound of finished product (the remaining 14.36 ounces is sodium chloride) and is used for the preparation of cured dry sausages. Prague powder #2 should never be used on any product that will be fried at high temperature (e.g. bacon ) because of the resulting formation of nitrosamines .
When using cure, it is very important to never exceed the recommended amount of 4 ounces of Prague powder #1 in 100 pounds of meat (2.5 g/kg). Equivalently this is 2 teaspoons for 10 pounds. Note that the maximum allowable amount of sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite is governed by regulations and is limited to 0.25 ounces per 100 pounds of chopped meat. Since Prague powder #1 is a 1:15 dilution (in a pound of Prague powder #1 one ounce is sodium nitrite and 15 ounces are common table salt), we get the proper amount at a rate of 4 ounces added to 100 lb (45 kg) of meat.
Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are limited to 2.75 ounces per 100 pounds.
Sodium and potassium nitrite are quite toxic to humans with the lethal dose being about 4 grams. As little as 22 mg/kg of body weight can cause death. This is about 2.2 grams for a body mass of 100 kg. Thus, there is enough sodium nitrite in 2 ounces of Prague powder #1 to kill a person.
Morton's Tenderquick is the brand name of another formulation of sodium nitrite, with salt and sugars added. It is not the same concentration as either "Prague powder #1 or #2". Since the amount of nitrite present in a recipe is essential for safety, one cannot take a recipe designed for Prague powder and simply substitute like amounts of such products as Morton's Tenderquick. To do so would invite the risk of botulism poisoning. Similarly, one cannot just substitute Prague powder #1 in place of Morton's Tenderquick. For any such substitutions, one must calculate the exact amount of nitrite required and make the proper adjustments.
Fresh sausages
Fresh sausages are simply seasoned ground meats that are cooked before serving. Fresh sausages normally do not use cure (Prague powder #1) although cure can be used if desired. In addition fresh sausages typically do not use smoke flavors, although liquid smoke can be used. Fresh sausages are never smoked in a cold smoker because of the danger of botulism .
The primary seasoning agents in fresh sausages are salt and sugar along with various savory herbs and spices, and often vegetables, including onion and garlic.
A British Fresh sausage typically contains around 10% butcher's rusk , 10% water, 2.5% seasoning , and 77.5% meat. [2] At point of sale British sausages will often be labelled as "actual meat content X%". As meat can be fatty or lean, the X% is calculated using reference tables with the intention to give a fairer representation of the "visual lean" meat content. [3]
Cured cooked sausages
Cured sausages differ from fresh sausages by including 2 teaspoons of cure (Prague powder #1) per 10 pounds of finished product. This is usually interpreted per 10 pounds of meat. This works out to 4 ounces of cure for 100 pounds of sausage.
Next the product is typically hot smoked. However, similar effects can be achieved by incorporating liquid smoke in the recipe. Smoking temperatures vary and are typically less than 155 degrees Fahrenheit (68 °C). At a temperature of 152 °F (67 °C) these sausages are fully cooked.
In some cases cold smoke is used. If so, then the sausage may be subsequently cooked in a water bath held at the proper temperature. An example of this process is the preparation of Braunschweiger . In this style of sausage, after stuffing into 2.75-inch (70 mm) to 3-inch (76 mm) hog buns or fiberous casings, the sausage is submerged in 160 °F (70 °C) water for 2 to 2½ hours until the internal temperature reaches 152 °F (67 °C). At this point the sausage should be chilled in ice water, then cold smoked at a temperature of 115 to 120 °F (46 to 49 °C) for 2–3 hours.
Cured dry sausages
Cured dry sausages are prepared in a fashion similar to cured cooked sausages. The major difference is that Prague powder #2 will be used in place of Prague powder #1. In addition, certified meats must be used. Since these products are never heated to a temperature that can kill trichinosis , it is necessary to accomplish this by other methods. The usual method is via freezing. Pork may be rendered acceptable for use in dry sausages by freezing it using the following guidelines:
5 °F (−15 °C)
6–12 days
The specific regulations are quite complex and are beyond the scope of this article.[ citation needed ] They depend on the thickness of the cuts of meat, the packaging method, and other factors. In addition there are very specific requirements as to the times in the drying rooms and the temperatures in the smoke rooms.
