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Transcript of Russian Missiles
FAS Military Analysis Network
S-25 SA-1 GUILDThe S-25 SA-1 GUILD was the first surface-to-air strategic air defense system deployed by the Soviet Union These R-113 missiles were deployed in a ring around Moscow, and remained in service through the mid-1980s. The SA-1 system entered operational service in the late 1950s, and was deployed around Moscow in a dense complex of 56 sites arranged in two concentric rings. There were 22 sites in the inner ring at about 25 nm radius from the center of Moscow and 34 sites on the outer ring at about 45 nm radius. A typical site had 60 launch positions joined by a road network. The V-301 missile, as originally designed for use with this system, was unboosted and employed a single liquid sustainer motor. Although its maximum speed was on the order of Mach 2.5, it had a low initial velocity which limited its engagement capability against supersonic targets. Its maximum intercept range varied depending upon the approach and type of target; for example, against a directly incoming, high-flying B-252 its range was on the order of 20 n.m. This missile ccould carry an HE or nuclear payload of 450-700 pounds and its CEP was estimated to be 65-120 feet. It was believed to be capable of interceptions from a minimum altitude of 3,000 feet up to 60,000 feet, with some additional capability up to about 80,000 feet, particularly if equipped with a nuclear warhead. The B-200 guidance system at each site employed a track-while-scan radar (designated "Yo-Yo" by US intelligence) having about 54 coverage in both the vertical and horizontal planes. The system also incorporated fire control equipment which enabled each site to engage as many as 20 targets simultaneously. This capability, with the spacing of adjacent sites for mutual support and the inner ring of sites for backup, enables the system to direct an extremely high rate of fire against incoming targets. Because of its' cost, immobility, and inflexibility, the SA-1 system was not deployed elsewhere in the Soviet Union apart from Moscow.
V-75 SA-2 GUIDELINE HQ-1 / HQ-2 (Chinese versions) Tayir as Sabah (Egyptian versions)The V-75 (SA-2) surface-to-air missile system was designed for the defense of both fixed targets and field forces. The V-75 was designed to cope with the threat posed by small groups of aircraft rather than massed raids. Flexibility and mobility are its chief advantages over the SA-1. In contrast to the massive SA1 sites, each of which is capable of defending only a limited sector around the target area, each SA-2 site is capable of 360 coverage. This flexibility is obtained at the expense of target handling capacity and rate of fire relative to the SA-1. Although there are a variety of arrangement patterns, all sites consist of six launching positions -- usually revetted - deployed around a guidance radar and linked by service roads to facilitate loading. While the sites were permanent installations, all operating components of the system are mounted on wheeled vehicles and are capable of movement by road or raiL The V-75 was the basic missile defense system for critical urban-industrial areas in the USSR, other than Moscow. The V75 deployment began on a wide scale since early 1958, with sites located throughout the western part of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries. Deployment patterns and levels of concentration varied according to the geography, size, and shape of the target area, and the Soviet estimate of the worth of individual targets. Between mid-1958 and 1964 more than 600 SA-2 sites were identified by US intelligence in the USSR, mostly in defense of population centers, industrial complexes, and government control centers. Most SA-2 sites defended major centers of population and industry. SA-2 defenses were also deployed for the special protection of nuclear materials production and storage facilities. In addition, some key Soviet field forces and long range bomber bases were included in the SA-2 deployment pattern. The construction of sites and the training and activation of firing units was seasonal, with activity at a minimum during the winter months. The sites in the Moscow area, located within the inner ring of SA-1 sites, were intended to supplement the existing defenses. Deployment of SA-2 installations around Moscow included seven sites as of 1964 as part of a program to supplement the SA-1 system.
