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separation technologyAn Technologies Subsidiary

leading

in

technology

SEPARATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

1

Information Bulletins

SPIRAFLOWTM Cyclone CDS-Gasunie Inlet CycloneTM CDS-Gasunie Cyclone ScrubberTM CDS-Statoil DegasserTM Vane Pack Miscellaneous Internals R&D and Flow Visualisation Computational Fluid Dynamics

2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10

Case Studies

SPIRAFLOWTM Demisting Cyclone Vane Pack vs Cyclone CDS-Gasunie Inlet CycloneTM (Liquid/liquid separation) CDS-Gasunie Inlet CycloneTM (Defoaming) CDS-Gasunie Cyclone ScrubberTM CDS-Statoil DegasserTM

11 13 15 16 17 18

Contact Details

19

INTRODUCTIONpage one CDS Separation Technology in a nutshell CDS designs and develops state-of-the-art separators. Over the years, we have established a reputation for supplying highly innovative separation solutions to the offshore industry. A reputation that reflects our ability to increase separator throughput, reduce extraction costs and prolong the profitable exploration of depleted oil fields.

Our objective is to make the oil extraction process more efficient and less expensive. In pursuit of this objective, we are able to draw on unparalleled expertise, advanced in-house test facilities, the latest CFD tools and fundamental research. As you might expect, CDS has also implemented a comprehensive quality management system that complies with ISO 9001:2000 standards. In September 2003 FMC Technologies acquired a controlling interest in CDS.

As quality separation solutions are based on a thorough understanding of your process parameters, we make every effort to encourage and facilitate a close working relationship with our customers. Moreover, as hundreds of customers around the world will testify, we are dedicated to providing you with a highly efficient and cost-effective solution, no matter how diverse your requirements may be.

This brochure describes our technology, research capabilities and products. Should you require additional information, please feel free to contact us. Our contact details are found on the back of this brochure.

SPIRAFLOWTM CYCLONEpage two The CDS SPIRAFLOWTM cyclone provides a high separation efficiency of fine droplets and foam even at high operating pressures. It can be positioned either vertically or horizontally within a vessel and due to its high capacity it is ideal for the revamping of vessels. For new built applications the vessel size with these internals can be substantially reduced leading to considerable vessel cost and weight savings. The SPIRAFLOWTM cyclone is very efficient for low and high pressure applications and with low surface tension liquids.

Operating Principle Mist enters the cyclone and flows through the stationary swirl element causing an intense gas rotation. Droplets are separated by the subsequent centrifugal action and are coalesced into a liquid film on the cyclone inner wall. This liquid film is purged out of the cyclone by a combination of the rotating flow and the secondary gas flow. The secondary gas flow is then recombined with the main flow through a pipe leading to the centre of the cyclone.

Operating Characteristics Separates all mist droplets > 5m (Atmospheric conditions).

Vane/SPIRAFLOW 80 Efficiency Comparison

Droplet Size for 100% separation (microns)

CDS 350 VaneAtm. Cond.

CDS 250 VaneGas 60 kg/m3 - Liquid 600 kg/m3

SPIRAFLOW cyclone

CDS-GASUNIE INLET CYCLONETMpage three The CDS-Gasunie Inlet CycloneTM can be used for the following services: Foam breaking. High liquid / liquid separation efficiency. Degassing. High inlet momentums.

Even at high inlet momentums (up to 65,000 kg/ms2) field trials have proved that both liquid / liquid separation and defoaming capabilities are improved using this device making it ideal for retrofit applications. For new built vessels both the size of the inlet piping and vessel can be reduced thus providing an overall compact solution.

Operating Principle The optimised blade geometry brings the combined phase into rotation with minimum shear. The resulting centrifugal force moves the liquid and solid particles towards the cyclone wall, where they form a liquid film that flows to the bottom of the cyclone. The gas leaves the cyclone through the central vortex finder. The baffles in the bottom of the cyclone stop the rotation of the liquid, and a blocking plate prevents liquids from being entrained into the gas. In this way it is ensured, that no gas carryunder or liquid carryover can occur.

Advantages Enables the debottlenecking of both liquid and gas constrained vessels. Not susceptible to fouling. Excellent slug handling capabilities. High turndown.