While it is quite feasible for the small sausage kitchen or hobbyist to produce excellent cured dry sausages, a great deal of technical information is required. Alternatively, certified pork can be simply purchased.
FILLING
Filling sausage casings will take a little practice, but the basic method is fairly simple. Cleaning your preparation area and gathering all of your equipment before you start will help focus your attention on the stuffing procedure. Having a friend help you, at least the first time, isn't a bad idea either. Remember that you will be working with raw meat and keep food safety at the top of the list.
Instructions
· Twine (optional)
· Scissors
· Toothpicks
Separate several sausage casings from the package and place them in a large bowl. It will take practice to know how many casings you need for the amount of meat you have. Start with a large amount; the leftover casings can be stored and reused.
Soak the casings in lukewarm water for several minutes. Drain, refill the soaking bowl and soak for at least 45 more minutes.
Prepare your apparatus for stuffing while the casings soak. You may have a small home machine for this purpose, or a food processor with a sausage-making attachment. If you have neither, use a piping bag that you would use for cake frosting. Use the largest tip you have for the bag.
Remove the sausage meat from the refrigerator about 10 minutes before stuffing. The meat should be a bit above room temperature to keep it safe and easy to work with. If it has been frozen, make sure it is completely thawed as any frozen material can split the casings.
Take each casing out of the bowl and flush water through it. Place it back in the bowl of water. You will be pulling casings out of this bowl when stuffing the sausage.
Fill your sausage maker, food processor or piping bag with the sausage meat.
Tie off one end of the casing with a double knot and place the open end over the nozzle of the tube on the food processor or the piping bag. If you are using a piping bag, have a friend help you hold the casing in place while you squeeze the sausage meat through the bag.
Fill the casing with the sausage meat, taking care not to make it so tight that it will burst through. This will take practice, and you may go through a couple of casings before you get the feel of it. Fill the entire casing and tie off the other end.
Make links by either tying off lengths of sausage with twine or pinching and twisting the casing. You can make the links as long or as short as you like. Cut them with kitchen scissors once both ends have been tied. Prick each link with a toothpick to release any trapped air.
 
FORCEMEATS
One of the basic components of charcuterie and gardemanger items is apreparation known as a forcemeat. A forcemeat is a lean meat and fat emulsion that is established when the ingredients are processed together by grinding ,sieving, or puréeing. Depending on the grinding and emulsifying methods and the intended use, the forcemeat may have a smooth consistency or may be heavily textured and coarse. The result must not be just a mixture but an emulsion, so that it will hold together properly when sliced. Forcemeats should have a rich and pleasant taste and feel in the mouth.
COMPONENTS OF FORCE MEATS
Meats:
It is the major component of the forcemeat. The type of meat included is pork, veal, beef, poultry, fish, lamb, and game. Pork is often included in the forcemeats because pork has a neutral flavour that can easily take the flavour of the dominant meat. It also has high degree of water retention, which aids in the production of moist forcemeats. Pork is also cheaper than other meats .Quality of meat will determine the quality of forcemeat. The body and structure of the product depends on the meat for the matrix of protein in which the fat particles of the forcemeats are suspended. The variation in the colouring of theforcemeats is the result of colouring properties of the dominant meat
Fat:
fats generally contributes flavour to the forcemeats. It also contributes binding power and texture to the forcemeats. Pork fat is considered best as it is economical, has neutral flavour and has the ideal melting point for production of the forcemeat. Lamb fat is hard and has a strong flavour therefore it is limited tofew preparation of lamb. 
Egg:
 The major contribution of the egg in forcemeat preparation is to give binding power and firmer texture. Eggs are not used in sausage making.
Seasoning:
 
Mixing can be done by beating the forcemeat with a rubber spatula or wooden spoon over an ice bath, in a mixer, or in a food processor. Care should be to NOT over mix, especially when you use a machine. Be careful not to overloadthe bowl. Depending on the amount of product, one to three minutes at the lowest speed should be sufficient. The forcemeat’s colour and texture will change slightly when it is properly mixed. Mixing in a food processor is very fast and provides a smoother texture. Most food processors handle relatively small batches. It is critical to keep an eye on the forcemeat as it processes. Your forcemeat can go from properly processed to over worked in a matter of seconds. This can cause pockets or bubbles to form in the item you are preparing, a distraction on a plated item presented to a guest and grounds for losing points in competition work.
