Russian Revolution

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  • 1. Russian Revolution:Study Guide Part I B. Bergey, 2007

2. Before the Revolution 3. Question 1:Fill in the Blank

  • 1a.The Russian Empire in 1861 stretched _______________ miles from east to west.
  • 1b.The Russian Empire had a population of _______________.
  • 1c.More than ______________ languages were spoken.

4. Question 1:Fill in the Blank

  • 1a.The Russian Empire in 1861 stretched7,000miles from east to west.
  • 1b.The Russian Empire had a population of74 million .
  • 1c.More than100languages were spoken.

5. How was Russia governed?

  • Tsar; Romanov family since 1613
  • Nobles and Clergy:Landowning class
  • Serfs:90%, lived in 750,000 small villages
  • No political parties
  • No legislator
  • No constitution

6. What were the political groups struggling for?

  • Largely supportive of the Tsar
  • Generations of repression and suffering left intellectual groups seeking change
  • Non-Russian minorities (Poles, Jews, Finns, Ukrainians) wanted to free themselves from tsar
  • Groups roughly divided into two categories:
      • Liberal Reformers
      • Socialists

7. Q2:List the general goals of the:

  • Liberal Reformers:
  • Implement Enlightenment ideas
  • Emphasize individual freedom
  • Protect individual right
  • Rule of law through constitutional practices

8. Q2:List the general goals of the:

  • Socialists:
  • End exploitation of peasants and workers
  • By giving means of production to workers
  • Dismantle capitalism
  • Create a classless society

9. Marxs Ideas

  • German philosopher
  • Communist Manifesto , 1848;Capital , 1867
  • History is struggle between class struggle
  • Fundamental crisis between property owners and those who labor on that property
  • Stages of economic development; industrial capitalism is last stage
  • In each stage, oppressed class rises up against owners,
  • Eventually, private property abolished and collectively owned

10. Q3: List three characteristics of serfs

  • Poor
  • Uneducated
  • Average life expectancy:35 years
  • Lived in communes of 4-8 households
  • Used out-dated farming techniques
  • Little communication with world outside their village

11. Volga Barge Haulers 12. Q4: List four reforms of Alexander II

  • Land transference(starting 1861)
  • Jury trials
  • Relaxed censorship laws
  • Elected assembles ( zemstvos ) for local issues (e.g., roads, primary education, taxation)
  • State-support industries (e.g., rail construction)
  • Encouraged foreign & domesticentrepreneurs

13. Q5:Why did thepopulistsgo to the people in 1873-1874?

  • Established personal connection with downtrodden
  • Convince simple folkof revolutionary ideas

14. Q6:List two consequences of the famine of 1891

  • Small-scale revolts
  • Land seizures
  • Banned newspaper reports of famine
  • Crystallized political and social awakening of the educated class

15. Q7:Why was Karl Marx important to Russian intellectuals

  • Criticized changes that came with industrialization and that Russia was experiencing
  • Explained the social world systematically
  • Explained the famine
  • Socially and economically optimistic

16. Problems in the cities

  • Peasants flocked to cities to work industrial jobs
  • Urban pop. From 7 to 21 million
  • Overcrowded cities
  • Unsanitary housing
  • Low pay
  • Unsafe work conditions
  • Hostility of workers grows
  • Workers banded together
  • Increasingly large-scale strikes

17. Discontent Groups

  • Middle-class liberals
  • Repressed minorities
  • Landless peasants
  • Industrial workers

18. Q8:Political groups & goals/methods Help workers; overthrow capitalism;gradual change ;Mensheviks (masses participate) Bolsheviks (elite, intellectual leadership) Socialist Democrats Party for the peasants; most radical of 3; socialize all land and transfer to peasants; monarchy with democratic republic;political terrorism Social Revolutionaries W. European style gov; individual liberty; individual rights; private property;gradual, peaceful change Liberals 19. Growth of Russia 20. Permafrost in Russia 21. Peasant Unrest 22. Agricultural Areas in Russia 23. 1905 Revolution 24. 1905 Revolution

  • Sunday Jan. 9, 1905
  • Bloody Sunday
  • 150,000 workers, women and children
  • Peaceful march on Tsars Winter Palace, St. Petersburg
  • Forty killed, hundreds wounded
  • Clashes elsewhere in city, 200 dead

25. Q9:How did Bloody Sunday change peoples attitudes toward the Tsar?

  • No longer protective Little Father
      • Violent reaction to peaceful protest
      • Unable to meet needs of the people

26. 1905 Revolution

  • Previously, mostly intellectuals who called for limits to the Tsars authority
  • Increased violence across Russia; Lawlessness increases
  • Tsar is generally oblivious to the gravity of the situation
  • Exiled radicals and political dissidents return
  • Intellectuals/revolutionaries organizesoviets(grass-roots councils)

Leon Trotsky 27. 1905 Revolution

  • Workers struck
  • Soldiers & sailors mutinied
  • Culminates in general strike Sept/Oct. 1905

28. October Manifesto

  • Expansion of civil liberties
  • Limited Monarchy
  • Legislator elected by universal suffrage, called Duma
  • Legalization of trade unions and political parties

In response to the October general strike 29. Failure of the October Manifesto

  • By May 1906, Nicholas had reclaimed almost all autocratic powers
  • Was able to appoint half of the Duma
  • Shut down 4 Dumas from 1906-1916
  • Could make laws by decree when Duma not in session
  • Complete control over army, foreign police and secret police

30. October Manifesto

  • Splits Liberals
      • Octobrists :View manifesto as a good starting point for cooperation with Tsar; favored limited suffrage and gradual change
      • Kadets : questioned Tsars willingness to deliver; worked for further concessions
  • Socialist:rejected manifesto, called for radical political and social change
  • Conservatives:Pro-Tsar groups (Union of the Russian People, Black Hundreds) beat ethnic minorities and those having democratic sympathies

31. Q1 and Q2: Stolypins Reform

  • Believed Tsar needed:
    • Establish order
    • Genuinely work with Duma
    • Eliminate causes of discontentment
  • Enacted land reform
  • Land given to millions of peasants, creating a new prosperous class of farmers
  • Shut-down radical newspapers and trade unions
  • Executed, imprisoned or exiled 60,000 political prisoners
  • Stolypins necktie = hangmans noose

32. Q3: Fill in the Blank

  • Stolypin wanted to drive thepoorerandinefficientpeasants off the land allowing them to sell to the moreproductiveandwealthierpeasants

33. Q3: Fill in the Blank

  • Stolypin wanted to drive thepoorerandinefficientpeasants off thelandallowing them to sell to the moreproductiveand wealthier peasants

34. Q4: Pos/Neg Economic Indicators

  • Renewed growth of Russian and foreign industry
  • Iron/coal production
  • Imports/exports
  • Worlds leading grain exporter
  • Capitalists made record profits
  • 17,000 peasant disturbances
  • 3 million workers participate in 9,000 strikes
  • Prices triple while wages double
  • 6 million war refugees and new hires in cities

35. Russia in WWI

  • After initial success, Russia suffers badly in WWI
  • Poor transportation left the front lacking guns, ammunition, and materials
  • By 1915, supply of riffles exhausted; fought with clubs
  • Peasantsdrafted
  • Nicholas, though inexpe