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Satellite bathymetry and other satellite derived data Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Rene Forsberg, Roberto Saldo, & Henning Skriver

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  • Satellite bathymetry and

    other satellite derived data

    Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Rene Forsberg,

    Roberto Saldo, & Henning Skriver

  • Space and the Arctic

    Two major meetings were held in March 2012:

    Space for the Arctic '12

    IAP Applications for the Arctic Workshop

    to discuss the contribution of space technologies to one of

    the regions most affected by climate change. Co-

    organised by Arctic nations, ESA and EC.

    Space systems offer opportunities for monitoring

    the environment, facilitating navigation and

    communications, enhancing marine safety and

    supporting sustainable exploitation of national

    resources. Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA Director

    General.

  • Space and the Arctic

    Both meetings focused on the objectives:

    1. To identify operational user needs in the Arctic region.

    2. To help to establish operational services in the Arctic

    in areas where integrated applications are relevant:

    a) Oil and Gas.

    b) Shipping

    c) Fishing.

    d) Search and Rescue.

    e) Telemedicine.

    f) Tourism

    3. ..

  • Space and the Arctic

    Several specific recommendations that should be taken up

    by the Arctic stakeholders came out of Space for the

    Arctic 2012, including

    higher bandwidth satellite telecommunication channels,

    improved satellite-based navigation systems, and

    trans-Arctic monitoring of sea ice and icebergs

    to increase safety of navigation.

  • Space and the Arctic

    Gaps have been identified that have to be addressed to

    support the policies and commitments of European and

    Canadian states and the EU in the Arctic:

    Secure the implementation of the GMES programme

    Act to ensure High bandwidth communications

    Investigate means such as Galileo Arctic test-bed to

    ensure High reliability navigation above 75N

    Ensure continuity and development of Arctic

    meteorology and space weather

    Collaboration and partnership are fundamental with the

    development or improvements of networks

  • Developing satellite based

    infrastructures for the Arctic

    Galileo a GNSS including a ground system to

    ensure:

    Positioning with integrity information

    Search & Rescue

    GMES - Actual, reliable, standardised

    information about the environment based on

    Earth observation and in-situ data:

    MyOcean the marine GMES service

    Safer emergency management

  • Galileo - components

    30 satellites at 23,200 km altitude

    A series of control stations on

    ground (RIMS)

    5 frequencies, 10 navigations

    signals, and Search-and-Rescue

    EC / European GNSS Agency +

    operators

    Service providers

    Users

  • Galileo services

    Galileo is designed for 5 different services, targeting different user segments:

    Open Service freely available for all

    Safety of Life higher quality and integrity, increased security

    Commercial Service - for professional users, high quality and service guaranty

    Public Regulated Service - Encrypted og robust to jamming

    Search and Rescue (SAR) Emergency signals and supporting rescue operations.

  • Galileo implementation

    On 21.October 2011 the first two

    Galileo IOV satellites were launched.

    The next two will follow on 12/10 2012.

    18 satellites and FOC-1 in 2015.

    24+ satellitter and FOC in 2019.

  • Galileo Arctic Testbed

    Project in the European GNSS Evolutions Programme:

    The objective is to develop and deploy an Arctic

    TestBed to support Galileo services over ARCTIC

    regions.

    Lead: Kongsberg Seatex

    Supported by Kartverket, U Calgary, and DTU (develop

    net of ground stations, improve iono models, and

    testing)

    2012-2014

  • Earth observation

    Develop GMES:

    Explore missions, such as GOCE and

    Cryosat-2

    Develop applications and products

    Establish services, such as MyOcean

    Operate observation networks

    Sentinels

    In-situ

    Operational soon..

  • Satellite bathymetry

    Information about the bathymetry may be

    derived from:

    High resolution images,

    Lasers (air borne demos),

    Radars:

    SAR (wave studies),

    Altimeters (gravity inversion).

  • Coastlines

    E.g. GRASS (a small Danish company) offer analyses of

    coastline changes.

    Recently declassified US spy satellite images combined

    with modern high resolution satellite images, provides long

    time series of coastal development.

    This will allow an analysis of coastline changes in the

    period 1960-2005 and an accuracy of app. 15 metres.

    Higher accuracies can be obtained with SPOT which is

    available in the period 1986 to present. In this way

    accuracies can be within 5 metres.

    Using QuickBird data with a spatial resolution of 60 cm,

    the results are comparable to aerial photography.