Testing a forcemeat
Forcemeats are poached directly in a liquid (as for galantines, roulades, orquenelles) or in a water bath (terrines), or baked in a crust (pâté en croûte). You can only be sure of the quality of the forcemeat after it is cooked, and the method below for testing a forcemeat will give you an opportunity to evaluate T he quality, seasoning, and texture. The test portion itself will not taste or feel exactly the same as the finished product, since it is a general practice to allow the forcemeat items to rest two or three days before they are served. However, with experience, you can train your palate to recognize the evidence of quality or to detect a flaw in a forcemeat. This is the same taste memory, built up through experience and practice, that permits a cellar master to foretell with some accuracy the qualities a wine willhave when it is mature, even when the wine is actually far too young to drink .If the texture is poor, evaluate just what kind of problem you have. Rubbery forcemeat can be improved by adding more fat and cream. Loose forcemeat, on the other hand, may be improved by adding egg whites or a bit of panada. However, take into account whether or not the item will be pressed or coated with aspic before you make a dramatic change.
Straight forcemeat
 This basic forcemeat is used to prepare pâtés, terrines, and galantines. It is generally made by grinding the meat and fat through a medium plate, then further processing it in a mixer or food processor .Process the ground meat with any additional ingredients. An egg may be added to the forcemeat to give a better bind. A quantity of heavy cream may also be included in some recipes to give the forcemeat a smooth texture and a richer flavour, if desired .Once the forcemeat is tested and any adjustments to seasoning or consistency have been made, you may add garnish ingredients. This may be done in the by hand, working over an ice bath to keep the forcemeat properly chilled. Straight forcemeats may be used to fill a pâté en croûte, or to prepare terrines and galantines.
Country-style forcemeat
Country-style forcemeats are less refined in texture and heartier in flavor than others and are traditionally made from pork and pork liver. The texture of this forcemeat is achieved by grinding the pork through a coarse die, then reserving most of this coarse grind. If desired, a portion of the ground meat may be ground again through a medium die before the forcemeat is blended with its panada and processed as for a straight forcemeat. The coarsely ground meat as well as the processed forcemeat is then combined. Because at least part of the forcemeat is left as a coarse grind, a panada is almost always included to help the finished product hold together after cooking.
Gratin forcemeat
A gratin forcemeat is similar to a straight forcemeat, with the exception of theway in which the main meat is handled. The meat is very quickly seared—justenough to enhance the flavor and color, but not enough to cook it through. Themeat is changed enough by the searing that a panada is required to helpproduce the desired texture. The first step is to sear the meat. Get the pan or grill very hot, sear the meat onall sides as quickly as possible, and just as quickly cool it down. The best way to accomplish this is to work in small batches and to avoidcrowding the meat in the pan. Remove it to a sheet pan, and cool it quickly inthe refrigerator or freezer. An optional step is to prepare an aromatic reductionto flavour the forcemeat.Follow the same procedure for grinding as for a straight forcemeat, and processit with a panada and any additional ingredients as suggested or required by therecipe. Be sure to test the forcemeat properly before continuing to add thegarnish ingredients.Gratin forcemeats can be used in the same general applications as straightforcemeats.
Mousseline forcemeat
Although individual recipes will differ, the formula shown below for mousseline forcemeat works as an excellent starting point. The amount of cream indicated will produce a good texture for terrines and other forcemeat items that will be sliced
When preparing a mousseline forcemeat, you may simply dice the main ingredients and proceed to grind them in the food processor, or you may wish to grind the main ingredient through a coarse or medium plate before processing it with an egg white. When using shellfish, it is important to keep in mind that some types of shellfish, such as lobster and wet pack sea scallops, retain more moisture than others and therefore require less cream than the standard ratio indicates. Process the meat and salt just long enough to develop a paste with an even texture. Add the egg white, followed by the cream. In order to blend the mousseline properly, it is important to scrape down the bowl. Continue processing only until the forcemeat is smooth and homogenous, generally around thirty seconds. Optional: For a very light mousseline, you may prefer to work the cream in by hand. and work in small batches to prevent the forcemeat from heating up as you ine