Sander Protein Skimmers

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Transcript of Sander Protein Skimmers

  • Sander Aquarium Systems

    Protein Skimmers



  • For more than 50 years, Erwin Sander Elektroapparatebau GmbH has been

    developing and producing innovative products for the water treatment in

    seawater aquaria.

    Founded in 1961 by Erwin Sander, the company initially developed and produced

    small ozone generators for water treatment in seawater aquaria. In the following

    years, looking for an efficient reactor to introduce ozone into the system, Erwin

    Sander developed and constructed his first protein skimmer.

    In 1971, the company won a contract to redesign the aquarium of the Institute for

    Marine Science in Kiel: two recirculation systems of 40 m3 each were equipped

    with protein skimmers and ozone technology. This event was a milestone in the

    companys history: the transition from serving the hobby aquarist to working for

    public and show aquaria as well, with water volumes of several cubic meters.

    Expanding towards bigger and more complex water treatment systems for public

    show aquaria in the 80s and 90s opened a world-wide market for Sander.

    In 2000, the production of skimmers for freshwater aquaria began, and ozone

    treatment of pond installations was expanded.

    Sander means:2

  • In 2009, facing world-wide demand in energy savings and higher efficiency in

    order to reduce production and running costs, Sander developed a new generation

    of protein skimmers: the Helgoland LE range. LE is short for Low Energy these

    skimmers feature an integrated system for the production and blending-in of

    bubbles that offers increased efficiency and reduced power consumption.

    Today, Sanders skimmers are in use in domestic environments as well as in large

    and public show aquaria all over the world. In recent years, development efforts

    have resulted in skimmers of various sizes and enclosure materials.

    Many applications benefit from sophisticated water treatment using Sanders

    advanced skimmers including fish farming and pisciculture systems,

    transportation of fish on wellboats, aquaculture, and scientific research.

    50+ Years of Aquarium Systems3

  • Working principle of Sanders protein skimmers

    Sanders skimmers use very fine air bubblesas the central filtration element. An active

    zone builds up on the bubble surface, to which protein compoundsadhere very easily

    due to their molecular structure. These form two molecular ends a hydrophobic moiety

    which attaches to the bubble surface, and a hydrophilic moiety which reaches into the

    surrounding body of water. Various pollutants, in turn, accumulate around the hydrophilic

    part in particular, organic materials such as bacteria , viruses and other pollutant

    particles .

    A conglomerate of air bubble, protein molecules and pollutants forms and floats to the

    water surface due to the bubbles buoyant force. The protein compounds surface activity

    causes a firm foam structure to build up, enclosing the pollutants. This foam is discharged

    via the foam tube. In this way, pollutants are removed not only from the aquarium, but

    completely from the water cycle.

    In this way, the protein skimmer opens a window in the cycle of materials. This fact

    distinguishes the protein skimmer substantially from any other mechanical filter.

    Left: Air bubbles, protein

    compounds and pollutants

    including bacteria and viruses.

    Center: Protein compounds attach

    to the air bubbles.

    Right: Pollutants attach to the

    protein compounds and form a






















  • Substances that may be removed from the water using protein skimming:

    Protein compounds

    Various organic compounds

    Reduction of bod and cod (biological and chemical oxygen demand)

    cod in the foam is concentrated by a factor of about 100

    Precursors of the toxins, ammonium and nitrite

    Fine suspended solids

    Residual feed and feces

    Bacterial biomass and microalgae

    metabolic products from the biofilter

    Sander protein skimmers are ideal reaction vessels for the application of ozone. All

    Sander protein skimmers are equipped with an ozone inlet. The use of ozone supports and

    enhances the effiency of the skimming process and offers valuable benefits including

    oxidation of nitrite, degermination and formation of stable foam.

    The beaker on the left contains

    clear water from the aquarium

    (the so-called process water).

    On the right, the beaker is filled

    with water from the foam head.