  • Coastlines

    Contain information about bathymetry, obviously.

  • Satellite bathymetry

    Fugro NPA have extensive experience of

    bathymetric mapping using satellite imagery in

    shallow water areas.

  • Satellite bathymetry

    WorldView-2 from DigitalGlobe provide 1.84 m resolution multi-spectral

    imagery, plus a Coastal Blue detector focused on the 400 450

    nanometer spectral range.

    With the Coastal Blue band included it is be possible to calculate depths

    up to 20 m and potentially as deep as 30 m, by measuring relative

    absorption of the Coastal Blue, Blue and Green bands.

  • Laser bathymetry air-borne

    Infrared laser .. surface

    Green laser ... Sea bottom .. Down to 2-50 m

    Theoretical sea surface: geoid (gravity field

    equipotential surface ... If known green ok)

    Commercial systems:

    Optech-Shoals (Canada)

    LADS (Australia)

    Hawk-Eye (Sweden/UK)

  • Commercial systems

  • New instrument #1:

    Photon counting SigmaSpace icemapper

    (prototype for proposed NASA Jupiter moon

    mission

    10x more effective than present systems (less

    power needed)

    3 cm accuracy in timing, 2000 m+ flight elev

    15 deg scanning

    60 kg in rack

    Flown in Antarctica Feb 2011

    Solution for Arctic bathymetry needs ? Laser tests in Antarctica (Univ. of Texas / DTU-Space)

  • Laser bathymetry air-borne

    NOAA's contractors use LIDAR to collect near shore

    bathymetry in Alaska, the North Atlantic Coast and the

    Caribbean. Future developments include improving object

    detection capabilities to better identify near shore hazards

    to navigation.

    Depending on water clarity, these systems can reach

    depths of 50 meters.

  • Satellite bathymetry - radars

    Using geophysical methods space-borne radars

    may be used:

    SAR or other imaging radars to study waves:

    Changes in wavelengths due to shallow

    waters

    (no examples)

    Altimeters measuring marine geoid undulations:

    Changes in gravity due to changes in

    bathymetry such as reefs and sea mounts.

  • Principle of using Gravity to predict Bathymetry

    (From Sandwell/Smith)

    Satellite bathymetry - altimetry

  • High Quality MSS/Gravity field can be used to map bathymetry.

    Using Spectral sepration throught filtering (20 and 120 km)

    Adjusting wavelength 20 km 120 km based on DNSC08 gravity

    optimizing coherency (outside these bands GEBCO-1 is used)

    Adjusting depth where GEBCO-1 > 100 meters.

    (Figure from Sandwell/Smith)

    Satellite bathymetry - altimetry

  • Comparison with Polar Stern Bathymetry

    11.981 obs Std Dev.

    (meters)

    Max difference

    (meters)

    ETOPO 5 (5 minute) 531 3014

    ETOPO 2 (2 minute)

    (Altimetry enhanced)

    243 1642

    GEBCO 1 minute 201 1792

    DNSC08 1 minute 132 1188

    Survey example around Antarctica

  • GEBCO-1 Global Bathymetry

  • On satellite bathymetry

    None of the (space-based) methods described

    above may work:

    as stand-alone hydrographic surveying tools,

    in areas covered by sea ice.

    Satellite based method may support the

    hydrographic mapping by identifying areas of

    interest.

  • Other relevant satellite data

    ESA Explore missions:

    GOCE:

    Gravity for ocean circulation

    SMOS:

    Salinity

    Cryosat:

    Sea ice also thickness

    Ocean topography/geoid

  • Sea ice thickness from Cryosat

  • MyOcean services

    MyOcean provide products for

    Maritime safety

    Marine resources

    Coastal and marine environment

    Weather, climate and seasonal forecasting

    Examples:

    Temperature

    Salinity

    Currents

    Sea level

    Sea ice

  • Seaice.dk - 5-10-2012

  • Seaice.dk 5-4-2012

  • Seaice.dk 5-9-2012

  • Space and the Arctic

    Gaps have been identified that have to be addressed to

    support the policies and commitments of European and

    Canadian states and the EU in the Arctic:

    Secure the implementation of the GMES programme

    Act to ensure High bandwidth communications

    Investigate means such as Galileo Arctic test-bed to

    ensure High reliability navigation above 75N

    Ensure continuity and development of Arctic

    meteorology and space weather

    Collaboration and partnership are fundamental with the

    development or improvements of networks