Missile defenses were provided for most of the Soviet cities with populations greater than 200,000. SA-2 sites were emplaced at some smaller urban areas which contained government control centers or other installations of critical importance. They were also deployed for defense of naval and port facilities, nuclear production and weapon storage Installations, missile test ranges, and Industrial facilities. Other major military installations, such as long-range missile sites and alrfields of the long-range air force, are also defended by SA-2. A number of sites in border areas, which were unrelated to specific targets, were part of the deployment of peripheral defenses which eventually extended from the Kola Peninsula along the western and southern borders of the USSR into central Asia. Deployment in the Baltic coastal area was particularly dense. In mid1962 about 750 sites were operational in defense of more than 200 target areas in the USSR. The Soviets eventually deployed roughly a thousand SA-2 sites in the USSR, with the major portion of the deployment completed by the mid-1960s. Some SA-2 units were deployed in support of Soviet field forces in East Germany and in the USSR. Although SA-2 units assigned to Soviet field forces were normally emplaced at fixed installations, the system is transportable by road and SA-2 units were observed in field exercises. However, SA-2 units have a limited ability to follow a fast moving front because of the requirement for good roads and the time required to displace to new positions. SA-2 missile defenses for field forces were primarily assigned to such targets as major headquarters, logistic centers, and airfields. Deployment of SA-2 sites for defense of Warsaw Pact targets began in 1960. The heaviest deployment has occurred in East Germany. About half of the sites were manned by East German troops, and the remainder by units of the Soviet field forces. The East German sites were located in the vicinity of Berlin and in the northern portion of East Germany. The Soviet sites were deployed to defend important Soviet military installations such as major headquarters and airfields. China Suspension of Soviet assistance limited the extent of SA-2 deployment in China. Only about a half dozen sites were initially deployed in China, three of them at Beijing. These sites contained Soviet manufactured equipment. The Chinese license-built version of the V-75 was designated the HQ-1. The People's Republic of China developed its own modified version of the V-750 under the designation HQ-2 (Hong Qian = Red Leader), with the Western designation CSA-1. According to a China sales brochure, the FT-2000A SAM will use a highly-modified HQ-2/ CSA-1 missile that has been equipped with a passive radio frequency homing seeker operating in the 2- to 6-GHz band. The FT-2000A also will contain a new millimeter-wave band fuze, a new guidance-and-control section, and a new 60 kg fragmentation warhead. The missile has a cutoff valve for thrust adjustment while in flight, probably to extend its range. The missile seeker is loaded with the target aircrafts radio frequency (RF) signature before launch and relies on this information for tracking
and intercept. The missile has an estimated maximum range of 60 km, with a maximum altitude of 18,000 meters. A stand-alone FT-2000A battery consists of a central control station and twelve launchers, each holding one missile. The central control station has one master passive sensor and three auxiliary passive sensors. The auxiliary passive sensors coordinate with the master passive sensor through triangulation to determine angle and range of targets emitting in the 2- to 6-GHz band. This configuration is totally passive, relying on the RF emissions of the target. A composite fire unit consists of FT-2000A launchers and missiles, integrated with standard SAM components like those of the HQ-2, SA-2, or SA-3. Although a special fire control unit and launcher are required, this configuration allows anti-jamming missiles to replace several of the command guided missiles normally associated with these SAMs. Egypt Egyptian technicians have reverse engineered and modified two Soviet SAMs -- the Ayn as Saqr (a version of the SA-7) and the Tayir as Sabah (a version of the SA-2). V-75 Missile System The V-75 SA-2 GUIDELINE is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile system. This two-stage missile has a large solid propellant booster stage fitted with four very large delta fins. The core stage consists of a storable liquid propellant sustainer rocket motor using inhibited red fuming nitric acid oxidizer and kerosene fuel. A set of four cropped delta-shaped wings are located near the mid-section, with a second in-line set of smaller fixed fins at the nose, and a third in-line set of slightly larger powered control fins at the tail. The guidance system at an SA-2 site can handle only one target at a time, but can direct three missiles against a target simultaneously. Additional missiles could be fired against the same target after one or more missiles of the first salvo had completed their run. The Soviets apparently believed they must program three or four missiles against each target in order to achieve acceptable kill probabilities. The 295 kg nuclear warhead used only on the SA-2E variant is believed to have a yield of 15 kT. The other V-75 variants have an internally grooved fragmentation warhead weighs 195 kg (130 kg of which is high explosive) with proximity, contact and command fusing