  • Gas balance

    Sander protein skimmers effectively enhance the cycle of gases in the water. Animals

    breathe oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This reduces the waters pH. In the skimmer,

    carbon dioxide is largely blown out, and oxygen is re-introduced. The water from the

    skimmers outlet is constantly slightly oversaturated with oxygen.

    Interaction with other filter elements

    Sander protein skimmers

    substantially enhance the efficacy of biofilters,

    remove metabolic products from biofilters,

    are ideally suited for the application of ozone,

    lengthen the intervals between backwash procedures for sand filters,

    are optimal for safely recycling outlet water from anaerobic biology (denitrification),

    increase the amount of light incidence throughout the entire spectrum.

    Highest efficiency

    Sander protein skimmers operate at the highest level of efficiency.

    The image above shows an example filter set-up (3D rendering) from an aquaculture



  • Aquarium hobbyists, specialist retailers, large show aquaria, research and

    development, as well as fish farms and aquaculture systems many users and

    applications benefit from clear water.

    Sander protein skimmers are in use for a wide range of animals including small, delicate

    invertebrates (e. g. corals); shellfish (e. g. crabs); chondrichthyes (e. g. sharks and rays);

    osteichthyes (e. g. wrasses and seahorses); penguins, as well as mammals (e. g. seals and

    polar bears).

    Marine aquaculture for food fish, and fish farms are other areas of application for which

    Sander protein skimmers are ideal.

    In fish hatcheries, Sander protein skimmers can provide the desired water quality for eggs,

    larvae and fingerlings.


  • Parts of a Sander protein skimmer

    The various components of a Sander skimmer are inspected and carefully assembled by

    our expert staff , who pay great attention to detail. A standard Sander protein skimmer is

    equipped with the parts shown here.

    Water inlet

    The water inlet is located at the top of the reaction

    vessel. Water flows through the reaction vessel from

    top to bottom.

    Manhole for maintenance

    Beginning with Helgoland model 1000, our skimmers

    are equipped with a manhole. This provides easy

    access to the reaction vessel for maintenance and

    inspection work.


    The standpipe displays the water level in the reaction

    vessel. This standpipe is also used in skimmers with

    automatic water level control (optional feature):

    A pressure sensor measures the water level in the

    skimmer and sends this information to the control

    electronics. When the water level in the skimmer

    becomes too high, the outlet valve is automatically

    opened until the water has dropped to the correct

    level. When the water level is too low, the outlet

    valve is automatically closed until the default level

    is reached. This ensures that the skimmer operates

    steadily, even under diffi cult conditions such as

    hydrodynamic fluctuations.

    Drain valve

    Using this valve, the skimmer can be completely

    emptied of water easily, e. g. for maintenace.

    Inner irrigator

    A rotating system of nozzles inside the foam tube is

    used to cleanse the tube, using pressurized water.

    The edge of the foam tube is cleaned by a scrubber.

    Foam head

    The foam ejected from the foam tube is collected in

    the foam head.

    Inner irrigatorInner irrigator

    A rotating system of nozzles inside the foam tube is

    Foam head

    The foam ejected from the foam tube is collected in

    Water inlet

    The water inlet is located at the top of the reaction


    The standpipe displays the water level in the reaction

    Manhole for maintenance

    Beginning with Helgoland model 1000, our skimmers

    Drain valve

    Using this valve, the skimmer can be completely


  • Reaction vessel

    For best results when making use of the counterflow

    principle, reaction containers are adequately sized

    to allow for a retention time of 1.5 to 2 minutes (in

    normal operation).

    Injection unit

    The injection unit is made up of the feed water pump

    and the injector.

    The injector provides a vacuum that causes air to be

    drawn into the water. The required amount of air may

    be controlled and monitored using an air flow meter.

    The injector is designed to ensure a steady stream of

    fi ne air bubbles.

    The feed water pumps are made from seawater-

    resistant plastic.

    Foam tube

    Foam is transported and ejected through the foam

    tube. The pollutant-r