CDS-GASUNIE CYCLONE SCRUBBERTMpage four The CDS-Gasunie Cyclone ScrubberTM can be used for separation of liquids (water, hydrocarbon, glycol, etc.) from gases (natural gas and other), for the protection of downstream equipment (compressors, gas turbines, flow meters, etc.). Solid particles (dust, sand, etc.) will also be removed, making the scrubber suitable for use as a gas wellhead separator.

Operating Principle The optimised blade geometry brings the combined phase into rotation. The resulting centrifugal force moves the liquid and solid particles towards the vessel wall, where they form a liquid film that flows to the bottom of the vessel. The gas leaves the vessel through the central vortex finder connected to the gas outlet nozzle. The baffles in the bottom of the vessel stop the rotation of the liquid, and a blocking plate prevents liquids from being entrained into the gas. In this way it is ensured, that no gas carryunder or liquid carryover can occur.

Advantages Results in small size and low weight as a result of high allowable gas load factor. It is therefore especially attractive for offshore applications. Maintenance friendly: No small channels or downcomer pipes that are prone to fouling. Excellent slug handling capabilities. High turndown. Available as retrofit package. Over 200 references in a wide variety of applications.

Demister Gas Capacity Comparison

Gas Load Factor (m/s)

Mesh

CDS 350 Vane

CDS 250 Vane

SPIRAFLOW Cyclone

CDS-Gasunie Cyclone

Gas 60 kg/m3 - Liquid 600 kg/m3

CDS-STATOIL DEGASSERTMpage five The CDS-Statoil DegasserTM is an inline device that separates gas from liquid. It has no moving parts and requires no power. Due to a very effective but simple control system it has a very high separation efficiency regardless of flow fluctuations. The separation efficiency is above 99.5% of gas from liquid, while the separated gas is 100% free of liquid.

The diameter of the Degasser is generally the same as the line into which it will be installed. Due to this and the fact that it can be certified as a piece of pipe as opposed to a pressure vessel the installation cost is low and maintenance is minimal.

An 18-inch degasser for a produced water line. Capacity water 60,000 Sm3/d; gas 98,000 Sm3/d

In the Degasser gas and liquid are separated when the multiphase fluid enters the separator where a stationary swirl element causes the flow to rotate. This rotation forces the liquid to flow along the outer wall and the gas to flow in the centre. The gas is removed from the centre into a scrubber section along with a portion of the liquid for control purposes. This control liquid subsequently rejoins the main liquid flow leaving the Degasser after the main flow has passed through an antiswirl element, intended to provide pressure recovery and to prevent downstream vibrations.

Applications: Increases the capacity of existing separators by taking out the gas upstream of them. An 11-inch test degasser. Capacity water 9,600 Sm3/d; gas 15,700 Sm3/d Reduces the size of new separator vessels. Debottlenecking of multiphase lines. Debottlenecking of gas limited facilities.

Advantages: In-line. No (big) vessels necessary. Low installation costs. Minimal maintenance costs. Very flexible to flow fluctuations. Separation of gas from liquid > 99.5%. Separated gas is 100% free of liquid. The gas can go straight to compression or to flare without further processing.

VANE PACKpage six CDS offers a complete range of efficient vane packs including the single and double pocket 200 series vanes for horizontal flow and 300 series vanes for vertical flow.

CDS 350

CDS 250

CDS 230 Operating Principle The mist laden gas passes through the parallel vane plates and is forced to change direction several times. The mist droplets are separated by the subsequent centrifugal forces and are collected on the vane blades. This coalesced liquid film is then removed through slits or pockets into a liquid sump and drained to the liquid compartment of the vessel.

Operating Characteristics Separates all mist droplets > 8m (Atmospheric conditions). Maximum pressure drop = 9 mbar.

Demister Gas Capacity Comparison

Gas Load Factor (m/s)

Mesh

CDS 350 Vane

CDS 250 Vane

SPIRAFLOW Cyclone

CDS-Gasunie Cyclone

Gas 60 kg/m3 - Liquid 600 kg/m3

MISCELLANEOUS INTERNALSpage seven Perforated Distribution Baffle In order to achieve an efficient gas / liquid and liquid / liquid separation in horizontal vessels it is important to have a quiescent flow regime along the length of the vessel. This is accomplished by use of perforated baffles that have shown both in tests, CFD models and more importantly in the field that without these internals the separation process can be adversely affected. The baffles can be installed singularly, in a double arrangement and both full and part diameter depending upon